Class: Socket

Inherits:
BasicSocket show all
Defined in:
socket.c,
socket.c,
lib/socket.rb

Overview

Class Socket provides access to the underlying operating system socket implementations. It can be used to provide more operating system specific functionality than the protocol-specific socket classes.

The constants defined under Socket::Constants are also defined under Socket. For example, Socket::AF_INET is usable as well as Socket::Constants::AF_INET. See Socket::Constants for the list of constants.

What's a socket?

Sockets are endpoints of a bidirectionnal communication channel. Sockets can communicate within a process, between processes on the same machine or between different machines. There are many types of socket: TCPSocket, UDPSocket or UNIXSocket for example.

Sockets have their own vocabulary:

domain: The family of protocols:

  • Socket::PF_INET

  • Socket::PF_INET6

  • Socket::PF_UNIX

  • etc.

type: The type of communications between the two endpoints, typically

  • Socket::SOCK_STREAM

  • Socket::SOCK_DGRAM.

protocol: Typically zero. This may be used to identify a variant of a protocol.

hostname: The identifier of a network interface:

  • a string (hostname, IPv4 or IPv6 adress or broadcast

which specifies a broadcast address)
  • a zero-length string which specifies INADDR_ANY

  • an integer (interpreted as binary address in host byte order).

Quick start

Many of the classes, such as TCPSocket, UDPSocket or UNIXSocket, ease the use of sockets comparatively to the equivalent C programming interface.

Let's create an internet socket using the IPv4 protocol in a C-like manner:

s = Socket.new Socket::AF_INET, Socket::SOCK_STREAM
s.connect Socket.pack_sockaddr_in(80, 'example.com')

You could also use the TCPSocket class:

s = TCPSocket.new 'example.com', 80

A simple server might look like this:

require 'socket'

server = TCPServer.new 2000 # Server bound to port 2000

loop do
  client = server.accept    # Wait for a client to connect
  client.puts "Hello !"
  client.puts "Time is #{Time.now}"
  client.close
end

A simple client may look like this:

require 'socket'

s = TCPSocket.new 'localhost', 2000

while line = s.gets # Read lines from socket
  puts line         # and print them
end

s.close             # close socket when done

Exception Handling

Ruby's Socket implementation raises exceptions based on the error generated by the system dependent implementation. This is why the methods are documented in a way that isolate Unix-based system exceptions from Windows based exceptions. If more information on a particular exception is needed, please refer to the Unix manual pages or the Windows WinSock reference.

Convenience methods

Although the general way to create socket is Socket.new, there are several methods of socket creation for most cases.

TCP client socket

Socket.tcp, TCPSocket.open

TCP server socket

Socket.tcp_server_loop, TCPServer.open

UNIX client socket

Socket.unix, UNIXSocket.open

UNIX server socket

Socket.unix_server_loop, UNIXServer.open

Documentation by

  • Zach Dennis

  • Sam Roberts

  • Programming Ruby from The Pragmatic Bookshelf.

Much material in this documentation is taken with permission from Programming Ruby from The Pragmatic Bookshelf.

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: AncillaryData, Ifaddr, Option, UDPSource

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from BasicSocket

#close_read, #close_write, #connect_address, do_not_reverse_lookup, #do_not_reverse_lookup, do_not_reverse_lookup=, #do_not_reverse_lookup=, for_fd, #getpeereid, #getpeername, #getsockname, #getsockopt, #local_address, #recv, #recv_nonblock, #recvmsg, #recvmsg_nonblock, #remote_address, #send, #sendmsg, #sendmsg_nonblock, #setsockopt, #shutdown

Constructor Details

#new(domain, socktype[, protocol]) ⇒ Object

Creates a new socket object.

domain should be a communications domain such as: :INET, :INET6, :UNIX, etc.

socktype should be a socket type such as: :STREAM, :DGRAM, :RAW, etc.

protocol is optional and should be a protocol defined in the domain. If protocol is not given, 0 is used internally.

Socket.new(:INET, :STREAM) # TCP socket
Socket.new(:INET, :DGRAM)  # UDP socket
Socket.new(:UNIX, :STREAM) # UNIX stream socket
Socket.new(:UNIX, :DGRAM)  # UNIX datagram socket


140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
# File 'socket.c', line 140

static VALUE
sock_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    VALUE domain, type, protocol;
    int fd;
    int d, t;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &domain, &type, &protocol);
    if (NIL_P(protocol))
        protocol = INT2FIX(0);

    rb_secure(3);
    setup_domain_and_type(domain, &d, type, &t);
    fd = rsock_socket(d, t, NUM2INT(protocol));
    if (fd < 0) rb_sys_fail("socket(2)");

    return rsock_init_sock(sock, fd);
}

Class Method Details

.accept_loop(*sockets) ⇒ Object

yield socket and client address for each a connection accepted via given sockets.

The arguments are a list of sockets. The individual argument should be a socket or an array of sockets.

This method yields the block sequentially. It means that the next connection is not accepted until the block returns. So concurrent mechanism, thread for example, should be used to service multiple clients at a time.



496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 496

def self.accept_loop(*sockets) # :yield: socket, client_addrinfo
  sockets.flatten!(1)
  if sockets.empty?
    raise ArgumentError, "no sockets"
  end
  loop {
    readable, _, _ = IO.select(sockets)
    readable.each {|r|
      begin
        sock, addr = r.accept_nonblock
      rescue IO::WaitReadable
        next
      end
      yield sock, addr
    }
  }
end

.getaddrinfo(nodename, servname[, family[, socktype[, protocol[, flags[, reverse_lookup]]]]]) ⇒ Array

Obtains address information for nodename:servname.

family should be an address family such as: :INET, :INET6, :UNIX, etc.

socktype should be a socket type such as: :STREAM, :DGRAM, :RAW, etc.

protocol should be a protocol defined in the family, and defaults to 0 for the family.

flags should be bitwise OR of Socket::AI_* constants.

Socket.getaddrinfo("www.ruby-lang.org", "http", nil, :STREAM)
#=> [["AF_INET", 80, "carbon.ruby-lang.org", "221.186.184.68", 2, 1, 6]] # PF_INET/SOCK_STREAM/IPPROTO_TCP

Socket.getaddrinfo("localhost", nil)
#=> [["AF_INET", 0, "localhost", "127.0.0.1", 2, 1, 6],  # PF_INET/SOCK_STREAM/IPPROTO_TCP
#    ["AF_INET", 0, "localhost", "127.0.0.1", 2, 2, 17], # PF_INET/SOCK_DGRAM/IPPROTO_UDP
#    ["AF_INET", 0, "localhost", "127.0.0.1", 2, 3, 0]]  # PF_INET/SOCK_RAW/IPPROTO_IP

reverse_lookup directs the form of the third element, and has to be one of below. If reverse_lookup is omitted, the default value is nil.

+true+, +:hostname+:  hostname is obtained from numeric address using reverse lookup, which may take a time.
+false+, +:numeric+:  hostname is same as numeric address.
+nil+:              obey to the current +do_not_reverse_lookup+ flag.

If Addrinfo object is preferred, use Addrinfo.getaddrinfo.



1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
# File 'socket.c', line 1270

static VALUE
sock_s_getaddrinfo(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE host, port, family, socktype, protocol, flags, ret, revlookup;
    struct addrinfo hints;
    struct rb_addrinfo *res;
    int norevlookup;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "25", &host, &port, &family, &socktype, &protocol, &flags, &revlookup);

    MEMZERO(&hints, struct addrinfo, 1);
    hints.ai_family = NIL_P(family) ? PF_UNSPEC : rsock_family_arg(family);

    if (!NIL_P(socktype)) {
	hints.ai_socktype = rsock_socktype_arg(socktype);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(protocol)) {
	hints.ai_protocol = NUM2INT(protocol);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(flags)) {
	hints.ai_flags = NUM2INT(flags);
    }
    if (NIL_P(revlookup) || !rsock_revlookup_flag(revlookup, &norevlookup)) {
	norevlookup = rsock_do_not_reverse_lookup;
    }
    res = rsock_getaddrinfo(host, port, &hints, 0);

    ret = make_addrinfo(res, norevlookup);
    rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    return ret;
}

.gethostbyaddr(address_string[, address_family]) ⇒ Object

Obtains the host information for address.

p Socket.gethostbyaddr([221,186,184,68].pack("CCCC"))
#=> ["carbon.ruby-lang.org", [], 2, "\xDD\xBA\xB8D"]


1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
# File 'socket.c', line 1112

static VALUE
sock_s_gethostbyaddr(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE addr, family;
    struct hostent *h;
    char **pch;
    VALUE ary, names;
    int t = AF_INET;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &addr, &family);
    StringValue(addr);
    if (!NIL_P(family)) {
	t = rsock_family_arg(family);
    }
#ifdef AF_INET6
    else if (RSTRING_LEN(addr) == 16) {
	t = AF_INET6;
    }
#endif
    h = gethostbyaddr(RSTRING_PTR(addr), RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr), t);
    if (h == NULL) {
#ifdef HAVE_HSTRERROR
	extern int h_errno;
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "%s", (char*)hstrerror(h_errno));
#else
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "host not found");
#endif
    }
    ary = rb_ary_new();
    rb_ary_push(ary, rb_str_new2(h->h_name));
    names = rb_ary_new();
    rb_ary_push(ary, names);
    if (h->h_aliases != NULL) {
	for (pch = h->h_aliases; *pch; pch++) {
	    rb_ary_push(names, rb_str_new2(*pch));
	}
    }
    rb_ary_push(ary, INT2NUM(h->h_addrtype));
#ifdef h_addr
    for (pch = h->h_addr_list; *pch; pch++) {
	rb_ary_push(ary, rb_str_new(*pch, h->h_length));
    }
#else
    rb_ary_push(ary, rb_str_new(h->h_addr, h->h_length));
#endif

    return ary;
}

.gethostbyname(hostname) ⇒ Array

Obtains the host information for hostname.

p Socket.gethostbyname("hal") #=> ["localhost", ["hal"], 2, "\x7F\x00\x00\x01"]


1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
# File 'socket.c', line 1096

static VALUE
sock_s_gethostbyname(VALUE obj, VALUE host)
{
    rb_secure(3);
    return rsock_make_hostent(host, rsock_addrinfo(host, Qnil, SOCK_STREAM, AI_CANONNAME), sock_sockaddr);
}

.gethostnameObject



1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
# File 'socket.c', line 1027

static VALUE
sock_gethostname(VALUE obj)
{
    struct utsname un;

    rb_secure(3);
    uname(&un);
    return rb_str_new2(un.nodename);
}

.getifaddrsArray

Returns an array of interface addresses. An element of the array is an instance of Socket::Ifaddr.

