Class: Time

Inherits:
Object show all
Includes:
Comparable
Defined in:
time.c

Overview

Time is an abstraction of dates and times. Time is stored internally as the number of seconds with fraction since the Epoch, January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC. Also see the library module Date. The Time class treats GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) as equivalent. GMT is the older way of referring to these baseline times but persists in the names of calls on POSIX systems.

All times may have fraction. Be aware of this fact when comparing times with each other -- times that are apparently equal when displayed may be different when compared.

Since Ruby 1.9.2, Time implementation uses a signed 63 bit integer, Bignum or Rational. The integer is a number of nanoseconds since the Epoch which can represent 1823-11-12 to 2116-02-20. When Bignum or Rational is used (before 1823, after 2116, under nanosecond), Time works slower as when integer is used.

Examples

All of these examples were done using the EST timezone which is GMT-5.

Creating a new Time instance

You can create a new instance of Time with Time::new. This will use the current system time. Time::now is an alias for this. You can also pass parts of the time to Time::new such as year, month, minute, etc. When you want to construct a time this way you must pass at least a year. If you pass the year with nothing else time will default to January 1 of that year at 00:00:00 with the current system timezone. Here are some examples:

Time.new(2002)         #=> 2002-01-01 00:00:00 -0500
Time.new(2002, 10)     #=> 2002-10-01 00:00:00 -0500
Time.new(2002, 10, 31) #=> 2002-10-31 00:00:00 -0500
Time.new(2002, 10, 31, 2, 2, 2, "+02:00") #=> 2002-10-31 02:02:02 -0200

You can also use #gm, #local and #utc to infer GMT, local and UTC timezones instead of using the current system setting.

You can also create a new time using Time::at which takes the number of seconds (or fraction of seconds) since the Unix Epoch.

Time.at(628232400) #=> 1989-11-28 00:00:00 -0500

Working with an instance of Time

Once you have an instance of Time there is a multitude of things you can do with it. Below are some examples. For all of the following examples, we will work on the assumption that you have done the following:

t = Time.new(1993, 02, 24, 12, 0, 0, "+09:00")

Was that a monday?

t.monday? #=> false

What year was that again?

t.year #=> 1993

Was is daylight savings at the time?

t.dst? #=> false

What's the day a year later?

t + (60*60*24*365) #=> 1994-02-24 12:00:00 +0900

How many seconds was that since the Unix Epoch?

t.to_i #=> 730522800

You can also do standard functions like compare two times.

t1 = Time.new(2010)
t2 = Time.new(2011)

t1 == t2 #=> false
t1 == t1 #=> true
t1 <  t2 #=> true
t1 >  t2 #=> false

Time.new(2010,10,31).between?(t1, t2) #=> true

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Comparable

#<, #<=, #==, #>, #>=, #between?

Constructor Details

#newTime #new(year, month = nil, day = nil, hour = nil, min = nil, sec = nil, utc_offset = nil) ⇒ Time

Returns a Time object.

It is initialized to the current system time if no argument is given.

Note: The new object will use the resolution available on your system clock, and may include fractional seconds.

If one or more arguments specified, the time is initialized to the specified time.

sec may have fraction if it is a rational.

utc_offset is the offset from UTC. It can be a string such as ???+09:00??? or a number of seconds such as 32400.

a = Time.new      #=> 2007-11-19 07:50:02 -0600
b = Time.new      #=> 2007-11-19 07:50:02 -0600
a == b            #=> false
"%.6f" % a.to_f   #=> "1195480202.282373"
"%.6f" % b.to_f   #=> "1195480202.283415"

Time.new(2008,6,21, 13,30,0, "+09:00") #=> 2008-06-21 13:30:00 +0900

# A trip for RubyConf 2007
t1 = Time.new(2007,11,1,15,25,0, "+09:00") # JST (Narita)
t2 = Time.new(2007,11,1,12, 5,0, "-05:00") # CDT (Minneapolis)
t3 = Time.new(2007,11,1,13,25,0, "-05:00") # CDT (Minneapolis)
t4 = Time.new(2007,11,1,16,53,0, "-04:00") # EDT (Charlotte)
t5 = Time.new(2007,11,5, 9,24,0, "-05:00") # EST (Charlotte)
t6 = Time.new(2007,11,5,11,21,0, "-05:00") # EST (Detroit)
t7 = Time.new(2007,11,5,13,45,0, "-05:00") # EST (Detroit)
t8 = Time.new(2007,11,6,17,10,0, "+09:00") # JST (Narita)
p((t2-t1)/3600.0)                          #=> 10.666666666666666
p((t4-t3)/3600.0)                          #=> 2.466666666666667
p((t6-t5)/3600.0)                          #=> 1.95
p((t8-t7)/3600.0)                          #=> 13.416666666666666

Overloads:

  • #newTime
  • #new(year, month = nil, day = nil, hour = nil, min = nil, sec = nil, utc_offset = nil) ⇒ Time

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# File 'time.c', line 2268

static VALUE
time_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    if (argc == 0)
        return time_init_0(time);
    else
        return time_init_1(argc, argv, time);
}

Class Method Details

.atObject

.utc(year) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .utc(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time .gm(year) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .gm(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

Creates a Time object based on given values, interpreted as UTC (GMT). The year must be specified. Other values default to the minimum value for that field (and may be nil or omitted). Months may be specified by numbers from 1 to 12, or by the three-letter English month names. Hours are specified on a 24-hour clock (0..23). Raises an ArgumentError if any values are out of range. Will also accept ten arguments in the order output by Time#to_a.

sec_with_frac and usec_with_frac can have a fractional part.

