Class: Dir

Inherits:
Object show all
Includes:
Enumerable
Defined in:
dir.c

Overview

Objects of class Dir are directory streams representing directories in the underlying file system. They provide a variety of ways to list directories and their contents. See also File.

The directory used in these examples contains the two regular files (config.h and main.rb), the parent directory (..), and the directory itself (.).

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Enumerable

#all?, #any?, #chunk, #chunk_while, #collect, #collect_concat, #count, #cycle, #detect, #drop, #drop_while, #each_cons, #each_entry, #each_slice, #each_with_index, #each_with_object, #entries, #find, #find_all, #find_index, #first, #flat_map, #grep, #grep_v, #group_by, #include?, #inject, #lazy, #map, #max, #max_by, #member?, #min, #min_by, #minmax, #minmax_by, #none?, #one?, #partition, #reduce, #reject, #reverse_each, #select, #slice_after, #slice_before, #slice_when, #sort, #sort_by, #take, #take_while, #to_a, #to_h, #zip

Constructor Details

#new(string) ⇒ Dir #new(string, encoding: enc) ⇒ Dir

Returns a new directory object for the named directory.

The optional enc argument specifies the encoding of the directory. If not specified, the filesystem encoding is used.



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# File 'dir.c', line 484

static VALUE
dir_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dp;
    rb_encoding  *fsenc;
    VALUE dirname, opt, orig;
    static ID keyword_ids[1];
    const char *path;

    if (!keyword_ids[0]) {
	keyword_ids[0] = rb_id_encoding();
    }

    fsenc = rb_filesystem_encoding();

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1:", &dirname, &opt);

    if (!NIL_P(opt)) {
	VALUE enc;
	rb_get_kwargs(opt, keyword_ids, 0, 1, &enc);
	if (enc != Qundef && !NIL_P(enc)) {
	    fsenc = rb_to_encoding(enc);
	}
    }

    GlobPathValue(dirname, FALSE);
    orig = rb_str_dup_frozen(dirname);
    dirname = rb_str_encode_ospath(dirname);
    dirname = rb_str_dup_frozen(dirname);

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dp);
    if (dp->dir) closedir(dp->dir);
    dp->dir = NULL;
    dp->path = Qnil;
    dp->enc = fsenc;
    path = RSTRING_PTR(dirname);
    dp->dir = opendir(path);
    if (dp->dir == NULL) {
	if (rb_gc_for_fd(errno)) {
	    dp->dir = opendir(path);
	}
#ifdef HAVE_GETATTRLIST
	else if (errno == EIO) {
	    u_int32_t attrbuf[1];
	    struct attrlist al = {ATTR_BIT_MAP_COUNT, 0};
	    if (getattrlist(path, &al, attrbuf, sizeof(attrbuf), FSOPT_NOFOLLOW) == 0) {
		dp->dir = opendir(path);
	    }
	}
#endif
	if (dp->dir == NULL) {
	    RB_GC_GUARD(dirname);
	    rb_sys_fail_path(orig);
	}
    }
    dp->path = orig;

    return dir;
}

Class Method Details

.[](string[, string ...)) ⇒ Array

Equivalent to calling Dir.glob([string,...],0).



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# File 'dir.c', line 2224

static VALUE
dir_s_aref(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    if (argc == 1) {
	return rb_push_glob(argv[0], 0);
    }
    return dir_globs(argc, argv, 0);
}

.chdir([ string]) ⇒ 0 .chdir([ string]) {|path| ... } ⇒ Object

Changes the current working directory of the process to the given string. When called without an argument, changes the directory to the value of the environment variable HOME, or LOGDIR. SystemCallError (probably Errno::ENOENT) if the target directory does not exist.

If a block is given, it is passed the name of the new current directory, and the block is executed with that as the current directory. The original working directory is restored when the block exits. The return value of chdir is the value of the block. chdir blocks can be nested, but in a multi-threaded program an error will be raised if a thread attempts to open a chdir block while another thread has one open.

