Module: Capybara::Node::Finders

Included in:
Base, Simple
Defined in:
lib/capybara/node/finders.rb

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#all([kind = Capybara.default_selector], locator = nil, **options) ⇒ Capybara::Result #all([kind = Capybara.default_selector], locator = nil, **options) {|element| ... } ⇒ Capybara::Result Also known as: find_all

Find all elements on the page matching the given selector and options.

Both XPath and CSS expressions are supported, but Capybara does not try to automatically distinguish between them. The following statements are equivalent:

page.all(:css, 'a#person_123')
page.all(:xpath, './/a[@id="person_123"]')

If the type of selector is left out, Capybara uses Capybara.default_selector. It's set to :css by default.

page.all("a#person_123")

Capybara.default_selector = :xpath
page.all('.//a[@id="person_123"]')

The set of found elements can further be restricted by specifying options. It's possible to select elements by their text or visibility:

page.all('a', text: 'Home')
page.all('#menu li', visible: true)

By default Capybara's waiting behavior will wait up to `Capybara.default_max_wait_time` seconds for matching elements to be available and then return an empty result if none are available. It is possible to set expectations on the number of results located and Capybara will raise an exception if the number of elements located don't satisfy the specified conditions. The expectations can be set using

page.assert_selector('p#foo', count: 4)
page.assert_selector('p#foo', maximum: 10)
page.assert_selector('p#foo', minimum: 1)
page.assert_selector('p#foo', between: 1..10)

See Helpers#matches_count? for additional information about count matching.

Overloads:

  • #all([kind = Capybara.default_selector], locator = nil, **options) {|element| ... } ⇒ Capybara::Result

    Yield Parameters:

    Yield Returns:

    • (Boolean)

      Should the element be considered in the results?

Parameters:

  • kind (Symbol)

    Optional selector type (:css, :xpath, :field, etc.) - Defaults to Capybara.default_selector

  • locator (String) (defaults to: nil)

    The locator for the specified selector

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

Options Hash (**options):

  • text (String, Regexp)

    Only find elements which contain this text or match this regexp

  • exact_text (String, Boolean) — default: Capybara.exact_text

    When String the elements contained text must match exactly, when Boolean controls whether the :text option must match exactly

  • normalize_ws (Boolean) — default: Capybara.default_normalize_ws

    Whether the `text`/`exact_text` options are compared against elment text with whitespace normalized or as returned by the driver

  • visible (Boolean, Symbol)

    Only find elements with the specified visibility:

    • true - only finds visible elements.

    • false - finds invisible and visible elements.

    • :all - same as false; finds visible and invisible elements.

    • :hidden - only finds invisible elements.

    • :visible - same as true; only finds visible elements.

  • obscured (Boolean)

    Only find elements with the specified obscured state:

    • true - only find elements whose centerpoint is not in the viewport or is obscured by another non-descendant element.

    • false - only find elements whose centerpoint is in the viewport and is not obscured by other non-descendant elements.

  • id (String, Regexp)

    Only find elements with an id that matches the value passed

  • class (String, Array<String>, Regexp)

    Only find elements with matching class/classes. + Absence of a class can be checked by prefixing the class name with ! + If you need to check for existence of a class name that starts with ! then prefix with !! + “`class:['a', '!b', '!!!c'] # limit to elements with class 'a' and '!c' but not class 'b'“`

  • style (String, Regexp, Hash)

    Only find elements with matching style. String and Regexp will be checked against text of the elements `style` attribute, while a Hash will be compared against the elements full style

  • exact (Boolean)

    Control whether `is` expressions in the given XPath match exactly or partially

  • count (Integer)

    Exact number of matches that are expected to be found

  • maximum (Integer)

    Maximum number of matches that are expected to be found

  • minimum (Integer)

    Minimum number of matches that are expected to be found

  • between (Range)

    Number of matches found must be within the given range

  • wait (false, true, Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear.