This method can be used to find multicast-enabled interfaces:

pp Socket.getifaddrs.reject {|ifaddr|
  !ifaddr.addr.ip? || (ifaddr.flags & Socket::IFF_MULTICAST == 0)
}.map {|ifaddr| [ifaddr.name, ifaddr.ifindex, ifaddr.addr] }
#=> [["eth0", 2, #<Addrinfo: 221.186.184.67>],
#    ["eth0", 2, #<Addrinfo: fe80::216:3eff:fe95:88bb%eth0>]]

Example result on GNU/Linux:

pp Socket.getifaddrs
#=> [#<Socket::Ifaddr lo UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,0x10000 PACKET[protocol=0 lo hatype=772 HOST hwaddr=00:00:00:00:00:00]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr eth0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x10000 PACKET[protocol=0 eth0 hatype=1 HOST hwaddr=00:16:3e:95:88:bb] broadcast=PACKET[protocol=0 eth0 hatype=1 HOST hwaddr=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr sit0 NOARP PACKET[protocol=0 sit0 hatype=776 HOST hwaddr=00:00:00:00]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,0x10000 127.0.0.1 netmask=255.0.0.0>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr eth0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x10000 221.186.184.67 netmask=255.255.255.240 broadcast=221.186.184.79>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,0x10000 ::1 netmask=ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr eth0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x10000 fe80::216:3eff:fe95:88bb%eth0 netmask=ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::>]

Example result on FreeBSD:

pp Socket.getifaddrs
#=> [#<Socket::Ifaddr usbus0 UP,0x10000 LINK[usbus0]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr re0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x800 LINK[re0 3a:d0:40:9a:fe:e8]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr re0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x800 10.250.10.18 netmask=255.255.255.? (7 bytes for 16 bytes sockaddr_in) broadcast=10.250.10.255>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr re0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x800 fe80:2::38d0:40ff:fe9a:fee8 netmask=ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr re0 UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,0x800 2001:2e8:408:10::12 netmask=UNSPEC>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr plip0 POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,0x800 LINK[plip0]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo0 UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST LINK[lo0]>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo0 UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST ::1 netmask=ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo0 UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST fe80:4::1 netmask=ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::>,
#    #<Socket::Ifaddr lo0 UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST 127.0.0.1 netmask=255.?.?.? (5 bytes for 16 bytes sockaddr_in)>]


427
428
429
430
431
# File 'ifaddr.c', line 427

static VALUE
socket_s_getifaddrs(VALUE self)
{
    return rsock_getifaddrs();
}

.getnameinfo(sockaddr[, flags]) ⇒ Array

Obtains name information for sockaddr.

sockaddr should be one of follows.

  • packed sockaddr string such as Socket.sockaddr_in(80, “127.0.0.1”)

  • 3-elements array such as [“AF_INET”, 80, “127.0.0.1”]

  • 4-elements array such as [“AF_INET”, 80, ignored, “127.0.0.1”]

flags should be bitwise OR of Socket::NI_* constants.

Note: The last form is compatible with IPSocket#addr and IPSocket#peeraddr.

Socket.getnameinfo(Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "127.0.0.1"))       #=> ["localhost", "www"]
Socket.getnameinfo(["AF_INET", 80, "127.0.0.1"])              #=> ["localhost", "www"]
Socket.getnameinfo(["AF_INET", 80, "localhost", "127.0.0.1"]) #=> ["localhost", "www"]

If Addrinfo object is preferred, use Addrinfo#getnameinfo.



1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
# File 'socket.c', line 1324

static VALUE
sock_s_getnameinfo(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE sa, af = Qnil, host = Qnil, port = Qnil, flags, tmp;
    char *hptr, *pptr;
    char hbuf[1024], pbuf[1024];
    int fl;
    struct rb_addrinfo *res = NULL;
    struct addrinfo hints, *r;
    int error, saved_errno;
    union_sockaddr ss;
    struct sockaddr *sap;
    socklen_t salen;

    sa = flags = Qnil;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &sa, &flags);

    fl = 0;
    if (!NIL_P(flags)) {
	fl = NUM2INT(flags);
    }
    tmp = rb_check_sockaddr_string_type(sa);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
	sa = tmp;
	if (sizeof(ss) < (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(sa)) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "sockaddr length too big");
	}
	memcpy(&ss, RSTRING_PTR(sa), RSTRING_LEN(sa));
        if (!VALIDATE_SOCKLEN(&ss.addr, RSTRING_LEN(sa))) {
	    rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "sockaddr size differs - should not happen");
	}
	sap = &ss.addr;
        salen = RSTRING_SOCKLEN(sa);
	goto call_nameinfo;
    }
    tmp = rb_check_array_type(sa);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
	sa = tmp;
	MEMZERO(&hints, struct addrinfo, 1);
	if (RARRAY_LEN(sa) == 3) {
	    af = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[0];
	    port = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[1];
	    host = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[2];
	}
	else if (RARRAY_LEN(sa) >= 4) {
	    af = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[0];
	    port = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[1];
	    host = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[3];
	    if (NIL_P(host)) {
		host = RARRAY_PTR(sa)[2];
	    }
	    else {
		/*
		 * 4th element holds numeric form, don't resolve.
		 * see rsock_ipaddr().
		 */
#ifdef AI_NUMERICHOST /* AIX 4.3.3 doesn't have AI_NUMERICHOST. */
		hints.ai_flags |= AI_NUMERICHOST;
#endif
	    }
	}
	else {
	    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "array size should be 3 or 4, %ld given",
		     RARRAY_LEN(sa));
	}
	/* host */
	if (NIL_P(host)) {
	    hptr = NULL;
	}
	else {
	    strncpy(hbuf, StringValuePtr(host), sizeof(hbuf));
	    hbuf[sizeof(hbuf) - 1] = '\0';
	    hptr = hbuf;
	}
	/* port */
	if (NIL_P(port)) {
	    strcpy(pbuf, "0");
	    pptr = NULL;
	}
	else if (FIXNUM_P(port)) {
	    snprintf(pbuf, sizeof(pbuf), "%ld", NUM2LONG(port));
	    pptr = pbuf;
	}
	else {
	    strncpy(pbuf, StringValuePtr(port), sizeof(pbuf));
	    pbuf[sizeof(pbuf) - 1] = '\0';
	    pptr = pbuf;
	}
	hints.ai_socktype = (fl & NI_DGRAM) ? SOCK_DGRAM : SOCK_STREAM;
	/* af */
        hints.ai_family = NIL_P(af) ? PF_UNSPEC : rsock_family_arg(af);
	error = rb_getaddrinfo(hptr, pptr, &hints, &res);
	if (error) goto error_exit_addr;
	sap = res->ai->ai_addr;
        salen = res->ai->ai_addrlen;
    }
    else {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "expecting String or Array");
    }

  call_nameinfo:
    error = rb_getnameinfo(sap, salen, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf),
			   pbuf, sizeof(pbuf), fl);
    if (error) goto error_exit_name;
    if (res) {
	for (r = res->ai->ai_next; r; r = r->ai_next) {
	    char hbuf2[1024], pbuf2[1024];

	    sap = r->ai_addr;
            salen = r->ai_addrlen;
	    error = rb_getnameinfo(sap, salen, hbuf2, sizeof(hbuf2),
				   pbuf2, sizeof(pbuf2), fl);
	    if (error) goto error_exit_name;
	    if (strcmp(hbuf, hbuf2) != 0|| strcmp(pbuf, pbuf2) != 0) {
		rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
		rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "sockaddr resolved to multiple nodename");
	    }
	}
	rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    }
    return rb_assoc_new(rb_str_new2(hbuf), rb_str_new2(pbuf));

  error_exit_addr:
    saved_errno = errno;
    if (res) rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    errno = saved_errno;
    rsock_raise_socket_error("getaddrinfo", error);

  error_exit_name:
    saved_errno = errno;
    if (res) rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    errno = saved_errno;
    rsock_raise_socket_error("getnameinfo", error);

    UNREACHABLE;
}

.getservbyname(service_name) ⇒ Object .getservbyname(service_name, protocol_name) ⇒ Object

Obtains the port number for service_name.

If protocol_name is not given, “tcp” is assumed.

