Class: Struct

Inherits:
Object show all
Includes:
Enumerable
Defined in:
struct.c

Constant Summary

Tms =

for the backward compatibility

rb_cProcessTms

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chunk, #chunk_while, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #grep_v, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #slice_after, #slice_before, #slice_when, #sort, #sort_by, #take, #take_while, #zip

Constructor Details

#initialize(*args) ⇒ Object



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# File 'struct.c', line 544

static VALUE
rb_struct_initialize_m(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass = rb_obj_class(self);
    long i, n;

    rb_struct_modify(self);
    n = num_members(klass);
    if (n < argc) {
  rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "struct size differs");
    }
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
  RSTRUCT_SET(self, i, argv[i]);
    }
    if (n > argc) {
  rb_mem_clear((VALUE *)RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(self)+argc, n-argc);
    }
    return Qnil;
}

Class Method Details

.new([class_name][, member_name]) ⇒ StructClass .new([class_name][, member_name]) {|StructClass| ... } ⇒ StructClass .new(value, ...) ⇒ Object .[](value, ...) ⇒ Object

The first two forms are used to create a new Struct subclass class_name that can contain a value for each member_name. This subclass can be used to create instances of the structure like any other Class.

If the class_name is omitted an anonymous structure class will be created. Otherwise, the name of this struct will appear as a constant in class Struct, so it must be unique for all Structs in the system and must start with a capital letter. Assigning a structure class to a constant also gives the class the name of the constant.

# Create a structure with a name under Struct
Struct.new("Customer", :name, :address)
#=> Struct::Customer
Struct::Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Struct::Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">

If a block is given it will be evaluated in the context of StructClass, passing the created class as a parameter:

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address) do
  def greeting
    "Hello #{name}!"
  end
end
Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main").greeting  # => "Hello Dave!"

This is the recommended way to customize a struct. Subclassing an anonymous struct creates an extra anonymous class that will never be used.

The last two forms create a new instance of a struct subclass. The number of value parameters must be less than or equal to the number of attributes defined for the structure. Unset parameters default to nil. Passing more parameters than number of attributes will raise an ArgumentError.

# Create a structure named by its constant
Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address)
#=> Customer
Customer.new("Dave", "123 Main")
#=> #<struct Customer name="Dave", address="123 Main">

Overloads:

  • .new([class_name][, member_name]) {|StructClass| ... } ⇒ StructClass

    Yields:

    • (StructClass)


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# File 'struct.c', line 486

static VALUE
rb_struct_s_def(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE name, rest;
    long i;
    VALUE st;
    st_table *tbl;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    name = argv[0];
    if (SYMBOL_P(name)) {
  name = Qnil;
    }
    else {
  --argc;
  ++argv;
    }
    rest = rb_ident_hash_new();
    RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(rest);
    tbl = RHASH_TBL(rest);
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
  VALUE mem = rb_to_symbol(argv[i]);
  if (st_insert(tbl, mem, Qtrue)) {
      rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "duplicate member: %"PRIsVALUE, mem);
  }
    }
    rest = rb_hash_keys(rest);
    st_clear(tbl);
    RBASIC_CLEAR_CLASS(rest);
    OBJ_FREEZE_RAW(rest);
    if (NIL_P(name)) {
  st = anonymous_struct(klass);
    }
    else {
  st = new_struct(name, klass);
    }
    setup_struct(st, rest);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
  rb_mod_module_eval(0, 0, st);
    }

    return st;
}

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Boolean

Equality—Returns true if other has the same struct subclass and has equal member values (according to Object#==).