Time.utc(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC

Overloads:

  • .utc(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3141

static VALUE
time_s_mkutc(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return time_utc_or_local(argc, argv, TRUE, klass);
}

.local(year) ⇒ Time .local(year, month) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .local(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time .mktime(year) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .mktime(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

Same as Time::gm, but interprets the values in the local time zone.

Time.local(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600

Overloads:

  • .local(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3172

static VALUE
time_s_mktime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return time_utc_or_local(argc, argv, FALSE, klass);
}

.local(year) ⇒ Time .local(year, month) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .local(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time .mktime(year) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .mktime(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

Same as Time::gm, but interprets the values in the local time zone.

Time.local(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600

Overloads:

  • .local(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .local(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .mktime(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3172

static VALUE
time_s_mktime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return time_utc_or_local(argc, argv, FALSE, klass);
}

.nowObject

Alias for Time::new. Returns a Time object initialized to the current system time.

.utc(year) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .utc(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time .gm(year) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time .gm(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

Creates a Time object based on given values, interpreted as UTC (GMT). The year must be specified. Other values default to the minimum value for that field (and may be nil or omitted). Months may be specified by numbers from 1 to 12, or by the three-letter English month names. Hours are specified on a 24-hour clock (0..23). Raises an ArgumentError if any values are out of range. Will also accept ten arguments in the order output by Time#to_a.

sec_with_frac and usec_with_frac can have a fractional part.

Time.utc(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC

Overloads:

  • .utc(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .utc(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec_with_frac) ⇒ Time

    Returns:

  • .gm(sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, tz) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3141

static VALUE
time_s_mkutc(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    return time_utc_or_local(argc, argv, TRUE, klass);
}

Instance Method Details

#+(numeric) ⇒ Time

Addition --- Adds some number of seconds (possibly fractional) to time and returns that value as a new Time object.

t = Time.now         #=> 2007-11-19 08:22:21 -0600
t + (60 * 60 * 24)   #=> 2007-11-20 08:22:21 -0600

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3743

static VALUE
time_plus(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    GetTimeval(time1, tobj);

    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "time + time?");
    }
    return time_add(tobj, time2, 1);
}

#-(other_time) ⇒ Float #-(numeric) ⇒ Time

Difference --- Returns a new Time object that represents the difference between time and other_time, or subtracts the given number of seconds in numeric from time.

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:10 -0600
t2 = t + 2592000   #=> 2007-12-19 08:23:10 -0600
t2 - t             #=> 2592000.0
t2 - 2592000       #=> 2007-11-19 08:23:10 -0600

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3770

static VALUE
time_minus(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
	struct time_object *tobj2;

	GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
        return rb_Float(rb_time_unmagnify_to_float(wsub(tobj->timew, tobj2->timew)));
    }
    return time_add(tobj, time2, -1);
}

#<=>(other_time) ⇒ -1, ...

Comparison---Compares time with other_time. The return value is +1 if time is greater than other_time, 0 if time is equal to other_time and -1 if time is smaller than other_time.

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:12:12 -0600
t2 = t + 2592000   #=> 2007-12-19 08:12:12 -0600
t <=> t2           #=> -1
t2 <=> t           #=> 1

t = Time.now       #=> 2007-11-19 08:13:38 -0600
t2 = t + 0.1       #=> 2007-11-19 08:13:38 -0600
t.nsec             #=> 98222999
t2.nsec            #=> 198222999
t <=> t2           #=> -1
t2 <=> t           #=> 1
t <=> t            #=> 0

Returns:

  • (-1, 0, +1, nil)

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# File 'time.c', line 3356

static VALUE
time_cmp(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj1, *tobj2;
    int n;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj1);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
	GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
	n = wcmp(tobj1->timew, tobj2->timew);
    }
    else {
	return rb_invcmp(time1, time2);
    }
    if (n == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
    if (n > 0) return INT2FIX(1);
    return INT2FIX(-1);
}

#_dumpObject (private)

:nodoc:


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# File 'time.c', line 4718

static VALUE
time_dump(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE str;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", 0);
    str = time_mdump(time);

    return str;
}

#asctimeString #ctimeString

Returns a canonical string representation of time.

Time.now.asctime   #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3677

static VALUE
time_asctime(VALUE time)
{
    return strftimev("%a %b %e %T %Y", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}

#asctimeString #ctimeString

Returns a canonical string representation of time.

Time.now.asctime   #=> "Wed Apr  9 08:56:03 2003"

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3677

static VALUE
time_asctime(VALUE time)
{
    return strftimev("%a %b %e %T %Y", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}

#dayFixnum #mdayFixnum

Returns the day of the month (1..n) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:03 -0600
t.day          #=> 19
t.mday         #=> 19

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3966

static VALUE
time_mday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday);
}

#isdstBoolean #dst?Boolean

Returns true if time occurs during Daylight Saving Time in its time zone.

# CST6CDT:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "CST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "CDT"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> true
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> true

# Asia/Tokyo:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> false

Overloads:

  • #isdstBoolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #dst?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4210

static VALUE
time_isdst(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.isdst ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#eql?(other_time) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if time and other_time are both Time objects with the same seconds and fractional seconds.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 3383

static VALUE
time_eql(VALUE time1, VALUE time2)
{
    struct time_object *tobj1, *tobj2;

    GetTimeval(time1, tobj1);
    if (IsTimeval(time2)) {
	GetTimeval(time2, tobj2);
        return rb_equal(w2v(tobj1->timew), w2v(tobj2->timew));
    }
    return Qfalse;
}

#friday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Friday.

t = Time.local(1987, 12, 18)     #=> 1987-12-18 00:00:00 -0600
t.friday?                        #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4143

static VALUE
time_friday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(5);
}

#getgmTime #getutcTime

Returns a new Time object representing time in UTC.

t = Time.local(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
t.gmt?                             #=> false
y = t.getgm                        #=> 2000-01-02 02:15:01 UTC
y.gmt?                             #=> true
t == y                             #=> true

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3651

static VALUE
time_getgmtime(VALUE time)
{
    return time_gmtime(time_dup(time));
}

#getlocalTime #getlocal(utc_offset) ⇒ Time

Returns a new Time object representing time in local time (using the local time zone in effect for this process).