Socket.getservbyname("smtp")          #=> 25
Socket.getservbyname("shell")         #=> 514
Socket.getservbyname("syslog", "udp") #=> 514


1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
# File 'socket.c', line 1174

static VALUE
sock_s_getservbyname(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE service, proto;
    struct servent *sp;
    long port;
    const char *servicename, *protoname = "tcp";

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &service, &proto);
    StringValue(service);
    if (!NIL_P(proto)) StringValue(proto);
    servicename = StringValueCStr(service);
    if (!NIL_P(proto)) protoname = StringValueCStr(proto);
    sp = getservbyname(servicename, protoname);
    if (sp) {
	port = ntohs(sp->s_port);
    }
    else {
	char *end;

	port = STRTOUL(servicename, &end, 0);
	if (*end != '\0') {
	    rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "no such service %s/%s", servicename, protoname);
	}
    }
    return INT2FIX(port);
}

.getservbyport(port[, protocol_name]) ⇒ Object

Obtains the port number for port.

If protocol_name is not given, “tcp” is assumed.

Socket.getservbyport(80)         #=> "www"
Socket.getservbyport(514, "tcp") #=> "shell"
Socket.getservbyport(514, "udp") #=> "syslog"


1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
# File 'socket.c', line 1215

static VALUE
sock_s_getservbyport(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE port, proto;
    struct servent *sp;
    long portnum;
    const char *protoname = "tcp";

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &port, &proto);
    portnum = NUM2LONG(port);
    if (portnum != (uint16_t)portnum) {
	const char *s = portnum > 0 ? "big" : "small";
	rb_raise(rb_eRangeError, "integer %ld too %s to convert into `int16_t'", portnum, s);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(proto)) protoname = StringValueCStr(proto);

    sp = getservbyport((int)htons((uint16_t)portnum), protoname);
    if (!sp) {
	rb_raise(rb_eSocket, "no such service for port %d/%s", (int)portnum, protoname);
    }
    return rb_tainted_str_new2(sp->s_name);
}

.ip_address_listArray

Returns local IP addresses as an array.

The array contains Addrinfo objects.

pp Socket.ip_address_list
#=> [#<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1>,
     #<Addrinfo: 192.168.0.128>,
     #<Addrinfo: ::1>,
     ...]


1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
# File 'socket.c', line 1697

static VALUE
socket_s_ip_address_list(VALUE self)
{
#if defined(HAVE_GETIFADDRS)
    struct ifaddrs *ifp = NULL;
    struct ifaddrs *p;
    int ret;
    VALUE list;

    ret = getifaddrs(&ifp);
    if (ret == -1) {
        rb_sys_fail("getifaddrs");
    }

    list = rb_ary_new();
    for (p = ifp; p; p = p->ifa_next) {
        if (p->ifa_addr != NULL && IS_IP_FAMILY(p->ifa_addr->sa_family)) {
            struct sockaddr *addr = p->ifa_addr;
#if defined(AF_INET6) && defined(__sun)
            /*
             * OpenIndiana SunOS 5.11 getifaddrs() returns IPv6 link local
             * address with sin6_scope_id == 0.
             * So fill it from the interface name (ifa_name).
             */
            struct sockaddr_in6 addr6;
            if (addr->sa_family == AF_INET6) {
                socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6);
                memcpy(&addr6, addr, len);
                addr = (struct sockaddr *)&addr6;
                if (IN6_IS_ADDR_LINKLOCAL(&addr6.sin6_addr) &&
                    addr6.sin6_scope_id == 0) {
                    unsigned int ifindex = if_nametoindex(p->ifa_name);
                    if (ifindex != 0) {
                        addr6.sin6_scope_id = ifindex;
                    }
                }
            }
#endif
            rb_ary_push(list, sockaddr_obj(addr, sockaddr_len(addr)));
        }
    }

    freeifaddrs(ifp);

    return list;
#elif defined(SIOCGLIFCONF) && defined(SIOCGLIFNUM) && !defined(__hpux)
    /* Solaris if_tcp(7P) */
    /* HP-UX has SIOCGLIFCONF too.  But it uses different struct */
    int fd = -1;
    int ret;
    struct lifnum ln;
    struct lifconf lc;
    char *reason = NULL;
    int save_errno;
    int i;
    VALUE list = Qnil;

    lc.lifc_buf = NULL;

    fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
    if (fd == -1)
        rb_sys_fail("socket(2)");

    memset(&ln, 0, sizeof(ln));
    ln.lifn_family = AF_UNSPEC;

    ret = ioctl(fd, SIOCGLIFNUM, &ln);
    if (ret == -1) {
	reason = "SIOCGLIFNUM";
	goto finish;
    }

    memset(&lc, 0, sizeof(lc));
    lc.lifc_family = AF_UNSPEC;
    lc.lifc_flags = 0;
    lc.lifc_len = sizeof(struct lifreq) * ln.lifn_count;
    lc.lifc_req = xmalloc(lc.lifc_len);

    ret = ioctl(fd, SIOCGLIFCONF, &lc);
    if (ret == -1) {
	reason = "SIOCGLIFCONF";
	goto finish;
    }

    list = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < ln.lifn_count; i++) {
	struct lifreq *req = &lc.lifc_req[i];
        if (IS_IP_FAMILY(req->lifr_addr.ss_family)) {
            if (req->lifr_addr.ss_family == AF_INET6 &&
                IN6_IS_ADDR_LINKLOCAL(&((struct sockaddr_in6 *)(&req->lifr_addr))->sin6_addr) &&
                ((struct sockaddr_in6 *)(&req->lifr_addr))->sin6_scope_id == 0) {
                struct lifreq req2;
                memcpy(req2.lifr_name, req->lifr_name, LIFNAMSIZ);
                ret = ioctl(fd, SIOCGLIFINDEX, &req2);
                if (ret == -1) {
                    reason = "SIOCGLIFINDEX";
                    goto finish;
                }
                ((struct sockaddr_in6 *)(&req->lifr_addr))->sin6_scope_id = req2.lifr_index;
            }
            rb_ary_push(list, sockaddr_obj((struct sockaddr *)&req->lifr_addr, req->lifr_addrlen));
        }
    }

  finish:
    save_errno = errno;
    if (lc.lifc_buf != NULL)
	xfree(lc.lifc_req);
    if (fd != -1)
	close(fd);
    errno = save_errno;

    if (reason)
	rb_sys_fail(reason);
    return list;

#elif defined(SIOCGIFCONF)
    int fd = -1;
    int ret;
#define EXTRA_SPACE ((int)(sizeof(struct ifconf) + sizeof(union_sockaddr)))
    char initbuf[4096+EXTRA_SPACE];
    char *buf = initbuf;
    int bufsize;
    struct ifconf conf;
    struct ifreq *req;
    VALUE list = Qnil;
    const char *reason = NULL;
    int save_errno;

    fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
    if (fd == -1)
        rb_sys_fail("socket(2)");

    bufsize = sizeof(initbuf);
    buf = initbuf;

  retry:
    conf.ifc_len = bufsize;
    conf.ifc_req = (struct ifreq *)buf;

    /* fprintf(stderr, "bufsize: %d\n", bufsize); */

    ret = ioctl(fd, SIOCGIFCONF, &conf);
    if (ret == -1) {
        reason = "SIOCGIFCONF";
        goto finish;
    }

    /* fprintf(stderr, "conf.ifc_len: %d\n", conf.ifc_len); */

    if (bufsize - EXTRA_SPACE < conf.ifc_len) {
	if (bufsize < conf.ifc_len) {
	    /* NetBSD returns required size for all interfaces. */
	    bufsize = conf.ifc_len + EXTRA_SPACE;
	}
	else {
	    bufsize = bufsize << 1;
	}
	if (buf == initbuf)
	    buf = NULL;
	buf = xrealloc(buf, bufsize);
	goto retry;
    }

    close(fd);
    fd = -1;

    list = rb_ary_new();
    req = conf.ifc_req;
    while ((char*)req < (char*)conf.ifc_req + conf.ifc_len) {
	struct sockaddr *addr = &req->ifr_addr;
        if (IS_IP_FAMILY(addr->sa_family)) {
	    rb_ary_push(list, sockaddr_obj(addr, sockaddr_len(addr)));
	}
#ifdef HAVE_STRUCT_SOCKADDR_SA_LEN
# ifndef _SIZEOF_ADDR_IFREQ
#  define _SIZEOF_ADDR_IFREQ(r) \
          (sizeof(struct ifreq) + \
           (sizeof(struct sockaddr) < (r).ifr_addr.sa_len ? \
            (r).ifr_addr.sa_len - sizeof(struct sockaddr) : \
            0))
# endif
	req = (struct ifreq *)((char*)req + _SIZEOF_ADDR_IFREQ(*req));
#else
	req = (struct ifreq *)((char*)req + sizeof(struct ifreq));
#endif
    }

  finish:

    save_errno = errno;
    if (buf != initbuf)
        xfree(buf);
    if (fd != -1)
	close(fd);
    errno = save_errno;

    if (reason)
	rb_sys_fail(reason);
    return list;

