Module: ActiveSupport::Callbacks

Extended by:
Concern
Included in:
ExecutionWrapper
Defined in:
lib/active_support/callbacks.rb

Overview

Callbacks are code hooks that are run at key points in an object's life cycle. The typical use case is to have a base class define a set of callbacks relevant to the other functionality it supplies, so that subclasses can install callbacks that enhance or modify the base functionality without needing to override or redefine methods of the base class.

Mixing in this module allows you to define the events in the object's life cycle that will support callbacks (via ClassMethods.define_callbacks), set the instance methods, procs, or callback objects to be called (via ClassMethods.set_callback), and run the installed callbacks at the appropriate times (via run_callbacks).

Three kinds of callbacks are supported: before callbacks, run before a certain event; after callbacks, run after the event; and around callbacks, blocks that surround the event, triggering it when they yield. Callback code can be contained in instance methods, procs or lambdas, or callback objects that respond to certain predetermined methods. See ClassMethods.set_callback for details.

class Record
  include ActiveSupport::Callbacks
  define_callbacks :save

  def save
    run_callbacks :save do
      puts "- save"
    end
  end
end

class PersonRecord < Record
  set_callback :save, :before, :saving_message
  def saving_message
    puts "saving..."
  end

  set_callback :save, :after do |object|
    puts "saved"
  end
end

person = PersonRecord.new
person.save

Output:

saving...
- save
saved

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: ClassMethods, Conditionals, Filters Classes: CallTemplate, Callback, CallbackChain, CallbackSequence

Constant Summary collapse

CALLBACK_FILTER_TYPES =
[:before, :after, :around]

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Concern

append_features, class_methods, extended, included

Instance Method Details

#run_callbacks(kind) ⇒ Object

Runs the callbacks for the given event.

Calls the before and around callbacks in the order they were set, yields the block (if given one), and then runs the after callbacks in reverse order.

If the callback chain was halted, returns false. Otherwise returns the result of the block, nil if no callbacks have been set, or true if callbacks have been set but no block is given.

run_callbacks :save do
  save
end

As this method is used in many places, and often wraps large portions of user code, it has an additional design goal of minimizing its impact on the visible call stack. An exception from inside a :before or :after callback can be as noisy as it likes – but when control has passed smoothly through and into the supplied block, we want as little evidence as possible that we were here.


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# File 'lib/active_support/callbacks.rb', line 93

def run_callbacks(kind)
  callbacks = __callbacks[kind.to_sym]

  if callbacks.empty?
    yield if block_given?
  else
    env = Filters::Environment.new(self, false, nil)
    next_sequence = callbacks.compile

    invoke_sequence = Proc.new do
      skipped = nil
      while true
        current = next_sequence
        current.invoke_before(env)
        if current.final?
          env.value = !env.halted && (!block_given? || yield)
        elsif current.skip?(env)
          (skipped ||= []) << current
          next_sequence = next_sequence.nested
          next
        else
          next_sequence = next_sequence.nested
          begin
            target, block, method, *arguments = current.expand_call_template(env, invoke_sequence)
            target.send(method, *arguments, &block)
          ensure
            next_sequence = current
          end
        end
        current.invoke_after(env)
        skipped.pop.invoke_after(env) while skipped && skipped.first
        break env.value
      end
    end

    # Common case: no 'around' callbacks defined
    if next_sequence.final?
      next_sequence.invoke_before(env)
      env.value = !env.halted && (!block_given? || yield)
      next_sequence.invoke_after(env)
      env.value
    else
      invoke_sequence.call
    end
  end
end