If utc_offset is given, it is used instead of the local time.

t = Time.utc(2000,1,1,20,15,1)  #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                          #=> true

l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.utc?                          #=> false
t == l                          #=> true

j = t.getlocal("+09:00")        #=> 2000-01-02 05:15:01 +0900
j.utc?                          #=> false
t == j                          #=> true

Overloads:

  • #getlocalTime

    Returns:

  • #getlocal(utc_offset) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3619

static VALUE
time_getlocaltime(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE off;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &off);

    if (!NIL_P(off)) {
        off = utc_offset_arg(off);
        validate_utc_offset(off);

        time = time_dup(time);
        time_set_utc_offset(time, off);
        return time_fixoff(time);
    }

    return time_localtime(time_dup(time));
}

#getgmTime #getutcTime

Returns a new Time object representing time in UTC.

t = Time.local(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 -0600
t.gmt?                             #=> false
y = t.getgm                        #=> 2000-01-02 02:15:01 UTC
y.gmt?                             #=> true
t == y                             #=> true

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3651

static VALUE
time_getgmtime(VALUE time)
{
    return time_gmtime(time_dup(time));
}

#utc?Boolean #gmt?Boolean

Returns true if time represents a time in UTC (GMT).

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:15:23 -0600
t.utc?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                              #=> true

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:16:03 -0600
t.gmt?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)       #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt?                              #=> true

Overloads:

  • #utc?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #gmt?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 3414

static VALUE
time_utc_p(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#gmt_offsetFixnum #gmtoffFixnum #utc_offsetFixnum

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 4264

static VALUE
time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);

    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
	return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}

#gmtimeTime #utcTime

Converts time to UTC (GMT), modifying the receiver.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:31 -0600
t.gmt?         #=> false
t.gmtime       #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:31 UTC
t.gmt?         #=> true

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:51 -0600
t.utc?         #=> false
t.utc          #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:51 UTC
t.utc?         #=> true

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3541

static VALUE
time_gmtime(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    struct vtm vtm;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	if (tobj->tm_got)
	    return time;
    }
    else {
	time_modify(time);
    }

    if (!gmtimew(tobj->timew, &vtm))
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "gmtime error");
    tobj->vtm = vtm;

    tobj->tm_got = 1;
    TIME_SET_UTC(tobj);
    return time;
}

#gmt_offsetFixnum #gmtoffFixnum #utc_offsetFixnum

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 4264

static VALUE
time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);

    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
	return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}

#hashFixnum

Returns a hash code for this Time object.

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3431

static VALUE
time_hash(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_hash(w2v(tobj->timew));
}

#hourFixnum

Returns the hour of the day (0..23) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:26:20 -0600
t.hour         #=> 8

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3944

static VALUE
time_hour(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.hour);
}

#initialize_copyObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'time.c', line 3441

static VALUE
time_init_copy(VALUE copy, VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj, *tcopy;

    if (!OBJ_INIT_COPY(copy, time)) return copy;
    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    GetTimeval(copy, tcopy);
    MEMCPY(tcopy, tobj, struct time_object, 1);

    return copy;
}

#inspectString #to_sString

Returns a string representing time. Equivalent to calling #strftime with the appropriate format string.

t = Time.now
t.to_s                              => "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"   => "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"

t.utc.to_s                          => "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC"  => "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3699

static VALUE
time_to_s(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj))
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
    else
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}

#isdstBoolean #dst?Boolean

Returns true if time occurs during Daylight Saving Time in its time zone.

# CST6CDT:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "CST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "CDT"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> true
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> true

# Asia/Tokyo:
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 1, 1).dst?    #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).zone    #=> "JST"
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).isdst   #=> false
  Time.local(2000, 7, 1).dst?    #=> false

Overloads:

  • #isdstBoolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #dst?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4210

static VALUE
time_isdst(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.isdst ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#localtimeTime #localtime(utc_offset) ⇒ Time

Converts time to local time (using the local time zone in effect for this process) modifying the receiver.

If utc_offset is given, it is used instead of the local time.

t = Time.utc(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1) #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                                  #=> true

t.localtime                             #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
t.utc?                                  #=> false

t.localtime("+09:00")                   #=> 2000-01-02 05:15:01 +0900
t.utc?                                  #=> false

Overloads:

  • #localtimeTime

    Returns:

  • #localtime(utc_offset) ⇒ Time

    Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3506

static VALUE
time_localtime_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE off;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &off);

    if (!NIL_P(off)) {
        off = utc_offset_arg(off);
        validate_utc_offset(off);

        time_set_utc_offset(time, off);
        return time_fixoff(time);
    }

    return time_localtime(time);
}

#marshal_dumpObject (private)

:nodoc:


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# File 'time.c', line 4617

static VALUE
time_mdump(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    unsigned long p, s;
    char buf[8];
    int i;
    VALUE str;

    struct vtm vtm;
    long year;
    long usec, nsec;
    VALUE subsecx, nano, subnano, v;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    gmtimew(tobj->timew, &vtm);

    if (FIXNUM_P(vtm.year)) {
        year = FIX2LONG(vtm.year);
        if (year < 1900 || 1900+0xffff < year)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "year too big to marshal: %ld UTC", year);
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "year too big to marshal");
    }

    subsecx = vtm.subsecx;

    nano = mulquo(subsecx, INT2FIX(1000000000), INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE));
    divmodv(nano, INT2FIX(1), &v, &subnano);
    nsec = FIX2LONG(v);
    usec = nsec / 1000;
    nsec = nsec % 1000;

    nano = add(LONG2FIX(nsec), subnano);

    p = 0x1UL            << 31 | /*  1 */
	TIME_UTC_P(tobj) << 30 | /*  1 */
	(year-1900)      << 14 | /* 16 */
	(vtm.mon-1)      << 10 | /*  4 */
	vtm.mday         <<  5 | /*  5 */
	vtm.hour;                /*  5 */
    s = vtm.min          << 26 | /*  6 */
	vtm.sec          << 20 | /*  6 */
	usec;    /* 20 */

    for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
	buf[i] = (unsigned char)p;
	p = RSHIFT(p, 8);
    }
    for (i=4; i<8; i++) {
	buf[i] = (unsigned char)s;
	s = RSHIFT(s, 8);
    }

    str = rb_str_new(buf, 8);
    rb_copy_generic_ivar(str, time);
    if (!rb_equal(nano, INT2FIX(0))) {
        if (RB_TYPE_P(nano, T_RATIONAL)) {
            rb_ivar_set(str, id_nano_num, RRATIONAL(nano)->num);
            rb_ivar_set(str, id_nano_den, RRATIONAL(nano)->den);
        }
        else {
            rb_ivar_set(str, id_nano_num, nano);
            rb_ivar_set(str, id_nano_den, INT2FIX(1));
        }
    }
    if (nsec) { /* submicro is only for Ruby 1.9.1 compatibility */
        /*
         * submicro is formatted in fixed-point packed BCD (without sign).
         * It represent digits under microsecond.
         * For nanosecond resolution, 3 digits (2 bytes) are used.
         * However it can be longer.
         * Extra digits are ignored for loading.
         */
        char buf[2];
        int len = (int)sizeof(buf);
        buf[1] = (char)((nsec % 10) << 4);
        nsec /= 10;
        buf[0] = (char)(nsec % 10);
        nsec /= 10;
        buf[0] |= (char)((nsec % 10) << 4);
        if (buf[1] == 0)
            len = 1;
        rb_ivar_set(str, id_submicro, rb_str_new(buf, len));
    }
    if (!TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	VALUE off = time_utc_offset(time), div, mod;
	divmodv(off, INT2FIX(1), &div, &mod);
	if (rb_equal(mod, INT2FIX(0)))
	    off = rb_Integer(div);
	rb_ivar_set(str, id_offset, off);
    }
    if (tobj->vtm.zone) {
	rb_ivar_set(str, id_zone, rb_locale_str_new_cstr(tobj->vtm.zone));
    }
    return str;
}

#marshal_loadObject (private)

:nodoc:


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# File 'time.c', line 4730

static VALUE
time_mload(VALUE time, VALUE str)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    unsigned long p, s;
    time_t sec;
    long usec;
    unsigned char *buf;
    struct vtm vtm;
    int i, gmt;
    long nsec;
    VALUE submicro, nano_num, nano_den, offset, zone;
    wideval_t timew;
    st_data_t data;

    time_modify(time);

#define get_attr(attr, iffound) \
    attr = rb_attr_get(str, id_##attr); \
    if (!NIL_P(attr)) { \
	data = id_##attr; \
	iffound; \
        st_delete(rb_generic_ivar_table(str), &data, 0); \
    }

    get_attr(nano_num, {});
    get_attr(nano_den, {});
    get_attr(submicro, {});
    get_attr(offset, validate_utc_offset(offset));
    get_attr(zone, {});
#undef get_attr

    rb_copy_generic_ivar(time, str);

    StringValue(str);
    buf = (unsigned char *)RSTRING_PTR(str);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) != 8) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "marshaled time format differ");
    }

    p = s = 0;
    for (i=0; i<4; i++) {
	p |= buf[i]<<(8*i);
    }
    for (i=4; i<8; i++) {
	s |= buf[i]<<(8*(i-4));
    }

    if ((p & (1UL<<31)) == 0) {
        gmt = 0;
	offset = Qnil;
	sec = p;
	usec = s;
        nsec = usec * 1000;
        timew = wadd(rb_time_magnify(TIMET2WV(sec)), wmulquoll(WINT2FIXWV(usec), TIME_SCALE, 1000000));
    }
    else {
	p &= ~(1UL<<31);
	gmt        = (int)((p >> 30) & 0x1);

	vtm.year = INT2FIX(((int)(p >> 14) & 0xffff) + 1900);
	vtm.mon  = ((int)(p >> 10) & 0xf) + 1;
	vtm.mday = (int)(p >>  5) & 0x1f;
	vtm.hour = (int) p        & 0x1f;
	vtm.min  = (int)(s >> 26) & 0x3f;
	vtm.sec  = (int)(s >> 20) & 0x3f;
        vtm.utc_offset = INT2FIX(0);
	vtm.yday = vtm.wday = 0;
	vtm.isdst = 0;
	vtm.zone = "";

	usec = (long)(s & 0xfffff);
        nsec = usec * 1000;


        vtm.subsecx = mulquo(LONG2FIX(nsec), INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE), LONG2FIX(1000000000));
        if (nano_num != Qnil) {
            VALUE nano = quo(num_exact(nano_num), num_exact(nano_den));
            vtm.subsecx = add(vtm.subsecx, mulquo(nano, INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE), LONG2FIX(1000000000)));
        }
        else if (submicro != Qnil) { /* for Ruby 1.9.1 compatibility */
            unsigned char *ptr;
            long len;
            int digit;
            ptr = (unsigned char*)StringValuePtr(submicro);
            len = RSTRING_LEN(submicro);
            nsec = 0;
            if (0 < len) {
                if (10 <= (digit = ptr[0] >> 4)) goto end_submicro;
                nsec += digit * 100;
                if (10 <= (digit = ptr[0] & 0xf)) goto end_submicro;
                nsec += digit * 10;
            }
            if (1 < len) {
                if (10 <= (digit = ptr[1] >> 4)) goto end_submicro;
                nsec += digit;
            }
            vtm.subsecx = add(vtm.subsecx, mulquo(LONG2FIX(nsec), INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE), LONG2FIX(1000000000)));
end_submicro: ;
        }
        timew = timegmw(&vtm);
    }