#undef EXTRA_SPACE
#elif defined(_WIN32)
    typedef struct ip_adapter_unicast_address_st {
	unsigned LONG_LONG dummy0;
	struct ip_adapter_unicast_address_st *Next;
	struct {
	    struct sockaddr *lpSockaddr;
	    int iSockaddrLength;
	} Address;
	int dummy1;
	int dummy2;
	int dummy3;
	long dummy4;
	long dummy5;
	long dummy6;
    } ip_adapter_unicast_address_t;
    typedef struct ip_adapter_anycast_address_st {
	unsigned LONG_LONG dummy0;
	struct ip_adapter_anycast_address_st *Next;
	struct {
	    struct sockaddr *lpSockaddr;
	    int iSockaddrLength;
	} Address;
    } ip_adapter_anycast_address_t;
    typedef struct ip_adapter_addresses_st {
	unsigned LONG_LONG dummy0;
	struct ip_adapter_addresses_st *Next;
	void *dummy1;
	ip_adapter_unicast_address_t *FirstUnicastAddress;
	ip_adapter_anycast_address_t *FirstAnycastAddress;
	void *dummy2;
	void *dummy3;
	void *dummy4;
	void *dummy5;
	void *dummy6;
	BYTE dummy7[8];
	DWORD dummy8;
	DWORD dummy9;
	DWORD dummy10;
	DWORD IfType;
	int OperStatus;
	DWORD dummy12;
	DWORD dummy13[16];
	void *dummy14;
    } ip_adapter_addresses_t;
    typedef ULONG (WINAPI *GetAdaptersAddresses_t)(ULONG, ULONG, PVOID, ip_adapter_addresses_t *, PULONG);
    HMODULE h;
    GetAdaptersAddresses_t pGetAdaptersAddresses;
    ULONG len;
    DWORD ret;
    ip_adapter_addresses_t *adapters;
    VALUE list;

    h = LoadLibrary("iphlpapi.dll");
    if (!h)
	rb_notimplement();
    pGetAdaptersAddresses = (GetAdaptersAddresses_t)GetProcAddress(h, "GetAdaptersAddresses");
    if (!pGetAdaptersAddresses) {
	FreeLibrary(h);
	rb_notimplement();
    }

    ret = pGetAdaptersAddresses(AF_UNSPEC, 0, NULL, NULL, &len);
    if (ret != ERROR_SUCCESS && ret != ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW) {
	errno = rb_w32_map_errno(ret);
	FreeLibrary(h);
	rb_sys_fail("GetAdaptersAddresses");
    }
    adapters = (ip_adapter_addresses_t *)ALLOCA_N(BYTE, len);
    ret = pGetAdaptersAddresses(AF_UNSPEC, 0, NULL, adapters, &len);
    if (ret != ERROR_SUCCESS) {
	errno = rb_w32_map_errno(ret);
	FreeLibrary(h);
	rb_sys_fail("GetAdaptersAddresses");
    }

    list = rb_ary_new();
    for (; adapters; adapters = adapters->Next) {
	ip_adapter_unicast_address_t *uni;
	ip_adapter_anycast_address_t *any;
	if (adapters->OperStatus != 1)	/* 1 means IfOperStatusUp */
	    continue;
	for (uni = adapters->FirstUnicastAddress; uni; uni = uni->Next) {
#ifndef INET6
	    if (uni->Address.lpSockaddr->sa_family == AF_INET)
#else
	    if (IS_IP_FAMILY(uni->Address.lpSockaddr->sa_family))
#endif
		rb_ary_push(list, sockaddr_obj(uni->Address.lpSockaddr, uni->Address.iSockaddrLength));
	}
	for (any = adapters->FirstAnycastAddress; any; any = any->Next) {
#ifndef INET6
	    if (any->Address.lpSockaddr->sa_family == AF_INET)
#else
	    if (IS_IP_FAMILY(any->Address.lpSockaddr->sa_family))
#endif
		rb_ary_push(list, sockaddr_obj(any->Address.lpSockaddr, any->Address.iSockaddrLength));
	}
    }

    FreeLibrary(h);
    return list;
#endif
}

.sockaddr_in(port, host) ⇒ Object .pack_sockaddr_in(port, host) ⇒ Object

Packs port and host as an AF_INET/AF_INET6 sockaddr string.

Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "127.0.0.1")
#=> "\x02\x00\x00P\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"

Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "::1")
#=> "\n\x00\x00P\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00"


1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
# File 'socket.c', line 1475

static VALUE
sock_s_pack_sockaddr_in(VALUE self, VALUE port, VALUE host)
{
    struct rb_addrinfo *res = rsock_addrinfo(host, port, 0, 0);
    VALUE addr = rb_str_new((char*)res->ai->ai_addr, res->ai->ai_addrlen);

    rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, port);
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, host);

    return addr;
}

.sockaddr_un(path) ⇒ Object .pack_sockaddr_un(path) ⇒ Object

Packs path as an AF_UNIX sockaddr string.

Socket.sockaddr_un("/tmp/sock") #=> "\x01\x00/tmp/sock\x00\x00..."


1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
# File 'socket.c', line 1541

static VALUE
sock_s_pack_sockaddr_un(VALUE self, VALUE path)
{
    struct sockaddr_un sockaddr;
    VALUE addr;

    StringValue(path);
    INIT_SOCKADDR_UN(&sockaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
    if (sizeof(sockaddr.sun_path) < (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(path)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too long unix socket path (%"PRIuSIZE" bytes given but %"PRIuSIZE" bytes max)",
            (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(path), sizeof(sockaddr.sun_path));
    }
    memcpy(sockaddr.sun_path, RSTRING_PTR(path), RSTRING_LEN(path));
    addr = rb_str_new((char*)&sockaddr, rsock_unix_sockaddr_len(path));
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, path);

    return addr;
}

.pair(domain, type, protocol) ⇒ Array .socketpair(domain, type, protocol) ⇒ Array

Creates a pair of sockets connected each other.

domain should be a communications domain such as: :INET, :INET6, :UNIX, etc.

socktype should be a socket type such as: :STREAM, :DGRAM, :RAW, etc.

protocol should be a protocol defined in the domain, defaults to 0 for the domain.

s1, s2 = Socket.pair(:UNIX, :STREAM, 0)
s1.send "a", 0
s1.send "b", 0
s1.close
p s2.recv(10) #=> "ab"
p s2.recv(10) #=> ""
p s2.recv(10) #=> ""

s1, s2 = Socket.pair(:UNIX, :DGRAM, 0)
s1.send "a", 0
s1.send "b", 0
p s2.recv(10) #=> "a"
p s2.recv(10) #=> "b"


262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
# File 'socket.c', line 262

VALUE
rsock_sock_s_socketpair(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE domain, type, protocol;
    int d, t, p, sp[2];
    int ret;
    VALUE s1, s2, r;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &domain, &type, &protocol);
    if (NIL_P(protocol))
        protocol = INT2FIX(0);

    setup_domain_and_type(domain, &d, type, &t);
    p = NUM2INT(protocol);
    ret = rsock_socketpair(d, t, p, sp);
    if (ret < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail("socketpair(2)");
    }
    rb_fd_fix_cloexec(sp[0]);
    rb_fd_fix_cloexec(sp[1]);

    s1 = rsock_init_sock(rb_obj_alloc(klass), sp[0]);
    s2 = rsock_init_sock(rb_obj_alloc(klass), sp[1]);
    r = rb_assoc_new(s1, s2);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        return rb_ensure(pair_yield, r, io_close, s1);
    }
    return r;
}

.sockaddr_in(port, host) ⇒ Object .pack_sockaddr_in(port, host) ⇒ Object

Packs port and host as an AF_INET/AF_INET6 sockaddr string.

Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "127.0.0.1")
#=> "\x02\x00\x00P\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"

Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "::1")
#=> "\n\x00\x00P\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00"


1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
# File 'socket.c', line 1475

static VALUE
sock_s_pack_sockaddr_in(VALUE self, VALUE port, VALUE host)
{
    struct rb_addrinfo *res = rsock_addrinfo(host, port, 0, 0);
    VALUE addr = rb_str_new((char*)res->ai->ai_addr, res->ai->ai_addrlen);

    rb_freeaddrinfo(res);
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, port);
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, host);

    return addr;
}

.sockaddr_un(path) ⇒ Object .pack_sockaddr_un(path) ⇒ Object

Packs path as an AF_UNIX sockaddr string.

Socket.sockaddr_un("/tmp/sock") #=> "\x01\x00/tmp/sock\x00\x00..."


1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
# File 'socket.c', line 1541

static VALUE
sock_s_pack_sockaddr_un(VALUE self, VALUE path)
{
    struct sockaddr_un sockaddr;
    VALUE addr;

    StringValue(path);
    INIT_SOCKADDR_UN(&sockaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
    if (sizeof(sockaddr.sun_path) < (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(path)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too long unix socket path (%"PRIuSIZE" bytes given but %"PRIuSIZE" bytes max)",
            (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(path), sizeof(sockaddr.sun_path));
    }
    memcpy(sockaddr.sun_path, RSTRING_PTR(path), RSTRING_LEN(path));
    addr = rb_str_new((char*)&sockaddr, rsock_unix_sockaddr_len(path));
    OBJ_INFECT(addr, path);

    return addr;
}

.pair(domain, type, protocol) ⇒ Array .socketpair(domain, type, protocol) ⇒ Array

Creates a pair of sockets connected each other.

domain should be a communications domain such as: :INET, :INET6, :UNIX, etc.

socktype should be a socket type such as: :STREAM, :DGRAM, :RAW, etc.

protocol should be a protocol defined in the domain, defaults to 0 for the domain.

s1, s2 = Socket.pair(:UNIX, :STREAM, 0)
s1.send "a", 0
s1.send "b", 0
s1.close
p s2.recv(10) #=> "ab"
p s2.recv(10) #=> ""
p s2.recv(10) #=> ""

s1, s2 = Socket.pair(:UNIX, :DGRAM, 0)
s1.send "a", 0
s1.send "b", 0
p s2.recv(10) #=> "a"
p s2.recv(10) #=> "b"


262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
# File 'socket.c', line 262

VALUE
rsock_sock_s_socketpair(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE domain, type, protocol;
    int d, t, p, sp[2];
    int ret;
    VALUE s1, s2, r;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &domain, &type, &protocol);
    if (NIL_P(protocol))
        protocol = INT2FIX(0);

    setup_domain_and_type(domain, &d, type, &t);
    p = NUM2INT(protocol);
    ret = rsock_socketpair(d, t, p, sp);
    if (ret < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail("socketpair(2)");
    }
    rb_fd_fix_cloexec(sp[0]);
    rb_fd_fix_cloexec(sp[1]);

    s1 = rsock_init_sock(rb_obj_alloc(klass), sp[0]);
    s2 = rsock_init_sock(rb_obj_alloc(klass), sp[1]);
    r = rb_assoc_new(s1, s2);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        return rb_ensure(pair_yield, r, io_close, s1);
    }
    return r;
}

.tcp(host, port, *rest) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

Socket.tcp(host, port, local_host=nil, local_port=nil, [opts]) {|socket| ... }
Socket.tcp(host, port, local_host=nil, local_port=nil, [opts])

creates a new socket object connected to host:port using TCP/IP.