Returns:

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 250

def all(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  minimum_specified = options_include_minimum?(options)
  options = { minimum: 1 }.merge(options) unless minimum_specified
  options[:session_options] = session_options
  query = Capybara::Queries::SelectorQuery.new(*args, options, &optional_filter_block)
  result = nil
  begin
    synchronize(query.wait) do
      result = query.resolve_for(self)
      raise Capybara::ExpectationNotMet, result.failure_message unless result.matches_count?

      result
    end
  rescue Capybara::ExpectationNotMet
    raise if minimum_specified || (result.compare_count == 1)

    Result.new([], nil)
  end
end

#ancestor(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find an Element based on the given arguments that is also an ancestor of the element called on. ancestor will raise an error if the element is not found.

ancestor takes the same options as find.

element.ancestor('#foo').find('.bar')
element.ancestor(:xpath, './/div[contains(., "bar")]')
element.ancestor('ul', text: 'Quox').click_link('Delete')

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

  • kind (Symbol)

    Optional selector type (:css, :xpath, :field, etc.) - Defaults to Capybara.default_selector

  • locator (String)

    The locator for the specified selector

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • match (Symbol)

    The matching strategy to use.

Returns:

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 69

def ancestor(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  options[:session_options] = session_options
  synced_resolve Capybara::Queries::AncestorQuery.new(*args, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

#find(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find an Element based on the given arguments. find will raise an error if the element is not found.

page.find('#foo').find('.bar')
page.find(:xpath, './/div[contains(., "bar")]')
page.find('li', text: 'Quox').click_link('Delete')

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

  • kind (Symbol)

    Optional selector type (:css, :xpath, :field, etc.) - Defaults to Capybara.default_selector

  • locator (String)

    The locator for the specified selector

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • text (String, Regexp)

    Only find elements which contain this text or match this regexp

  • exact_text (String, Boolean) — default: Capybara.exact_text

    When String the elements contained text must match exactly, when Boolean controls whether the :text option must match exactly

  • normalize_ws (Boolean) — default: Capybara.default_normalize_ws

    Whether the `text`/`exact_text` options are compared against elment text with whitespace normalized or as returned by the driver

  • visible (Boolean, Symbol)

    Only find elements with the specified visibility:

    • true - only finds visible elements.

    • false - finds invisible and visible elements.

    • :all - same as false; finds visible and invisible elements.

    • :hidden - only finds invisible elements.

    • :visible - same as true; only finds visible elements.

  • obscured (Boolean)

    Only find elements with the specified obscured state:

    • true - only find elements whose centerpoint is not in the viewport or is obscured by another non-descendant element.

    • false - only find elements whose centerpoint is in the viewport and is not obscured by other non-descendant elements.

  • id (String, Regexp)

    Only find elements with an id that matches the value passed

  • class (String, Array<String>, Regexp)

    Only find elements with matching class/classes. + Absence of a class can be checked by prefixing the class name with ! + If you need to check for existence of a class name that starts with ! then prefix with !! + “`class:['a', '!b', '!!!c'] # limit to elements with class 'a' and '!c' but not class 'b'“`

  • style (String, Regexp, Hash)

    Only find elements with matching style. String and Regexp will be checked against text of the elements `style` attribute, while a Hash will be compared against the elements full style

  • exact (Boolean)

    Control whether `is` expressions in the given XPath match exactly or partially

  • match (Symbol)

    The matching strategy to use.

Returns:

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 44

def find(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  options[:session_options] = session_options
  synced_resolve Capybara::Queries::SelectorQuery.new(*args, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

#find_button([locator], **options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find a button on the page. This can be any <input> element of type submit, reset, image, button or it can be a <button> element. All buttons can be found by their id, name, Capbyara.test_id attribute, value, or title. <button> elements can also be found by their text content, and image <input> elements by their alt attribute

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • locator (String)

    id, name, Capybara.test_id attribute, value, title, text content, alt of image

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • disabled (Boolean, Symbol) — default: false

    Match disabled button?