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    tobj->tm_got = 0;
    tobj->timew = timew;
    if (gmt) {
	TIME_SET_UTC(tobj);
    }
    else if (!NIL_P(offset)) {
	time_set_utc_offset(time, offset);
	time_fixoff(time);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(zone)) {
	tobj->vtm.zone = StringValueCStr(zone);
    }

    return time;
}

#dayFixnum #mdayFixnum

Returns the day of the month (1..n) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:03 -0600
t.day          #=> 19
t.mday         #=> 19

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3966

static VALUE
time_mday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday);
}

#minFixnum

Returns the minute of the hour (0..59) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:25:51 -0600
t.min          #=> 25

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3924

static VALUE
time_min(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.min);
}

#monFixnum #monthFixnum

Returns the month of the year (1..12) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:30 -0600
t.mon          #=> 11
t.month        #=> 11

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3988

static VALUE
time_mon(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon);
}

#monday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Monday.

t = Time.local(2003, 8, 4)       #=> 2003-08-04 00:00:00 -0500
p t.monday?                      #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4079

static VALUE
time_monday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(1);
}

#monFixnum #monthFixnum

Returns the month of the year (1..12) for time.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:30 -0600
t.mon          #=> 11
t.month        #=> 11

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3988

static VALUE
time_mon(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon);
}

#nsecInteger #tv_nsecInteger

Returns the number of nanoseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-17 15:18:03 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195280283.536151409"
t.nsec              #=> 536151406

The lowest digits of #to_f and #nsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the exact number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

The more accurate value is returned by #nsec.

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3296

static VALUE
time_nsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(wmulquoll(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE)), 1000000000, TIME_SCALE)));
}

#round([ndigits]) ⇒ Time

Rounds sub seconds to a given precision in decimal digits (0 digits by default). It returns a new Time object. ndigits should be zero or positive integer.

require 'time'

t = Time.utc(2010,3,30, 5,43,"25.123456789".to_r)
p t.iso8601(10)           #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"
p t.round.iso8601(10)     #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.0000000000Z"
p t.round(0).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.0000000000Z"
p t.round(1).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1000000000Z"
p t.round(2).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1200000000Z"
p t.round(3).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1230000000Z"
p t.round(4).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1235000000Z"
p t.round(5).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234600000Z"
p t.round(6).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234570000Z"
p t.round(7).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234568000Z"
p t.round(8).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567900Z"
p t.round(9).iso8601(10)  #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"
p t.round(10).iso8601(10) #=> "2010-03-30T05:43:25.1234567890Z"

t = Time.utc(1999,12,31, 23,59,59)
p((t + 0.4).round.iso8601(3))    #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z"
p((t + 0.49).round.iso8601(3))   #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z"
p((t + 0.5).round.iso8601(3))    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
p((t + 1.4).round.iso8601(3))    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
p((t + 1.49).round.iso8601(3))   #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z"
p((t + 1.5).round.iso8601(3))    #=> "2000-01-01T00:00:01.000Z"

t = Time.utc(1999,12,31, 23,59,59)
p (t + 0.123456789).round(4).iso8601(6)  #=> "1999-12-31T23:59:59.123500Z"

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3853

static VALUE
time_round(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE time)
{
    VALUE ndigits, v, a, b, den;
    long nd;
    struct time_object *tobj;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &ndigits);

    if (NIL_P(ndigits))
        ndigits = INT2FIX(0);
    else
        ndigits = rb_to_int(ndigits);

    nd = NUM2LONG(ndigits);
    if (nd < 0)
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative ndigits given");

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    v = w2v(rb_time_unmagnify(tobj->timew));

    a = INT2FIX(1);
    b = INT2FIX(10);
    while (0 < nd) {
        if (nd & 1)
            a = mul(a, b);
        b = mul(b, b);
        nd = nd >> 1;
    }
    den = quo(INT2FIX(1), a);
    v = mod(v, den);
    if (lt(v, quo(den, INT2FIX(2))))
        return time_add(tobj, v, -1);
    else
        return time_add(tobj, sub(den, v), 1);
}

#saturday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Saturday.

t = Time.local(2006, 6, 10)      #=> 2006-06-10 00:00:00 -0500
t.saturday?                      #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4159

static VALUE
time_saturday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(6);
}

#secFixnum

Returns the second of the minute (0..60) for time.

Note: Seconds range from zero to 60 to allow the system to inject leap seconds. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leap_second for further details.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:25:02 -0600
t.sec          #=> 2

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3904

static VALUE
time_sec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.sec);
}

#strftime(string) ⇒ String

Formats time according to the directives in the given format string.

The directives begin with a percent (%) character. Any text not listed as a directive will be passed through to the output string.

The directive consists of a percent (%) character, zero or more flags, optional minimum field width, optional modifier and a conversion specifier as follows:

%<flags><width><modifier><conversion>

Flags:

-  don't pad a numerical output
_  use spaces for padding
0  use zeros for padding
^  upcase the result string
#  change case
:  use colons for %z

The minimum field width specifies the minimum width.

The modifiers are "E" and "O". They are ignored.