Dir.chdir("/var/spool/mail")
puts Dir.pwd
Dir.chdir("/tmp") do
  puts Dir.pwd
  Dir.chdir("/usr") do
    puts Dir.pwd
  end
  puts Dir.pwd
end
puts Dir.pwd

produces:

/var/spool/mail
/tmp
/usr
/tmp
/var/spool/mail

Overloads:

  • .chdir([ string]) {|path| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:



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# File 'dir.c', line 984

static VALUE
dir_s_chdir(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE path = Qnil;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &path) == 1) {
	FilePathValue(path);
	path = rb_str_encode_ospath(path);
    }
    else {
	const char *dist = getenv("HOME");
	if (!dist) {
	    dist = getenv("LOGDIR");
	    if (!dist) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "HOME/LOGDIR not set");
	}
	path = rb_str_new2(dist);
    }

    if (chdir_blocking > 0) {
	if (!rb_block_given_p() || rb_thread_current() != chdir_thread)
	    rb_warn("conflicting chdir during another chdir block");
    }

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	struct chdir_data args;

	args.old_path = rb_str_encode_ospath(rb_dir_getwd());
	args.new_path = path;
	args.done = FALSE;
	return rb_ensure(chdir_yield, (VALUE)&args, chdir_restore, (VALUE)&args);
    }
    dir_chdir(path);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.chroot(string) ⇒ 0

Changes this process's idea of the file system root. Only a privileged process may make this call. Not available on all platforms. On Unix systems, see chroot(2) for more information.



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# File 'dir.c', line 1089

static VALUE
dir_s_chroot(VALUE dir, VALUE path)
{
    path = check_dirname(path);
    if (chroot(RSTRING_PTR(path)) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.delete(string) ⇒ 0 .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0 .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.



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# File 'dir.c', line 1146

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    if (rmdir(RSTRING_PTR(dir)) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.entries(dirname) ⇒ Array .entries(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Array

Returns an array containing all of the filenames in the given directory. Will raise a SystemCallError if the named directory doesn't exist.

The optional enc argument specifies the encoding of the directory. If not specified, the filesystem encoding is used.

Dir.entries("testdir")   #=> [".", "..", "config.h", "main.rb"]


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# File 'dir.c', line 2394

static VALUE
dir_entries(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    return rb_ensure(rb_Array, dir, dir_close, dir);
}

.exist?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the named file is a directory, false otherwise.



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# File 'dir.c', line 2594

VALUE
rb_file_directory_p(void)
{
}

.exists?(file_name) ⇒ Boolean

Deprecated method. Don't use.



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# File 'dir.c', line 2606

static VALUE
rb_dir_exists_p(VALUE obj, VALUE fname)
{
    rb_warning("Dir.exists? is a deprecated name, use Dir.exist? instead");
    return rb_file_directory_p(obj, fname);
}

.foreach(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil .foreach(dirname) ⇒ Object .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) ⇒ Object

Calls the block once for each entry in the named directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

Dir.foreach("testdir") {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got .
Got ..
Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • .foreach(dirname) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)
  • .foreach(dirname, encoding: enc) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)


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# File 'dir.c', line 2368

static VALUE
dir_foreach(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE dir;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, argc, argv);
    dir = dir_open_dir(argc, argv);
    rb_ensure(dir_each, dir, dir_close, dir);
    return Qnil;
}

.getwdString .pwdString

Returns the path to the current working directory of this process as a string.

Dir.chdir("/tmp")   #=> 0
Dir.getwd           #=> "/tmp"
Dir.pwd             #=> "/tmp"


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# File 'dir.c', line 1053

static VALUE
dir_s_getwd(VALUE dir)
{
    return rb_dir_getwd();
}

.glob(pattern, [flags]) ⇒ Object .glob(pattern, [flags]) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

Expands pattern, which is an Array of patterns or a pattern String, and returns the results as matches or as arguments given to the block.

Note that this pattern is not a regexp, it's closer to a shell glob. See File::fnmatch for the meaning of the flags parameter. Note that case sensitivity depends on your system (so File::FNM_CASEFOLD is ignored), as does the order in which the results are returned.