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe   = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joejr = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
jane  = Customer.new("Jane Doe", "456 Elm, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe == joejr   #=> true
joe == jane    #=> false


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# File 'struct.c', line 1035

static VALUE
rb_struct_equal(VALUE s, VALUE s2)
{
    if (s == s2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(s2, T_STRUCT)) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_obj_class(s) != rb_obj_class(s2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(s) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s2)) {
  rb_bug("inconsistent struct"); /* should never happen */
    }

    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_equal, s, s2, s2);
}

#[](member) ⇒ Object #[](index) ⇒ Object

Attribute Reference—Returns the value of the given struct member or the member at the given index. Raises NameError if the member does not exist and IndexError if the index is out of range.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)

joe["name"]   #=> "Joe Smith"
joe[:name]    #=> "Joe Smith"
joe[0]        #=> "Joe Smith"


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# File 'struct.c', line 892

VALUE
rb_struct_aref(VALUE s, VALUE idx)
{
    int i = rb_struct_pos(s, &idx);
    if (i < 0) invalid_struct_pos(s, idx);
    return RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
}

#[]=(member) ⇒ Object #[]=(index) ⇒ Object

Attribute Assignment—Sets the value of the given struct member or the member at the given index. Raises NameError if the member does not exist and IndexError if the index is out of range.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)

joe["name"] = "Luke"
joe[:zip]   = "90210"

joe.name   #=> "Luke"
joe.zip    #=> "90210"


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# File 'struct.c', line 919

VALUE
rb_struct_aset(VALUE s, VALUE idx, VALUE val)
{
    int i = rb_struct_pos(s, &idx);
    if (i < 0) invalid_struct_pos(s, idx);
    rb_struct_modify(s);
    RSTRUCT_SET(s, i, val);
    return val;
}

#dig(key, ...) ⇒ Object

Extracts the nested value specified by the sequence of idx objects by calling dig at each step, returning nil if any intermediate step is nil.

klass = Struct.new(:a)
o = klass.new(klass.new({b: [1, 2, 3]}))

o.dig(:a, :a, :b, 0)              #=> 1
o.dig(:b, 0)                      #=> nil


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# File 'struct.c', line 1147

static VALUE
rb_struct_dig(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    self = rb_struct_lookup(self, *argv);
    if (!--argc) return self;
    ++argv;
    return rb_obj_dig(argc, argv, self, Qnil);
}

#each {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object #eachObject

Yields the value of each struct member in order. If no block is given an enumerator is returned.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.each {|x| puts(x) }

Produces:

Joe Smith
123 Maple, Anytown NC
12345

Overloads:

  • #each {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (obj)


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# File 'struct.c', line 647

static VALUE
rb_struct_each(VALUE s)
{
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
  rb_yield(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }
    return s;
}

#each_pair {|sym, obj| ... } ⇒ Object #each_pairObject

Yields the name and value of each struct member in order. If no block is given an enumerator is returned.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.each_pair {|name, value| puts("#{name} => #{value}") }

Produces:

name => Joe Smith
address => 123 Maple, Anytown NC
zip => 12345

Overloads:

  • #each_pair {|sym, obj| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (sym, obj)


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# File 'struct.c', line 678

static VALUE
rb_struct_each_pair(VALUE s)
{
    VALUE members;
    long i;

    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    members = rb_struct_members(s);
    if (rb_block_arity() > 1) {
  for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
      VALUE key = rb_ary_entry(members, i);
      VALUE value = RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
      rb_yield_values(2, key, value);
  }
    }
    else {
  for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
      VALUE key = rb_ary_entry(members, i);
      VALUE value = RSTRUCT_GET(s, i);
      rb_yield(rb_assoc_new(key, value));
  }
    }
    return s;
}

#eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Hash equality—other and struct refer to the same hash key if they have the same struct subclass and have equal member values (according to Object#eql?).



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# File 'struct.c', line 1101

static VALUE
rb_struct_eql(VALUE s, VALUE s2)
{
    if (s == s2) return Qtrue;
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(s2, T_STRUCT)) return Qfalse;
    if (rb_obj_class(s) != rb_obj_class(s2)) return Qfalse;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(s) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s2)) {
  rb_bug("inconsistent struct"); /* should never happen */
    }

    return rb_exec_recursive_paired(recursive_eql, s, s2, s2);
}

#hashFixnum

Returns a hash value based on this struct's contents (see Object#hash).

See also Object#hash.