Format directives:

Date (Year, Month, Day):
  %Y - Year with century (can be negative, 4 digits at least)
          -0001, 0000, 1995, 2009, 14292, etc.
  %C - year / 100 (rounded down such as 20 in 2009)
  %y - year % 100 (00..99)

  %m - Month of the year, zero-padded (01..12)
          %_m  blank-padded ( 1..12)
          %-m  no-padded (1..12)
  %B - The full month name (``January'')
          %^B  uppercased (``JANUARY'')
  %b - The abbreviated month name (``Jan'')
          %^b  uppercased (``JAN'')
  %h - Equivalent to %b

  %d - Day of the month, zero-padded (01..31)
          %-d  no-padded (1..31)
  %e - Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)

  %j - Day of the year (001..366)

Time (Hour, Minute, Second, Subsecond):
  %H - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock, zero-padded (00..23)
  %k - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock, blank-padded ( 0..23)
  %I - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock, zero-padded (01..12)
  %l - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock, blank-padded ( 1..12)
  %P - Meridian indicator, lowercase (``am'' or ``pm'')
  %p - Meridian indicator, uppercase (``AM'' or ``PM'')

  %M - Minute of the hour (00..59)

  %S - Second of the minute (00..60)

  %L - Millisecond of the second (000..999)
  %N - Fractional seconds digits, default is 9 digits (nanosecond)
          %3N  milli second (3 digits)
          %6N  micro second (6 digits)
          %9N  nano second (9 digits)
          %12N pico second (12 digits)
          %15N femto second (15 digits)
          %18N atto second (18 digits)
          %21N zepto second (21 digits)
          %24N yocto second (24 digits)

Time zone:
  %z - Time zone as hour and minute offset from UTC (e.g. +0900)
          %:z - hour and minute offset from UTC with a colon (e.g. +09:00)
          %::z - hour, minute and second offset from UTC (e.g. +09:00:00)
  %Z - Abbreviated time zone name or similar information.

Weekday:
  %A - The full weekday name (``Sunday'')
          %^A  uppercased (``SUNDAY'')
  %a - The abbreviated name (``Sun'')
          %^a  uppercased (``SUN'')
  %u - Day of the week (Monday is 1, 1..7)
  %w - Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

ISO 8601 week-based year and week number:
The first week of YYYY starts with a Monday and includes YYYY-01-04.
The days in the year before the first week are in the last week of
the previous year.
  %G - The week-based year
  %g - The last 2 digits of the week-based year (00..99)
  %V - Week number of the week-based year (01..53)

Week number:
The first week of YYYY that starts with a Sunday or Monday (according to %U
or %W). The days in the year before the first week are in week 0.
  %U - Week number of the year. The week starts with Sunday. (00..53)
  %W - Week number of the year. The week starts with Monday. (00..53)

Seconds since the Epoch:
  %s - Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC.

Literal string:
  %n - Newline character (\n)
  %t - Tab character (\t)
  %% - Literal ``%'' character

Combination:
  %c - date and time (%a %b %e %T %Y)
  %D - Date (%m/%d/%y)
  %F - The ISO 8601 date format (%Y-%m-%d)
  %v - VMS date (%e-%^b-%4Y)
  %x - Same as %D
  %X - Same as %T
  %r - 12-hour time (%I:%M:%S %p)
  %R - 24-hour time (%H:%M)
  %T - 24-hour time (%H:%M:%S)

This method is similar to strftime() function defined in ISO C and POSIX.

While all directives are locale independant since Ruby 1.9 %Z is platform dependant. So, the result may differ even if the same format string is used in other systems such as C.

%z is recommended over %Z. %Z doesn't identify the timezone. For example, "CST" is used at America/Chicago (-06:00), America/Havana (-05:00), Asia/Harbin (+08:00), Australia/Darwin (+09:30) and Australia/Adelaide (+10:30). Also, %Z is highly dependent on the operating system. For example, it may generate a non ASCII string on Japanese Windows. i.e. the result can be different to "JST". So the numeric time zone offset, %z, is recommended.

Examples:

t = Time.new(2007,11,19,8,37,48,"-06:00") #=> 2007-11-19 08:37:48 -0600
t.strftime("Printed on %m/%d/%Y")   #=> "Printed on 11/19/2007"
t.strftime("at %I:%M%p")            #=> "at 08:37AM"

Various ISO 8601 formats:

%Y%m%d           => 20071119                  Calendar date (basic)
%F               => 2007-11-19                Calendar date (extended)
%Y-%m            => 2007-11                   Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific month
%Y               => 2007                      Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific year
%C               => 20                        Calendar date, reduced accuracy, specific century
%Y%j             => 2007323                   Ordinal date (basic)
%Y-%j            => 2007-323                  Ordinal date (extended)
%GW%V%u          => 2007W471                  Week date (basic)
%G-W%V-%u        => 2007-W47-1                Week date (extended)
%GW%V            => 2007W47                   Week date, reduced accuracy, specific week (basic)
%G-W%V           => 2007-W47                  Week date, reduced accuracy, specific week (extended)
%H%M%S           => 083748                    Local time (basic)
%T               => 08:37:48                  Local time (extended)
%H%M             => 0837                      Local time, reduced accuracy, specific minute (basic)
%H:%M            => 08:37                     Local time, reduced accuracy, specific minute (extended)
%H               => 08                        Local time, reduced accuracy, specific hour
%H%M%S,%L        => 083748,000                Local time with decimal fraction, comma as decimal sign (basic)
%T,%L            => 08:37:48,000              Local time with decimal fraction, comma as decimal sign (extended)
%H%M%S.%L        => 083748.000                Local time with decimal fraction, full stop as decimal sign (basic)
%T.%L            => 08:37:48.000              Local time with decimal fraction, full stop as decimal sign (extended)
%H%M%S%z         => 083748-0600               Local time and the difference from UTC (basic)
%T%:z            => 08:37:48-06:00            Local time and the difference from UTC (extended)
%Y%m%dT%H%M%S%z  => 20071119T083748-0600      Date and time of day for calendar date (basic)
%FT%T%:z         => 2007-11-19T08:37:48-06:00 Date and time of day for calendar date (extended)
%Y%jT%H%M%S%z    => 2007323T083748-0600       Date and time of day for ordinal date (basic)
%Y-%jT%T%:z      => 2007-323T08:37:48-06:00   Date and time of day for ordinal date (extended)
%GW%V%uT%H%M%S%z => 2007W471T083748-0600      Date and time of day for week date (basic)
%G-W%V-%uT%T%:z  => 2007-W47-1T08:37:48-06:00 Date and time of day for week date (extended)
%Y%m%dT%H%M      => 20071119T0837             Calendar date and local time (basic)
%FT%R            => 2007-11-19T08:37          Calendar date and local time (extended)
%Y%jT%H%MZ       => 2007323T0837Z             Ordinal date and UTC of day (basic)
%Y-%jT%RZ        => 2007-323T08:37Z           Ordinal date and UTC of day (extended)
%GW%V%uT%H%M%z   => 2007W471T0837-0600        Week date and local time and difference from UTC (basic)
%G-W%V-%uT%R%:z  => 2007-W47-1T08:37-06:00    Week date and local time and difference from UTC (extended)