*

Matches any file. Can be restricted by other values in the glob. Equivalent to / .* /x in regexp.

*

Matches all files

c*

Matches all files beginning with c

*c

Matches all files ending with c

*c*

Match all files that have c in them (including at the beginning or end).

Note, this will not match Unix-like hidden files (dotfiles). In order to include those in the match results, you must use the File::FNM_DOTMATCH flag or something like "{*,.*}".

**

Matches directories recursively.

?

Matches any one character. Equivalent to /.{1}/ in regexp.

[set]

Matches any one character in set. Behaves exactly like character sets in Regexp, including set negation ([^a-z]).

{p,q}

Matches either literal p or literal q. Equivalent to pattern alternation in regexp.

Matching literals may be more than one character in length. More than two literals may be specified.

\

Escapes the next metacharacter.

Note that this means you cannot use backslash on windows as part of a glob, i.e. Dir["c:\foo*"] will not work, use Dir["c:/foo*"] instead.

Examples:

Dir["config.?"]                     #=> ["config.h"]
Dir.glob("config.?")                #=> ["config.h"]
Dir.glob("*.[a-z][a-z]")            #=> ["main.rb"]
Dir.glob("*.[^r]*")                 #=> ["config.h"]
Dir.glob("*.{rb,h}")                #=> ["main.rb", "config.h"]
Dir.glob("*")                       #=> ["config.h", "main.rb"]
Dir.glob("*", File::FNM_DOTMATCH)   #=> [".", "..", "config.h", "main.rb"]

rbfiles = File.join("**", "*.rb")
Dir.glob(rbfiles)                   #=> ["main.rb",
                                    #    "lib/song.rb",
                                    #    "lib/song/karaoke.rb"]
libdirs = File.join("**", "lib")
Dir.glob(libdirs)                   #=> ["lib"]

librbfiles = File.join("**", "lib", "**", "*.rb")
Dir.glob(librbfiles)                #=> ["lib/song.rb",
                                    #    "lib/song/karaoke.rb"]

librbfiles = File.join("**", "lib", "*.rb")
Dir.glob(librbfiles)                #=> ["lib/song.rb"]

Overloads:

  • .glob(pattern, [flags]) {|filename| ... } ⇒ nil

    Yields:

    • (filename)


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# File 'dir.c', line 2308

static VALUE
dir_s_glob(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE str, rflags, ary;
    int flags;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &str, &rflags) == 2)
	flags = NUM2INT(rflags);
    else
	flags = 0;

    ary = rb_check_array_type(str);
    if (NIL_P(ary)) {
	ary = rb_push_glob(str, flags);
    }
    else {
	VALUE v = ary;
	ary = dir_globs(RARRAY_LEN(v), RARRAY_CONST_PTR(v), flags);
	RB_GC_GUARD(v);
    }

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	rb_ary_each(ary);
	return Qnil;
    }
    return ary;
}

.homeObject .home("root") ⇒ Object

Returns the home directory of the current user or the named user if given.



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# File 'dir.c', line 2565

static VALUE
dir_s_home(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE user;
    const char *u = 0;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    user = (argc > 0) ? argv[0] : Qnil;
    if (!NIL_P(user)) {
	SafeStringValue(user);
	rb_must_asciicompat(user);
	u = StringValueCStr(user);
	if (*u) {
	    return rb_home_dir_of(user, rb_str_new(0, 0));
	}
    }
    return rb_default_home_dir(rb_str_new(0, 0));

}

.mkdir(string[, integer]) ⇒ 0

Makes a new directory named by string, with permissions specified by the optional parameter anInteger. The permissions may be modified by the value of File::umask, and are ignored on NT. Raises a SystemCallError if the directory cannot be created. See also the discussion of permissions in the class documentation for File.