If local_host:local_port is given, the socket is bound to it.

The optional last argument opts is options represented by a hash. opts may have following options:

:connect_timeout

specify the timeout in seconds.

If a block is given, the block is called with the socket. The value of the block is returned. The socket is closed when this method returns.

If no block is given, the socket is returned.

Socket.tcp("www.ruby-lang.org", 80) {|sock|
  sock.print "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: www.ruby-lang.org\r\n\r\n"
  sock.close_write
  puts sock.read
}

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 314

def self.tcp(host, port, *rest) # :yield: socket
  opts = Hash === rest.last ? rest.pop : {}
  raise ArgumentError, "wrong number of arguments (#{rest.length} for 2)" if 2 < rest.length
  local_host, local_port = rest
  last_error = nil
  ret = nil

  connect_timeout = opts[:connect_timeout]

  local_addr_list = nil
  if local_host != nil || local_port != nil
    local_addr_list = Addrinfo.getaddrinfo(local_host, local_port, nil, :STREAM, nil)
  end

  Addrinfo.foreach(host, port, nil, :STREAM) {|ai|
    if local_addr_list
      local_addr = local_addr_list.find {|local_ai| local_ai.afamily == ai.afamily }
      next if !local_addr
    else
      local_addr = nil
    end
    begin
      sock = local_addr ?
        ai.connect_from(local_addr, :timeout => connect_timeout) :
        ai.connect(:timeout => connect_timeout)
    rescue SystemCallError
      last_error = $!
      next
    end
    ret = sock
    break
  }
  if !ret
    if last_error
      raise last_error
    else
      raise SocketError, "no appropriate local address"
    end
  end
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield ret
    ensure
      ret.close if !ret.closed?
    end
  else
    ret
  end
end

.tcp_server_loop(host = nil, port, &b) ⇒ Object

creates a TCP/IP server on port and calls the block for each connection accepted. The block is called with a socket and a client_address as an Addrinfo object.

If host is specified, it is used with port to determine the server addresses.

The socket is not closed when the block returns. So application should close it explicitly.

This method calls the block sequentially. It means that the next connection is not accepted until the block returns. So concurrent mechanism, thread for example, should be used to service multiple clients at a time.

Note that Addrinfo.getaddrinfo is used to determine the server socket addresses. When Addrinfo.getaddrinfo returns two or more addresses, IPv4 and IPv6 address for example, all of them are used. Socket.tcp_server_loop succeeds if one socket can be used at least.

# Sequential echo server.
# It services only one client at a time.
Socket.tcp_server_loop(16807) {|sock, client_addrinfo|
  begin
    IO.copy_stream(sock, sock)
  ensure
    sock.close
  end
}

# Threaded echo server
# It services multiple clients at a time.
# Note that it may accept connections too much.
Socket.tcp_server_loop(16807) {|sock, client_addrinfo|
  Thread.new {
    begin
      IO.copy_stream(sock, sock)
    ensure
      sock.close
    end
  }
}


555
556
557
558
559
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 555

def self.tcp_server_loop(host=nil, port, &b) # :yield: socket, client_addrinfo
  tcp_server_sockets(host, port) {|sockets|
    accept_loop(sockets, &b)
  }
end

.tcp_server_sockets(host = nil, port) ⇒ Object

creates TCP/IP server sockets for host and port. host is optional.

If no block given, it returns an array of listening sockets.

If a block is given, the block is called with the sockets. The value of the block is returned. The socket is closed when this method returns.

If port is 0, actual port number is chosen dynamically. However all sockets in the result has same port number.

# tcp_server_sockets returns two sockets.
sockets = Socket.tcp_server_sockets(1296)
p sockets #=> [#<Socket:fd 3>, #<Socket:fd 4>]

# The sockets contains IPv6 and IPv4 sockets.
sockets.each {|s| p s.local_address }
#=> #<Addrinfo: [::]:1296 TCP>
#   #<Addrinfo: 0.0.0.0:1296 TCP>

# IPv6 and IPv4 socket has same port number, 53114, even if it is chosen dynamically.
sockets = Socket.tcp_server_sockets(0)
sockets.each {|s| p s.local_address }
#=> #<Addrinfo: [::]:53114 TCP>
#   #<Addrinfo: 0.0.0.0:53114 TCP>

# The block is called with the sockets.
Socket.tcp_server_sockets(0) {|sockets|
  p sockets #=> [#<Socket:fd 3>, #<Socket:fd 4>]
}


452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 452

def self.tcp_server_sockets(host=nil, port)
  if port == 0
    sockets = tcp_server_sockets_port0(host)
  else
    last_error = nil
    sockets = []
    begin
      Addrinfo.foreach(host, port, nil, :STREAM, nil, Socket::AI_PASSIVE) {|ai|
        begin
          s = ai.listen
        rescue SystemCallError
          last_error = $!
          next
        end
        sockets << s
      }
      if sockets.empty?
        raise last_error
      end
    rescue Exception
      sockets.each {|s| s.close }
      raise
    end
  end
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield sockets
    ensure
      sockets.each {|s| s.close if !s.closed? }
    end
  else
    sockets
  end
end

.udp_server_loop(host = nil, port, &b) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

Socket.udp_server_loop(port) {|msg, msg_src| ... }
Socket.udp_server_loop(host, port) {|msg, msg_src| ... }

creates a UDP/IP server on port and calls the block for each message arrived. The block is called with the message and its source information.

This method allocates sockets internally using port. If host is specified, it is used conjunction with port to determine the server addresses.

The msg is a string.

The msg_src is a Socket::UDPSource object. It is used for reply.

# UDP/IP echo server.
Socket.udp_server_loop(9261) {|msg, msg_src|
  msg_src.reply msg
}


727
728
729
730
731
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 727

def self.udp_server_loop(host=nil, port, &b) # :yield: message, message_source
  udp_server_sockets(host, port) {|sockets|
    udp_server_loop_on(sockets, &b)
  }
end

.udp_server_loop_on(sockets, &b) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

Socket.udp_server_loop_on(sockets) {|msg, msg_src| ... }

Run UDP/IP server loop on the given sockets.

The return value of Socket.udp_server_sockets is appropriate for the argument.

It calls the block for each message received.



700
701
702
703
704
705
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 700

def self.udp_server_loop_on(sockets, &b) # :yield: msg, msg_src
  loop {
    readable, _, _ = IO.select(sockets)
    udp_server_recv(readable, &b)
  }
end

.udp_server_recv(sockets) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

Socket.udp_server_recv(sockets) {|msg, msg_src| ... }

Receive UDP/IP packets from the given sockets. For each packet received, the block is called.

The block receives msg and msg_src. msg is a string which is the payload of the received packet. msg_src is a Socket::UDPSource object which is used for reply.

Socket.udp_server_loop can be implemented using this method as follows.

udp_server_sockets(host, port) {|sockets|
  loop {
    readable, _, _ = IO.select(sockets)
    udp_server_recv(readable) {|msg, msg_src| ... }
  }
}


670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 670

def self.udp_server_recv(sockets)
  sockets.each {|r|
    begin
      msg, sender_addrinfo, _, *controls = r.recvmsg_nonblock
    rescue IO::WaitReadable
      next
    end
    ai = r.local_address
    if ai.ipv6? and pktinfo = controls.find {|c| c.cmsg_is?(:IPV6, :PKTINFO) }
      ai = Addrinfo.udp(pktinfo.ipv6_pktinfo_addr.ip_address, ai.ip_port)
      yield msg, UDPSource.new(sender_addrinfo, ai) {|reply_msg|
        r.sendmsg reply_msg, 0, sender_addrinfo, pktinfo
      }
    else
      yield msg, UDPSource.new(sender_addrinfo, ai) {|reply_msg|
        r.send reply_msg, 0, sender_addrinfo
      }
    end
  }
end

.udp_server_sockets(host = nil, port) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

Socket.udp_server_sockets([host, ] port)

Creates UDP/IP sockets for a UDP server.

If no block given, it returns an array of sockets.

If a block is given, the block is called with the sockets. The value of the block is returned. The sockets are closed when this method returns.

If port is zero, some port is chosen. But the chosen port is used for the all sockets.