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4565

static VALUE
time_strftime(VALUE time, VALUE format)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    char buffer[SMALLBUF], *buf = buffer;
    const char *fmt;
    long len;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE str;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    StringValue(format);
    if (!rb_enc_str_asciicompat_p(format)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "format should have ASCII compatible encoding");
    }
    format = rb_str_new4(format);
    fmt = RSTRING_PTR(format);
    len = RSTRING_LEN(format);
    enc = rb_enc_get(format);
    if (len == 0) {
	rb_warning("strftime called with empty format string");
    }
    else if (memchr(fmt, '\0', len)) {
	/* Ruby string may contain \0's. */
	const char *p = fmt, *pe = fmt + len;

	str = rb_str_new(0, 0);
	while (p < pe) {
	    len = rb_strftime_alloc(&buf, format, p, enc,
				    &tobj->vtm, tobj->timew, TIME_UTC_P(tobj));
	    rb_str_cat(str, buf, len);
	    p += strlen(p);
	    if (buf != buffer) {
		xfree(buf);
		buf = buffer;
	    }
	    for (fmt = p; p < pe && !*p; ++p);
	    if (p > fmt) rb_str_cat(str, fmt, p - fmt);
	}
	return str;
    }
    else {
	len = rb_strftime_alloc(&buf, format, RSTRING_PTR(format), enc,
				&tobj->vtm, tobj->timew, TIME_UTC_P(tobj));
    }
    str = rb_enc_str_new(buf, len, enc);
    if (buf != buffer) xfree(buf);
    return str;
}

#subsecNumeric

Returns the fraction for time.

The return value can be a rational number.

t = Time.now        #=> 2009-03-26 22:33:12 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1238074392.940563917"
t.subsec            #=> (94056401/100000000)

The lowest digits of #to_f and #subsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the rational number.

The more accurate value is returned by #subsec.

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3324

static VALUE
time_subsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return quo(w2v(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE))), INT2FIX(TIME_SCALE));
}

#succObject

#sunday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Sunday.

t = Time.local(1990, 4, 1)       #=> 1990-04-01 00:00:00 -0600
t.sunday?                        #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4063

static VALUE
time_sunday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(0);
}

#thursday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Thursday.

t = Time.local(1995, 12, 21)     #=> 1995-12-21 00:00:00 -0600
p t.thursday?                    #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4127

static VALUE
time_thursday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(4);
}

#to_aArray

Returns a ten-element array of values for time:

[sec, min, hour, day, month, year, wday, yday, isdst, zone]

See the individual methods for an explanation of the valid ranges of each value. The ten elements can be passed directly to Time::utc or Time::local to create a new Time object.

t = Time.now     #=> 2007-11-19 08:36:01 -0600
now = t.to_a     #=> [1, 36, 8, 19, 11, 2007, 1, 323, false, "CST"]

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4297

static VALUE
time_to_a(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return rb_ary_new3(10,
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.sec),
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.min),
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.hour),
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mday),
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.mon),
		    tobj->vtm.year,
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.wday),
		    INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.yday),
		    tobj->vtm.isdst?Qtrue:Qfalse,
		    time_zone(time));
}

#to_fFloat

Returns the value of time as a floating point number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968744.77658"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968744

Note that IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 3215

static VALUE
time_to_f(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_Float(rb_time_unmagnify_to_float(tobj->timew));
}

#to_iInteger #tv_secInteger

Returns the value of time as an integer number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968656.89607"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968656

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3191

static VALUE
time_to_i(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return w2v(wdiv(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE)));
}

#to_rObject

Returns the value of time as a rational number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
p t.to_r            #=> (1270968792716287611/1000000000)

This methods is intended to be used to get an accurate value representing the nanoseconds since the Epoch. You can use this method to convert time to another Epoch.


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# File 'time.c', line 3239

static VALUE
time_to_r(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    VALUE v;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    v = w2v(rb_time_unmagnify(tobj->timew));
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(v, T_RATIONAL)) {
        v = rb_Rational1(v);
    }
    return v;
}

#inspectString #to_sString

Returns a string representing time. Equivalent to calling #strftime with the appropriate format string.

t = Time.now
t.to_s                              => "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"   => "2012-11-10 18:16:12 +0100"

t.utc.to_s                          => "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"
t.strftime "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC"  => "2012-11-10 17:16:12 UTC"

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3699

static VALUE
time_to_s(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj))
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
    else
        return strftimev("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z", time, rb_usascii_encoding());
}

#tuesday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Tuesday.

t = Time.local(1991, 2, 19)      #=> 1991-02-19 00:00:00 -0600
p t.tuesday?                     #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4095

static VALUE
time_tuesday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(2);
}

#nsecInteger #tv_nsecInteger

Returns the number of nanoseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-17 15:18:03 +0900
"%10.9f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195280283.536151409"
t.nsec              #=> 536151406

The lowest digits of #to_f and #nsec are different because IEEE 754 double is not accurate enough to represent the exact number of nanoseconds since the Epoch.