Dir.mkdir(File.join(Dir.home, ".foo"), 0700) #=> 0


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# File 'dir.c', line 1117

static VALUE
dir_s_mkdir(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE path, vmode;
    int mode;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &path, &vmode) == 2) {
	mode = NUM2INT(vmode);
    }
    else {
	mode = 0777;
    }

    path = check_dirname(path);
    if (mkdir(RSTRING_PTR(path), mode) == -1)
	rb_sys_fail_path(path);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.open(string) ⇒ Dir .open(string, encoding: enc) ⇒ Dir .open(string) {|aDir| ... } ⇒ Object .open(string, encoding: enc) {|aDir| ... } ⇒ Object

The optional enc argument specifies the encoding of the directory. If not specified, the filesystem encoding is used.

With no block, open is a synonym for Dir::new. If a block is present, it is passed aDir as a parameter. The directory is closed at the end of the block, and Dir::open returns the value of the block.

Overloads:

  • .open(string) {|aDir| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (aDir)
  • .open(string, encoding: enc) {|aDir| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (aDir)


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# File 'dir.c', line 560

static VALUE
dir_s_open(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    struct dir_data *dp;
    VALUE dir = TypedData_Make_Struct(klass, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dp);

    dir_initialize(argc, argv, dir);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	return rb_ensure(rb_yield, dir, dir_close, dir);
    }

    return dir;
}

.getwdString .pwdString

Returns the path to the current working directory of this process as a string.

Dir.chdir("/tmp")   #=> 0
Dir.getwd           #=> "/tmp"
Dir.pwd             #=> "/tmp"


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# File 'dir.c', line 1053

static VALUE
dir_s_getwd(VALUE dir)
{
    return rb_dir_getwd();
}

.delete(string) ⇒ 0 .rmdir(string) ⇒ 0 .unlink(string) ⇒ 0

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.



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# File 'dir.c', line 1146

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    if (rmdir(RSTRING_PTR(dir)) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

Deletes the named directory. Raises a subclass of SystemCallError if the directory isn't empty.



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# File 'dir.c', line 1146

static VALUE
dir_s_rmdir(VALUE obj, VALUE dir)
{
    dir = check_dirname(dir);
    if (rmdir(RSTRING_PTR(dir)) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail_path(dir);

    return INT2FIX(0);
}

Instance Method Details

#closenil

Closes the directory stream. Any further attempts to access dir will raise an IOError.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.close   #=> nil


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# File 'dir.c', line 894

static VALUE
dir_close(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    dirp = dir_get(dir);
    if (!dirp->dir) return Qnil;
    closedir(dirp->dir);
    dirp->dir = NULL;

    return Qnil;
}

#each {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir #eachObject

Calls the block once for each entry in this directory, passing the filename of each entry as a parameter to the block.

If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.each  {|x| puts "Got #{x}" }

produces:

Got .
Got ..
Got config.h
Got main.rb

Overloads:

  • #each {|filename| ... } ⇒ Dir

    Yields:

    • (filename)


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# File 'dir.c', line 752

static VALUE
dir_each(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    struct dirent *dp;
    IF_NORMALIZE_UTF8PATH(int norm_p);

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(dir, 0, 0);
    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    rewinddir(dirp->dir);
    IF_NORMALIZE_UTF8PATH(norm_p = need_normalization(dirp->dir, RSTRING_PTR(dirp->path)));
    while ((dp = READDIR(dirp->dir, dirp->enc)) != NULL) {
	const char *name = dp->d_name;
	size_t namlen = NAMLEN(dp);
	VALUE path;
#if NORMALIZE_UTF8PATH
	if (norm_p && has_nonascii(name, namlen) &&
	    !NIL_P(path = rb_str_normalize_ospath(name, namlen))) {
	    path = rb_external_str_with_enc(path, dirp->enc);
	}
	else
#endif
	path = rb_external_str_new_with_enc(name, namlen, dirp->enc);
	rb_yield(path);
	if (dirp->dir == NULL) dir_closed();
    }
    return dir;
}

#filenoInteger

Returns the file descriptor used in dir.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.fileno   #=> 8

This method uses dirfd() function defined by POSIX 2008. NotImplementedError is raised on other platforms, such as Windows, which doesn't provide the function.