# UDP/IP echo server
Socket.udp_server_sockets(0) {|sockets|
  p sockets.first.local_address.ip_port     #=> 32963
  Socket.udp_server_loop_on(sockets) {|msg, msg_src|
    msg_src.reply msg
  }
}


583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 583

def self.udp_server_sockets(host=nil, port)
  last_error = nil
  sockets = []

  ipv6_recvpktinfo = nil
  if defined? Socket::AncillaryData
    if defined? Socket::IPV6_RECVPKTINFO # RFC 3542
      ipv6_recvpktinfo = Socket::IPV6_RECVPKTINFO
    elsif defined? Socket::IPV6_PKTINFO # RFC 2292
      ipv6_recvpktinfo = Socket::IPV6_PKTINFO
    end
  end

  local_addrs = Socket.ip_address_list

  ip_list = []
  Addrinfo.foreach(host, port, nil, :DGRAM, nil, Socket::AI_PASSIVE) {|ai|
    if ai.ipv4? && ai.ip_address == "0.0.0.0"
      local_addrs.each {|a|
        next if !a.ipv4?
        ip_list << Addrinfo.new(a.to_sockaddr, :INET, :DGRAM, 0);
      }
    elsif ai.ipv6? && ai.ip_address == "::" && !ipv6_recvpktinfo
      local_addrs.each {|a|
        next if !a.ipv6?
        ip_list << Addrinfo.new(a.to_sockaddr, :INET6, :DGRAM, 0);
      }
    else
      ip_list << ai
    end
  }

  if port == 0
    sockets = ip_sockets_port0(ip_list, false)
  else
    ip_list.each {|ip|
      ai = Addrinfo.udp(ip.ip_address, port)
      begin
        s = ai.bind
      rescue SystemCallError
        last_error = $!
        next
      end
      sockets << s
    }
    if sockets.empty?
      raise last_error
    end
  end

  sockets.each {|s|
    ai = s.local_address
    if ipv6_recvpktinfo && ai.ipv6? && ai.ip_address == "::"
      s.setsockopt(:IPV6, ipv6_recvpktinfo, 1)
    end
  }

  if block_given?
    begin
      yield sockets
    ensure
      sockets.each {|s| s.close if !s.closed? } if sockets
    end
  else
    sockets
  end
end

.unix(path) ⇒ Object

creates a new socket connected to path using UNIX socket socket.

If a block is given, the block is called with the socket. The value of the block is returned. The socket is closed when this method returns.

If no block is given, the socket is returned.

# talk to /tmp/sock socket.
Socket.unix("/tmp/sock") {|sock|
  t = Thread.new { IO.copy_stream(sock, STDOUT) }
  IO.copy_stream(STDIN, sock)
  t.join
}


777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 777

def self.unix(path) # :yield: socket
  addr = Addrinfo.unix(path)
  sock = addr.connect
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield sock
    ensure
      sock.close if !sock.closed?
    end
  else
    sock
  end
end

.unix_server_loop(path, &b) ⇒ Object

creates a UNIX socket server on path. It calls the block for each socket accepted.

If host is specified, it is used with port to determine the server ports.

The socket is not closed when the block returns. So application should close it.

This method deletes the socket file pointed by path at first if the file is a socket file and it is owned by the user of the application. This is safe only if the directory of path is not changed by a malicious user. So don't use /tmp/malicious-users-directory/socket. Note that /tmp/socket and /tmp/your-private-directory/socket is safe assuming that /tmp has sticky bit.

# Sequential echo server.
# It services only one client at a time.
Socket.unix_server_loop("/tmp/sock") {|sock, client_addrinfo|
  begin
    IO.copy_stream(sock, sock)
  ensure
    sock.close
  end
}


864
865
866
867
868
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 864

def self.unix_server_loop(path, &b) # :yield: socket, client_addrinfo
  unix_server_socket(path) {|serv|
    accept_loop(serv, &b)
  }
end

.unix_server_socket(path) ⇒ Object

creates a UNIX server socket on path

If no block given, it returns a listening socket.

If a block is given, it is called with the socket and the block value is returned. When the block exits, the socket is closed and the socket file is removed.

socket = Socket.unix_server_socket("/tmp/s")
p socket                  #=> #<Socket:fd 3>
p socket.local_address    #=> #<Addrinfo: /tmp/s SOCK_STREAM>

Socket.unix_server_socket("/tmp/sock") {|s|
  p s                     #=> #<Socket:fd 3>
  p s.local_address       #=> # #<Addrinfo: /tmp/sock SOCK_STREAM>
}


807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 807

def self.unix_server_socket(path)
  if !unix_socket_abstract_name?(path)
    begin
      st = File.lstat(path)
    rescue Errno::ENOENT
    end
    if st && st.socket? && st.owned?
      File.unlink path
    end
  end
  s = Addrinfo.unix(path).listen
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield s
    ensure
      s.close if !s.closed?
      if !unix_socket_abstract_name?(path)
        File.unlink path
      end
    end
  else
    s
  end
end

.unpack_sockaddr_in(sockaddr) ⇒ Array

Unpacks sockaddr into port and ip_address.

sockaddr should be a string or an addrinfo for AF_INET/AF_INET6.

sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(80, "127.0.0.1")
p sockaddr #=> "\x02\x00\x00P\x7F\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
p Socket.unpack_sockaddr_in(sockaddr) #=> [80, "127.0.0.1"]


1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
# File 'socket.c', line 1501

static VALUE
sock_s_unpack_sockaddr_in(VALUE self, VALUE addr)
{
    struct sockaddr_in * sockaddr;
    VALUE host;

    sockaddr = (struct sockaddr_in*)SockAddrStringValuePtr(addr);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(addr) <
        (char*)&((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family +
        sizeof(((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family) -
        (char*)sockaddr)
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too short sockaddr");
    if (((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family != AF_INET
#ifdef INET6
        && ((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family != AF_INET6
#endif
        ) {
#ifdef INET6
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "not an AF_INET/AF_INET6 sockaddr");
#else
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "not an AF_INET sockaddr");
#endif
    }
    host = rsock_make_ipaddr((struct sockaddr*)sockaddr, RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr));
    OBJ_INFECT(host, addr);
    return rb_assoc_new(INT2NUM(ntohs(sockaddr->sin_port)), host);
}

.unpack_sockaddr_un(sockaddr) ⇒ Object

Unpacks sockaddr into path.

sockaddr should be a string or an addrinfo for AF_UNIX.

sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_un("/tmp/sock")
p Socket.unpack_sockaddr_un(sockaddr) #=> "/tmp/sock"


1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
# File 'socket.c', line 1572

static VALUE
sock_s_unpack_sockaddr_un(VALUE self, VALUE addr)
{
    struct sockaddr_un * sockaddr;
    VALUE path;

    sockaddr = (struct sockaddr_un*)SockAddrStringValuePtr(addr);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(addr) <
        (char*)&((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family +
        sizeof(((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family) -
        (char*)sockaddr)
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too short sockaddr");
    if (((struct sockaddr *)sockaddr)->sa_family != AF_UNIX) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "not an AF_UNIX sockaddr");
    }
    if (sizeof(struct sockaddr_un) < (size_t)RSTRING_LEN(addr)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "too long sockaddr_un - %ld longer than %d",
		 RSTRING_LEN(addr), (int)sizeof(struct sockaddr_un));
    }
    path = rsock_unixpath_str(sockaddr, RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr));
    OBJ_INFECT(path, addr);
    return path;
}

Instance Method Details

#acceptArray

Accepts a next connection. Returns a new Socket object and Addrinfo object.

serv = Socket.new(:INET, :STREAM, 0)
serv.listen(5)
c = Socket.new(:INET, :STREAM, 0)
c.connect(serv.connect_address)
p serv.accept #=> [#<Socket:fd 6>, #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:48555 TCP>]


865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
# File 'socket.c', line 865

static VALUE
sock_accept(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE sock2;
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    sock2 = rsock_s_accept(rb_cSocket,fptr->fd,&buf.addr,&len);

    return rb_assoc_new(sock2, rsock_io_socket_addrinfo(sock2, &buf.addr, len));
}

#accept_nonblockArray

Accepts an incoming connection using accept(2) after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor. It returns an array containing the accepted socket for the incoming connection, client_socket, and an Addrinfo, client_addrinfo.

Example

# In one script, start this first require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(2200, 'localhost') socket.bind(sockaddr) socket.listen(5) begin # emulate blocking accept client_socket, client_addrinfo = socket.accept_nonblock rescue IO::WaitReadable, Errno::EINTR IO.select() retry end puts “The client said, '#Socket.client_socketclient_socket.readlineclient_socket.readline.chomp'” client_socket.puts “Hello from script one!” socket.close

# In another script, start this second require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(2200, 'localhost') socket.connect(sockaddr) socket.puts “Hello from script 2.” puts “The server said, '#Socket.socketsocket.readlinesocket.readline.chomp'” socket.close

Refer to Socket#accept for the exceptions that may be thrown if the call to accept_nonblock fails.

Socket#accept_nonblock may raise any error corresponding to accept(2) failure, including Errno::EWOULDBLOCK.

If the exception is Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::AGAIN, Errno::ECONNABORTED or Errno::EPROTO, it is extended by IO::WaitReadable. So IO::WaitReadable can be used to rescue the exceptions for retrying accept_nonblock.

See

  • Socket#accept



930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
# File 'socket.c', line 930

static VALUE
sock_accept_nonblock(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE sock2;
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    sock2 = rsock_s_accept_nonblock(rb_cSocket, fptr, &buf.addr, &len);
    return rb_assoc_new(sock2, rsock_io_socket_addrinfo(sock2, &buf.addr, len));
}

#bind(local_sockaddr) ⇒ 0

Binds to the given local address.

Parameter

  • local_sockaddr - the struct sockaddr contained in a string or an Addrinfo object

Example

require 'socket'

# use Addrinfo socket = Socket.new(:INET, :STREAM, 0) socket.bind(Addrinfo.tcp(“127.0.0.1”, 2222)) p socket.local_address #=> #<Addrinfo: 127.0.0.1:2222 TCP>

# use struct sockaddr include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.bind( sockaddr )

Unix-based Exceptions

On unix-based based systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to bind fails:

  • Errno::EACCES - the specified sockaddr is protected and the current user does not have permission to bind to it

  • Errno::EADDRINUSE - the specified sockaddr is already in use

  • Errno::EADDRNOTAVAIL - the specified sockaddr is not available from the local machine

  • Errno::EAFNOSUPPORT - the specified sockaddr is not a valid address for the family of the calling socket

  • Errno::EBADF - the sockaddr specified is not a valid file descriptor

  • Errno::EFAULT - the sockaddr argument cannot be accessed

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket is already bound to an address, and the protocol does not support binding to the new sockaddr or the socket has been shut down.