    • true - only finds a disabled button

    • false - only finds an enabled button

    • :all - finds either an enabled or disabled button

  • id (String, Regexp)

    Match buttons with the id provided

  • name (String)

    Match buttons with the name provided

  • title (String)

    Match buttons with the title provided

  • value (String)

    Match buttons with the value provided

  • class (String, Array<String>, Regexp)

    Match buttons that match the class(es) provided

Returns:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 176

def find_button(locator = nil, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  find(:button, locator, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

#find_by_id(id, **options, &optional_filter_block) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find a element on the page, given its id.

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • id (String)

    id of element

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 190

def find_by_id(id, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  find(:id, id, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

#find_field([locator], **options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find a form field on the page. The field can be found by its name, id or label text.

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • locator (String)

    name, id, Capybara.test_id attribute, placeholder or text of associated label element

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • checked (Boolean)

    Match checked field?

  • unchecked (Boolean)

    Match unchecked field?

  • disabled (Boolean, Symbol) — default: false

    Match disabled field?

    • true - only finds a disabled field

    • false - only finds an enabled field

    • :all - finds either an enabled or disabled field

  • readonly (Boolean)

    Match readonly field?

  • with (String, Regexp)

    Value of field to match on

  • type (String)

    Type of field to match on

  • multiple (Boolean)

    Match fields that can have multiple values?

  • id (String, Regexp)

    Match fields that match the id attribute

  • name (String)

    Match fields that match the name attribute

  • placeholder (String)

    Match fields that match the placeholder attribute

  • class (String, Array<String>, Regexp)

    Match fields that match the class(es) passed

Returns:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 127

def find_field(locator = nil, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  find(:field, locator, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

Find a link on the page. The link can be found by its id or text.

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • locator (String)

    id, Capybara.test_id attribute, title, text, or alt of enclosed img element

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • href (String, Regexp, nil)

    Value to match against the links href, if nil finds link placeholders (<a> elements with no href attribute), if false ignores the href

  • id (String, Regexp)

    Match links with the id provided

  • title (String)

    Match links with the title provided

  • alt (String)

    Match links with a contained img element whose alt matches

  • class (String, Array<String>, Regexp)

    Match links that match the class(es) provided

Returns:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 147

def find_link(locator = nil, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  find(:link, locator, options, &optional_filter_block)
end

#first([kind], locator, options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find the first element on the page matching the given selector and options. By default `first` will wait up to `Capybara.default_max_wait_time` seconds for matching elements to appear and then raise an error if no matching element is found, or `nil` if the provided count options allow for empty results.

Parameters:

  • kind (Symbol)

    The type of selector

  • locator (String)

    The selector

  • options (Hash)

    Additional options; see #all

Returns:

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 285

def first(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  options = { minimum: 1 }.merge(options) unless options_include_minimum?(options)
  all(*args, options, &optional_filter_block).first
end

#sibling(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Find an Element based on the given arguments that is also a sibling of the element called on. sibling will raise an error if the element is not found.

sibling takes the same options as find.

element.sibling('#foo').find('.bar')
element.sibling(:xpath, './/div[contains(., "bar")]')
element.sibling('ul', text: 'Quox').click_link('Delete')

If the driver is capable of executing JavaScript, this method will wait for a set amount of time and continuously retry finding the element until either the element is found or the time expires. The length of time this method will wait is controlled through default_max_wait_time.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

  • kind (Symbol)

    Optional selector type (:css, :xpath, :field, etc.) - Defaults to Capybara.default_selector

  • locator (String)

    The locator for the specified selector

  • options (Hash)

    a customizable set of options

Options Hash (**options):

  • wait (false, true, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for matching element to appear. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

  • match (Symbol)

    The matching strategy to use.

Returns:

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/node/finders.rb', line 95

def sibling(*args, **options, &optional_filter_block)
  options[:session_options] = session_options
  synced_resolve Capybara::Queries::SiblingQuery.new(*args, options, &optional_filter_block)
end