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# File 'dir.c', line 649

static VALUE
dir_fileno(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    int fd;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    fd = dirfd(dirp->dir);
    if (fd == -1)
	rb_sys_fail("dirfd");
    return INT2NUM(fd);
}

#inspectString

Return a string describing this Dir object.



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# File 'dir.c', line 604

static VALUE
dir_inspect(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (!NIL_P(dirp->path)) {
	VALUE str = rb_str_new_cstr("#<");
	rb_str_append(str, rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(dir)));
	rb_str_cat2(str, ":");
	rb_str_append(str, dirp->path);
	rb_str_cat2(str, ">");
	return str;
    }
    return rb_funcallv(dir, rb_intern("to_s"), 0, 0);
}

#pathString? #to_pathString?

Returns the path parameter passed to dir's constructor.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.path   #=> ".."


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# File 'dir.c', line 675

static VALUE
dir_path(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (NIL_P(dirp->path)) return Qnil;
    return rb_str_dup(dirp->path);
}

#posInteger #tellInteger

Returns the current position in dir. See also Dir#seek.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.tell   #=> 0
d.read   #=> "."
d.tell   #=> 12


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# File 'dir.c', line 795

static VALUE
dir_tell(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long pos;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    pos = telldir(dirp->dir);
    return rb_int2inum(pos);
}

#pos=(integer) ⇒ Integer

Synonym for Dir#seek, but returns the position parameter.

d = Dir.new("testdir")   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> "."
i = d.pos                #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."
d.pos = i                #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."


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# File 'dir.c', line 853

static VALUE
dir_set_pos(VALUE dir, VALUE pos)
{
    dir_seek(dir, pos);
    return pos;
}

#readString?

Reads the next entry from dir and returns it as a string. Returns nil at the end of the stream.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.read   #=> "."
d.read   #=> ".."
d.read   #=> "config.h"


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# File 'dir.c', line 715

static VALUE
dir_read(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    struct dirent *dp;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    errno = 0;
    if ((dp = READDIR(dirp->dir, dirp->enc)) != NULL) {
	return rb_external_str_new_with_enc(dp->d_name, NAMLEN(dp), dirp->enc);
    }
    else {
	if (errno != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
	return Qnil;		/* end of stream */
    }
}

#rewindDir

Repositions dir to the first entry.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.read     #=> "."
d.rewind   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3fb0>
d.read     #=> "."


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# File 'dir.c', line 874

static VALUE
dir_rewind(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    rewinddir(dirp->dir);
    return dir;
}

#seek(integer) ⇒ Dir

Seeks to a particular location in dir. integer must be a value returned by Dir#tell.

d = Dir.new("testdir")   #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> "."
i = d.tell               #=> 12
d.read                   #=> ".."
d.seek(i)                #=> #<Dir:0x401b3c40>
d.read                   #=> ".."


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# File 'dir.c', line 824

static VALUE
dir_seek(VALUE dir, VALUE pos)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long p = NUM2LONG(pos);

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    seekdir(dirp->dir, p);
    return dir;
}

#posInteger #tellInteger

Returns the current position in dir. See also Dir#seek.

d = Dir.new("testdir")
d.tell   #=> 0
d.read   #=> "."
d.tell   #=> 12


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# File 'dir.c', line 795

static VALUE
dir_tell(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;
    long pos;

    GetDIR(dir, dirp);
    pos = telldir(dirp->dir);
    return rb_int2inum(pos);
}

#pathString? #to_pathString?

Returns the path parameter passed to dir's constructor.

d = Dir.new("..")
d.path   #=> ".."


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# File 'dir.c', line 675

static VALUE
dir_path(VALUE dir)
{
    struct dir_data *dirp;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(dir, struct dir_data, &dir_data_type, dirp);
    if (NIL_P(dirp->path)) return Qnil;
    return rb_str_dup(dirp->path);
}