  • Errno::EINVAL - the address length is not a valid length for the address family

  • Errno::ENAMETOOLONG - the pathname resolved had a length which exceeded PATH_MAX

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - no buffer space is available

  • Errno::ENOSR - there were insufficient STREAMS resources available to complete the operation

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket does not refer to a socket

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - the socket type of the socket does not support binding to an address

On unix-based based systems if the address family of the calling socket is Socket::AF_UNIX the follow exceptions may be raised if the call to bind fails:

  • Errno::EACCES - search permission is denied for a component of the prefix path or write access to the socket is denied

  • Errno::EDESTADDRREQ - the sockaddr argument is a null pointer

  • Errno::EISDIR - same as Errno::EDESTADDRREQ

  • Errno::EIO - an i/o error occurred

  • Errno::ELOOP - too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname in sockaddr

  • Errno::ENAMETOOLLONG - a component of a pathname exceeded NAME_MAX characters, or an entire pathname exceeded PATH_MAX characters

  • Errno::ENOENT - a component of the pathname does not name an existing file or the pathname is an empty string

  • Errno::ENOTDIR - a component of the path prefix of the pathname in sockaddr is not a directory

  • Errno::EROFS - the name would reside on a read only filesystem

Windows Exceptions

On Windows systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to bind fails:

  • Errno::ENETDOWN– the network is down

  • Errno::EACCES - the attempt to connect the datagram socket to the broadcast address failed

  • Errno::EADDRINUSE - the socket's local address is already in use

  • Errno::EADDRNOTAVAIL - the specified address is not a valid address for this computer

  • Errno::EFAULT - the socket's internal address or address length parameter is too small or is not a valid part of the user space addressed

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket is already bound to an address

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - no buffer space is available

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket argument does not refer to a socket

See

  • bind manual pages on unix-based systems

  • bind function in Microsoft's Winsock functions reference



574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
# File 'socket.c', line 574

static VALUE
sock_bind(VALUE sock, VALUE addr)
{
    VALUE rai;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    SockAddrStringValueWithAddrinfo(addr, rai);
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (bind(fptr->fd, (struct sockaddr*)RSTRING_PTR(addr), RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr)) < 0)
	rsock_sys_fail_raddrinfo_or_sockaddr("bind(2)", addr, rai);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#connect(remote_sockaddr) ⇒ 0

Requests a connection to be made on the given remote_sockaddr. Returns 0 if successful, otherwise an exception is raised.

Parameter

  • remote_sockaddr - the struct sockaddr contained in a string or Addrinfo object

Example:

# Pull down Google's web page require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 80, 'www.google.com' ) socket.connect( sockaddr ) socket.write( “GET / HTTP/1.0rnrn” ) results = socket.read

Unix-based Exceptions

On unix-based systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to connect fails:

  • Errno::EACCES - search permission is denied for a component of the prefix path or write access to the socket is denied

  • Errno::EADDRINUSE - the sockaddr is already in use

  • Errno::EADDRNOTAVAIL - the specified sockaddr is not available from the local machine

  • Errno::EAFNOSUPPORT - the specified sockaddr is not a valid address for the address family of the specified socket

  • Errno::EALREADY - a connection is already in progress for the specified socket

  • Errno::EBADF - the socket is not a valid file descriptor

  • Errno::ECONNREFUSED - the target sockaddr was not listening for connections refused the connection request

  • Errno::ECONNRESET - the remote host reset the connection request

  • Errno::EFAULT - the sockaddr cannot be accessed

  • Errno::EHOSTUNREACH - the destination host cannot be reached (probably because the host is down or a remote router cannot reach it)

  • Errno::EINPROGRESS - the O_NONBLOCK is set for the socket and the connection cannot be immediately established; the connection will be established asynchronously

  • Errno::EINTR - the attempt to establish the connection was interrupted by delivery of a signal that was caught; the connection will be established asynchronously

  • Errno::EISCONN - the specified socket is already connected

  • Errno::EINVAL - the address length used for the sockaddr is not a valid length for the address family or there is an invalid family in sockaddr

  • Errno::ENAMETOOLONG - the pathname resolved had a length which exceeded PATH_MAX

  • Errno::ENETDOWN - the local interface used to reach the destination is down

  • Errno::ENETUNREACH - no route to the network is present

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - no buffer space is available

  • Errno::ENOSR - there were insufficient STREAMS resources available to complete the operation

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket argument does not refer to a socket

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - the calling socket is listening and cannot be connected

  • Errno::EPROTOTYPE - the sockaddr has a different type than the socket bound to the specified peer address

  • Errno::ETIMEDOUT - the attempt to connect time out before a connection was made.

On unix-based systems if the address family of the calling socket is AF_UNIX the follow exceptions may be raised if the call to connect fails:

  • Errno::EIO - an i/o error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system

  • Errno::ELOOP - too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname in sockaddr

  • Errno::ENAMETOOLLONG - a component of a pathname exceeded NAME_MAX characters, or an entire pathname exceeded PATH_MAX characters

  • Errno::ENOENT - a component of the pathname does not name an existing file or the pathname is an empty string

  • Errno::ENOTDIR - a component of the path prefix of the pathname in sockaddr is not a directory

Windows Exceptions

On Windows systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to connect fails:

  • Errno::ENETDOWN - the network is down

  • Errno::EADDRINUSE - the socket's local address is already in use

  • Errno::EINTR - the socket was cancelled

  • Errno::EINPROGRESS - a blocking socket is in progress or the service provider is still processing a callback function. Or a nonblocking connect call is in progress on the socket.

  • Errno::EALREADY - see Errno::EINVAL

  • Errno::EADDRNOTAVAIL - the remote address is not a valid address, such as ADDR_ANY TODO check ADDRANY TO INADDR_ANY

  • Errno::EAFNOSUPPORT - addresses in the specified family cannot be used with with this socket

  • Errno::ECONNREFUSED - the target sockaddr was not listening for connections refused the connection request

  • Errno::EFAULT - the socket's internal address or address length parameter is too small or is not a valid part of the user space address

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket is a listening socket

  • Errno::EISCONN - the socket is already connected

  • Errno::ENETUNREACH - the network cannot be reached from this host at this time

  • Errno::EHOSTUNREACH - no route to the network is present

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - no buffer space is available

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket argument does not refer to a socket

  • Errno::ETIMEDOUT - the attempt to connect time out before a connection was made.

  • Errno::EWOULDBLOCK - the socket is marked as nonblocking and the connection cannot be completed immediately

  • Errno::EACCES - the attempt to connect the datagram socket to the broadcast address failed

See

  • connect manual pages on unix-based systems

  • connect function in Microsoft's Winsock functions reference



406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
# File 'socket.c', line 406

static VALUE
sock_connect(VALUE sock, VALUE addr)
{
    VALUE rai;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int fd, n;

    SockAddrStringValueWithAddrinfo(addr, rai);
    addr = rb_str_new4(addr);
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    fd = fptr->fd;
    n = rsock_connect(fd, (struct sockaddr*)RSTRING_PTR(addr), RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr), 0);
    if (n < 0) {
	rsock_sys_fail_raddrinfo_or_sockaddr("connect(2)", addr, rai);
    }

    return INT2FIX(n);
}

#connect_nonblock(remote_sockaddr) ⇒ 0

Requests a connection to be made on the given remote_sockaddr after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor. Returns 0 if successful, otherwise an exception is raised.

Parameter

  • remote_sockaddr - the struct sockaddr contained in a string or Addrinfo object

Example:

# Pull down Google's web page require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(80, 'www.google.com') begin # emulate blocking connect socket.connect_nonblock(sockaddr) rescue IO::WaitWritable IO.select(nil, [socket]) # wait 3-way handshake completion begin socket.connect_nonblock(sockaddr) # check connection failure rescue Errno::EISCONN end end socket.write(“GET / HTTP/1.0rnrn”) results = socket.read

Refer to Socket#connect for the exceptions that may be thrown if the call to connect_nonblock fails.

Socket#connect_nonblock may raise any error corresponding to connect(2) failure, including Errno::EINPROGRESS.

If the exception is Errno::EINPROGRESS, it is extended by IO::WaitWritable. So IO::WaitWritable can be used to rescue the exceptions for retrying connect_nonblock.

See

  • Socket#connect



467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
# File 'socket.c', line 467

static VALUE
sock_connect_nonblock(VALUE sock, VALUE addr)
{
    VALUE rai;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int n;

    SockAddrStringValueWithAddrinfo(addr, rai);
    addr = rb_str_new4(addr);
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    rb_io_set_nonblock(fptr);
    n = connect(fptr->fd, (struct sockaddr*)RSTRING_PTR(addr), RSTRING_SOCKLEN(addr));
    if (n < 0) {
        if (errno == EINPROGRESS)
            rb_readwrite_sys_fail(RB_IO_WAIT_WRITABLE, "connect(2) would block");
	rsock_sys_fail_raddrinfo_or_sockaddr("connect(2)", addr, rai);
    }

    return INT2FIX(n);
}

#ipv6only!Object

enable the socket option IPV6_V6ONLY if IPV6_V6ONLY is available.



282
283
284
285
286
# File 'lib/socket.rb', line 282

def ipv6only!
  if defined? Socket::IPV6_V6ONLY
    self.setsockopt(:IPV6, :V6ONLY, 1)
  end
end

#listen(int) ⇒ 0

Listens for connections, using the specified int as the backlog. A call to listen only applies if the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_SEQPACKET.