The more accurate value is returned by #nsec.

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3296

static VALUE
time_nsec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(wmulquoll(wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE)), 1000000000, TIME_SCALE)));
}

#to_iInteger #tv_secInteger

Returns the value of time as an integer number of seconds since the Epoch.

t = Time.now
"%10.5f" % t.to_f   #=> "1270968656.89607"
t.to_i              #=> 1270968656

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3191

static VALUE
time_to_i(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    return w2v(wdiv(tobj->timew, WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE)));
}

#usecInteger #tv_usecInteger

Returns the number of microseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-19 08:03:26 -0600
"%10.6f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195481006.775195"
t.usec              #=> 775195

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3265

static VALUE
time_usec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    wideval_t w, q, r;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    w = wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE));
    wmuldivmod(w, WINT2FIXWV(1000000), WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE), &q, &r);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(q));
}

#usecInteger #tv_usecInteger

Returns the number of microseconds for time.

t = Time.now        #=> 2007-11-19 08:03:26 -0600
"%10.6f" % t.to_f   #=> "1195481006.775195"
t.usec              #=> 775195

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3265

static VALUE
time_usec(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    wideval_t w, q, r;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);

    w = wmod(tobj->timew, WINT2WV(TIME_SCALE));
    wmuldivmod(w, WINT2FIXWV(1000000), WINT2FIXWV(TIME_SCALE), &q, &r);
    return rb_to_int(w2v(q));
}

#gmtimeTime #utcTime

Converts time to UTC (GMT), modifying the receiver.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:31 -0600
t.gmt?         #=> false
t.gmtime       #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:31 UTC
t.gmt?         #=> true

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:18:51 -0600
t.utc?         #=> false
t.utc          #=> 2007-11-19 14:18:51 UTC
t.utc?         #=> true

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 3541

static VALUE
time_gmtime(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;
    struct vtm vtm;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	if (tobj->tm_got)
	    return time;
    }
    else {
	time_modify(time);
    }

    if (!gmtimew(tobj->timew, &vtm))
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "gmtime error");
    tobj->vtm = vtm;

    tobj->tm_got = 1;
    TIME_SET_UTC(tobj);
    return time;
}

#utc?Boolean #gmt?Boolean

Returns true if time represents a time in UTC (GMT).

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:15:23 -0600
t.utc?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,"jan",1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.utc?                              #=> true

t = Time.now                        #=> 2007-11-19 08:16:03 -0600
t.gmt?                              #=> false
t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)       #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt?                              #=> true

Overloads:

  • #utc?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)
  • #gmt?Boolean

    Returns:

    • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 3414

static VALUE
time_utc_p(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#gmt_offsetFixnum #gmtoffFixnum #utc_offsetFixnum

Returns the offset in seconds between the timezone of time and UTC.

t = Time.gm(2000,1,1,20,15,1)   #=> 2000-01-01 20:15:01 UTC
t.gmt_offset                    #=> 0
l = t.getlocal                  #=> 2000-01-01 14:15:01 -0600
l.gmt_offset                    #=> -21600

Overloads:


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# File 'time.c', line 4264

static VALUE
time_utc_offset(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);

    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	return INT2FIX(0);
    }
    else {
	return tobj->vtm.utc_offset;
    }
}

#wdayFixnum

Returns an integer representing the day of the week, 0..6, with Sunday == 0.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-20 02:35:35 -0600
t.wday         #=> 2
t.sunday?      #=> false
t.monday?      #=> false
t.tuesday?     #=> true
t.wednesday?   #=> false
t.thursday?    #=> false
t.friday?      #=> false
t.saturday?    #=> false

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4036

static VALUE
time_wday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.wday);
}

#wednesday?Boolean

Returns true if time represents Wednesday.

t = Time.local(1993, 2, 24)      #=> 1993-02-24 00:00:00 -0600
p t.wednesday?                   #=> true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'time.c', line 4111

static VALUE
time_wednesday(VALUE time)
{
    wday_p(3);
}

#ydayFixnum

Returns an integer representing the day of the year, 1..366.

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:32:31 -0600
t.yday         #=> 323

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4175

static VALUE
time_yday(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return INT2FIX(tobj->vtm.yday);
}

#yearFixnum

Returns the year for time (including the century).

t = Time.now   #=> 2007-11-19 08:27:51 -0600
t.year         #=> 2007

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4008

static VALUE
time_year(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);
    return tobj->vtm.year;
}

#zoneString

Returns the name of the time zone used for time. As of Ruby 1.8, returns "UTC'' rather than "GMT'' for UTC times.

t = Time.gm(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1)
t.zone   #=> "UTC"
t = Time.local(2000, "jan", 1, 20, 15, 1)
t.zone   #=> "CST"

Returns:


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# File 'time.c', line 4233

static VALUE
time_zone(VALUE time)
{
    struct time_object *tobj;

    GetTimeval(time, tobj);
    MAKE_TM(time, tobj);

    if (TIME_UTC_P(tobj)) {
	return rb_obj_untaint(rb_locale_str_new_cstr("UTC"));
    }
    if (tobj->vtm.zone == NULL)
        return Qnil;
    return rb_obj_untaint(rb_locale_str_new_cstr(tobj->vtm.zone));
}