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# File 'struct.c', line 1057

static VALUE
rb_struct_hash(VALUE s)
{
    long i, len;
    st_index_t h;
    VALUE n;
    const VALUE *ptr;

    h = rb_hash_start(rb_hash(rb_obj_class(s)));
    ptr = RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s);
    len = RSTRUCT_LEN(s);
    for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
  n = rb_hash(ptr[i]);
  h = rb_hash_uint(h, NUM2LONG(n));
    }
    h = rb_hash_end(h);
    return INT2FIX(h);
}

#initialize_copy(s) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'struct.c', line 805

VALUE
rb_struct_init_copy(VALUE copy, VALUE s)
{
    long i, len;

    if (!OBJ_INIT_COPY(copy, s)) return copy;
    if (RSTRUCT_LEN(copy) != RSTRUCT_LEN(s)) {
  rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "struct size mismatch");
    }

    for (i=0, len=RSTRUCT_LEN(copy); i<len; i++) {
  RSTRUCT_SET(copy, i, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }

    return copy;
}

#to_sString #inspectString Also known as: to_s

Describe the contents of this struct in a string.



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# File 'struct.c', line 756

static VALUE
rb_struct_inspect(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_struct, s, 0);
}

#lengthFixnum #sizeFixnum

Returns the number of struct members.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.length   #=> 3


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# File 'struct.c', line 1126

static VALUE
rb_struct_size(VALUE s)
{
    return LONG2FIX(RSTRUCT_LEN(s));
}

#membersArray

Returns the struct members as an array of symbols:

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.members   #=> [:name, :address, :zip]


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# File 'struct.c', line 198

static VALUE
rb_struct_members_m(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_struct_s_members_m(rb_obj_class(obj));
}

#select {|i| ... } ⇒ Array #selectObject

Yields each member value from the struct to the block and returns an Array containing the member values from the struct for which the given block returns a true value (equivalent to Enumerable#select).

Lots = Struct.new(:a, :b, :c, :d, :e, :f)
l = Lots.new(11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66)
l.select {|v| (v % 2).zero? }   #=> [22, 44, 66]

Overloads:

  • #select {|i| ... } ⇒ Array

    Yields:

    • (i)


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# File 'struct.c', line 986

static VALUE
rb_struct_select(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE s)
{
    VALUE result;
    long i;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 0);
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(s, 0, 0, struct_enum_size);
    result = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
  if (RTEST(rb_yield(RSTRUCT_GET(s, i)))) {
      rb_ary_push(result, RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
  }
    }

    return result;
}

#lengthFixnum #sizeFixnum

Returns the number of struct members.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.length   #=> 3


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# File 'struct.c', line 1126

static VALUE
rb_struct_size(VALUE s)
{
    return LONG2FIX(RSTRUCT_LEN(s));
}

#to_aArray #valuesArray

Returns the values for this struct as an Array.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_a[1]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"


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# File 'struct.c', line 774

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_a(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RSTRUCT_LEN(s), RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s));
}

#to_hHash

Returns a Hash containing the names and values for the struct's members.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_h[:address]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"


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# File 'struct.c', line 791

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_h(VALUE s)
{
    VALUE h = rb_hash_new();
    VALUE members = rb_struct_members(s);
    long i;

    for (i=0; i<RSTRUCT_LEN(s); i++) {
  rb_hash_aset(h, rb_ary_entry(members, i), RSTRUCT_GET(s, i));
    }
    return h;
}

#to_aArray #valuesArray

Returns the values for this struct as an Array.

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.to_a[1]   #=> "123 Maple, Anytown NC"


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# File 'struct.c', line 774

static VALUE
rb_struct_to_a(VALUE s)
{
    return rb_ary_new4(RSTRUCT_LEN(s), RSTRUCT_CONST_PTR(s));
}

#values_at(selector, ...) ⇒ Array

Returns the struct member values for each selector as an Array. A selector may be either an Integer offset or a Range of offsets (as in Array#values_at).

Customer = Struct.new(:name, :address, :zip)
joe = Customer.new("Joe Smith", "123 Maple, Anytown NC", 12345)
joe.values_at 0, 2 #=> ["Joe Smith", 12345]


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# File 'struct.c', line 966

static VALUE
rb_struct_values_at(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE s)
{
    return rb_get_values_at(s, RSTRUCT_LEN(s), argc, argv, struct_entry);
}