Parameter

  • backlog - the maximum length of the queue for pending connections.

Example 1

require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.bind( sockaddr ) socket.listen( 5 )

Example 2 (listening on an arbitrary port, unix-based systems only):

require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) socket.listen( 1 )

Unix-based Exceptions

On unix based systems the above will work because a new sockaddr struct is created on the address ADDR_ANY, for an arbitrary port number as handed off by the kernel. It will not work on Windows, because Windows requires that the socket is bound by calling bind before it can listen.

If the backlog amount exceeds the implementation-dependent maximum queue length, the implementation's maximum queue length will be used.

On unix-based based systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to listen fails:

  • Errno::EBADF - the socket argument is not a valid file descriptor

  • Errno::EDESTADDRREQ - the socket is not bound to a local address, and the protocol does not support listening on an unbound socket

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket is already connected

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket argument does not refer to a socket

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - the socket protocol does not support listen

  • Errno::EACCES - the calling process does not have appropriate privileges

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket has been shut down

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - insufficient resources are available in the system to complete the call

Windows Exceptions

On Windows systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to listen fails:

  • Errno::ENETDOWN - the network is down

  • Errno::EADDRINUSE - the socket's local address is already in use. This usually occurs during the execution of bind but could be delayed if the call to bind was to a partially wildcard address (involving ADDR_ANY) and if a specific address needs to be committed at the time of the call to listen

  • Errno::EINPROGRESS - a Windows Sockets 1.1 call is in progress or the service provider is still processing a callback function

  • Errno::EINVAL - the socket has not been bound with a call to bind.

  • Errno::EISCONN - the socket is already connected

  • Errno::EMFILE - no more socket descriptors are available

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - no buffer space is available

  • Errno::ENOTSOC - socket is not a socket

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - the referenced socket is not a type that supports the listen method

See

  • listen manual pages on unix-based systems

  • listen function in Microsoft's Winsock functions reference



658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
# File 'socket.c', line 658

VALUE
rsock_sock_listen(VALUE sock, VALUE log)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int backlog;

    backlog = NUM2INT(log);
    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    if (listen(fptr->fd, backlog) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail("listen(2)");

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

#recvfrom(maxlen) ⇒ Array #recvfrom(maxlen, flags) ⇒ Array

Receives up to maxlen bytes from socket. flags is zero or more of the MSG_ options. The first element of the results, mesg, is the data received. The second element, sender_addrinfo, contains protocol-specific address information of the sender.

Parameters

  • maxlen - the maximum number of bytes to receive from the socket

  • flags - zero or more of the MSG_ options

Example

# In one file, start this first require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.bind( sockaddr ) socket.listen( 5 ) client, client_addrinfo = socket.accept data = client.recvfrom( 20 )[0].chomp puts “I only received 20 bytes '#data'” sleep 1 socket.close

# In another file, start this second require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.connect( sockaddr ) socket.puts “Watch this get cut short!” socket.close

Unix-based Exceptions

On unix-based based systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to recvfrom fails:

  • Errno::EAGAIN - the socket file descriptor is marked as O_NONBLOCK and no data is waiting to be received; or MSG_OOB is set and no out-of-band data is available and either the socket file descriptor is marked as O_NONBLOCK or the socket does not support blocking to wait for out-of-band-data

  • Errno::EWOULDBLOCK - see Errno::EAGAIN

  • Errno::EBADF - the socket is not a valid file descriptor

  • Errno::ECONNRESET - a connection was forcibly closed by a peer

  • Errno::EFAULT - the socket's internal buffer, address or address length cannot be accessed or written

  • Errno::EINTR - a signal interrupted recvfrom before any data was available

  • Errno::EINVAL - the MSG_OOB flag is set and no out-of-band data is available

  • Errno::EIO - an i/o error occurred while reading from or writing to the filesystem

  • Errno::ENOBUFS - insufficient resources were available in the system to perform the operation

  • Errno::ENOMEM - insufficient memory was available to fulfill the request

  • Errno::ENOSR - there were insufficient STREAMS resources available to complete the operation

  • Errno::ENOTCONN - a receive is attempted on a connection-mode socket that is not connected

  • Errno::ENOTSOCK - the socket does not refer to a socket

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - the specified flags are not supported for this socket type

  • Errno::ETIMEDOUT - the connection timed out during connection establishment or due to a transmission timeout on an active connection

Windows Exceptions

On Windows systems the following system exceptions may be raised if the call to recvfrom fails:

  • Errno::ENETDOWN - the network is down

  • Errno::EFAULT - the internal buffer and from parameters on socket are not part of the user address space, or the internal fromlen parameter is too small to accommodate the peer address

  • Errno::EINTR - the (blocking) call was cancelled by an internal call to the WinSock function WSACancelBlockingCall

  • Errno::EINPROGRESS - a blocking Windows Sockets 1.1 call is in progress or the service provider is still processing a callback function

  • Errno::EINVAL - socket has not been bound with a call to bind, or an unknown flag was specified, or MSG_OOB was specified for a socket with SO_OOBINLINE enabled, or (for byte stream-style sockets only) the internal len parameter on socket was zero or negative

  • Errno::EISCONN - socket is already connected. The call to recvfrom is not permitted with a connected socket on a socket that is connection oriented or connectionless.

  • Errno::ENETRESET - the connection has been broken due to the keep-alive activity detecting a failure while the operation was in progress.

  • Errno::EOPNOTSUPP - MSG_OOB was specified, but socket is not stream-style such as type SOCK_STREAM. OOB data is not supported in the communication domain associated with socket, or socket is unidirectional and supports only send operations

  • Errno::ESHUTDOWN - socket has been shutdown. It is not possible to call recvfrom on a socket after shutdown has been invoked.

  • Errno::EWOULDBLOCK - socket is marked as nonblocking and a call to recvfrom would block.

  • Errno::EMSGSIZE - the message was too large to fit into the specified buffer and was truncated.

  • Errno::ETIMEDOUT - the connection has been dropped, because of a network failure or because the system on the other end went down without notice

  • Errno::ECONNRESET - the virtual circuit was reset by the remote side executing a hard or abortive close. The application should close the socket; it is no longer usable. On a UDP-datagram socket this error indicates a previous send operation resulted in an ICMP Port Unreachable message.



777
778
779
780
781
# File 'socket.c', line 777

static VALUE
sock_recvfrom(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return rsock_s_recvfrom(sock, argc, argv, RECV_SOCKET);
}

#recvfrom_nonblock(maxlen) ⇒ Array #recvfrom_nonblock(maxlen, flags) ⇒ Array

Receives up to maxlen bytes from socket using recvfrom(2) after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor. flags is zero or more of the MSG_ options. The first element of the results, mesg, is the data received. The second element, sender_addrinfo, contains protocol-specific address information of the sender.

When recvfrom(2) returns 0, Socket#recvfrom_nonblock returns an empty string as data. The meaning depends on the socket: EOF on TCP, empty packet on UDP, etc.

Parameters

  • maxlen - the maximum number of bytes to receive from the socket

  • flags - zero or more of the MSG_ options

Example

# In one file, start this first require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(2200, 'localhost') socket.bind(sockaddr) socket.listen(5) client, client_addrinfo = socket.accept begin # emulate blocking recvfrom pair = client.recvfrom_nonblock(20) rescue IO::WaitReadable IO.select() retry end data = pair.chomp puts “I only received 20 bytes '#data'” sleep 1 socket.close

# In another file, start this second require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) sockaddr = Socket.sockaddr_in(2200, 'localhost') socket.connect(sockaddr) socket.puts “Watch this get cut short!” socket.close

Refer to Socket#recvfrom for the exceptions that may be thrown if the call to recvfrom_nonblock fails.

Socket#recvfrom_nonblock may raise any error corresponding to recvfrom(2) failure, including Errno::EWOULDBLOCK.

If the exception is Errno::EWOULDBLOCK or Errno::AGAIN, it is extended by IO::WaitReadable. So IO::WaitReadable can be used to rescue the exceptions for retrying recvfrom_nonblock.

See

  • Socket#recvfrom



845
846
847
848
849
# File 'socket.c', line 845

static VALUE
sock_recvfrom_nonblock(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE sock)
{
    return rsock_s_recvfrom_nonblock(sock, argc, argv, RECV_SOCKET);
}

#sysacceptArray

Accepts an incoming connection returning an array containing the (integer) file descriptor for the incoming connection, client_socket_fd, and an Addrinfo, client_addrinfo.

Example

# In one script, start this first require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.bind( sockaddr ) socket.listen( 5 ) client_fd, client_addrinfo = socket.sysaccept client_socket = Socket.for_fd( client_fd ) puts “The client said, '#Socket.client_socketclient_socket.readlineclient_socket.readline.chomp'” client_socket.puts “Hello from script one!” socket.close

# In another script, start this second require 'socket' include Socket::Constants socket = Socket.new( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 ) sockaddr = Socket.pack_sockaddr_in( 2200, 'localhost' ) socket.connect( sockaddr ) socket.puts “Hello from script 2.” puts “The server said, '#Socket.socketsocket.readlinesocket.readline.chomp'” socket.close

Refer to Socket#accept for the exceptions that may be thrown if the call to sysaccept fails.

See

  • Socket#accept



981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
# File 'socket.c', line 981

static VALUE
sock_sysaccept(VALUE sock)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE sock2;
    union_sockaddr buf;
    socklen_t len = (socklen_t)sizeof buf;

    GetOpenFile(sock, fptr);
    sock2 = rsock_s_accept(0,fptr->fd,&buf.addr,&len);

    return rb_assoc_new(sock2, rsock_io_socket_addrinfo(sock2, &buf.addr, len));
}