Class: Capybara::Node::Element

Inherits:
Base
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/capybara/node/element.rb

Overview

A Element represents a single element on the page. It is possible to interact with the contents of this element the same as with a document:

session = Capybara::Session.new(:rack_test, my_app)

bar = session.find('#bar')              # from Capybara::Node::Finders
bar.select('Baz', from: 'Quox')      # from Capybara::Node::Actions

Element also has access to HTML attributes and other properties of the element:

bar.value
bar.text
bar[:title]

See Also:

Constant Summary collapse

STYLE_SCRIPT =
<<~JS
  (function(){
    var s = window.getComputedStyle(this);
    var result = {};
    for (var i = arguments.length; i--; ) {
      var property_name = arguments[i];
      result[property_name] = s.getPropertyValue(property_name);
    }
    return result;
  }).apply(this, arguments)
JS

Instance Attribute Summary

Attributes inherited from Base

#base, #query_scope, #session

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from Base

#find_css, #find_xpath, #session_options, #synchronize, #to_capybara_node

Methods included from Matchers

#==, #assert_all_of_selectors, #assert_any_of_selectors, #assert_matches_selector, #assert_no_selector, #assert_no_text, #assert_none_of_selectors, #assert_not_matches_selector, #assert_selector, #assert_style, #assert_text, #has_button?, #has_checked_field?, #has_css?, #has_field?, #has_link?, #has_no_button?, #has_no_checked_field?, #has_no_css?, #has_no_field?, #has_no_link?, #has_no_select?, #has_no_selector?, #has_no_table?, #has_no_text?, #has_no_unchecked_field?, #has_no_xpath?, #has_select?, #has_selector?, #has_style?, #has_table?, #has_text?, #has_unchecked_field?, #has_xpath?, #matches_css?, #matches_selector?, #matches_xpath?, #not_matches_css?, #not_matches_selector?, #not_matches_xpath?

Methods included from Actions

#attach_file, #check, #choose, #click_button, #click_link, #click_link_or_button, #fill_in, #select, #uncheck, #unselect

Methods included from Finders

#all, #ancestor, #find, #find_button, #find_by_id, #find_field, #find_link, #first, #sibling

Constructor Details

#initialize(session, base, query_scope, query) ⇒ Element

Returns a new instance of Element



25
26
27
28
29
30
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 25

def initialize(session, base, query_scope, query)
  super(session, base)
  @query_scope = query_scope
  @query = query
  @allow_reload = false
end

Instance Method Details

#[](attribute) ⇒ String

Retrieve the given attribute

element[:title] # => HTML title attribute

Parameters:

  • attribute (Symbol)

    The attribute to retrieve

Returns:

  • (String)

    The value of the attribute



71
72
73
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 71

def [](attribute)
  synchronize { base[attribute] }
end

#allow_reload!Object



32
33
34
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 32

def allow_reload!
  @allow_reload = true
end

#checked?Boolean

Whether or not the element is checked.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is checked



299
300
301
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 299

def checked?
  synchronize { base.checked? }
end

#click(*modifier_keys, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Click the Element

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Options Hash (**offset):

  • x (Integer)

    X coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

  • y (Integer)

    Y coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

Returns:

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


155
156
157
158
159
160
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 155

def click(*keys, wait: nil, **offset)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must specify both x: and y: for a click offset' if nil ^ offset[:x] ^ offset[:y]

  synchronize(wait) { base.click(Array(keys), offset) }
  self
end

#disabled?Boolean

Whether or not the element is disabled.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is disabled



319
320
321
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 319

def disabled?
  synchronize { base.disabled? }
end

#double_click(*modifier_keys, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Double Click the Element

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Options Hash (**offset):

  • x (Integer)

    X coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

  • y (Integer)

    Y coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

Returns:

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


181
182
183
184
185
186
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 181

def double_click(*keys, wait: nil, **offset)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must specify both x: and y: for a click offset' if nil ^ offset[:x] ^ offset[:y]

  synchronize(wait) { base.double_click(keys, offset) }
  self
end

#drag_to(node) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Drag the element to the given other element.

source = page.find('#foo')
target = page.find('#bar')
source.drag_to(target)

Parameters:

Returns:



379
380
381
382
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 379

def drag_to(node)
  synchronize { base.drag_to(node.base) }
  self
end

#evaluate_async_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Evaluate the given JavaScript in the context of the element and obtain the result from a callback function which will be passed as the last argument to the script. `this` in the script will refer to the element this is called on

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to evaluate

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The result of the evaluated JavaScript (may be driver specific)



427
428
429
430
431
432
433
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 427

def evaluate_async_script(script, *args)
  session.evaluate_async_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function (){
      #{script}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#evaluate_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Evaluate the given JS in the context of the element and return the result. Be careful when using this with scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. execute_script might be a better alternative. `this` in the script will refer to the element this is called on.

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to evaluate

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The result of the evaluated JavaScript (may be driver specific)



410
411
412
413
414
415
416
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 410

def evaluate_script(script, *args)
  session.evaluate_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function(){
      return #{script.strip}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#execute_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Execute the given JS in the context of the element not returning a result. This is useful for scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. execute_script should be used over evaluate_script whenever possible. `this` in the script will refer to the element this is called on.

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to execute

  • args

    Optional arguments that will be passed to the script. Driver support for this is optional and types of objects supported may differ between drivers



393
394
395
396
397
398
399
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 393

def execute_script(script, *args)
  session.execute_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function (){
      #{script}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#hoverCapybara::Node::Element

Hover on the Element

Returns:



269
270
271
272
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 269

def hover
  synchronize { base.hover }
  self
end

#inspectObject



447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 447

def inspect
  %(#<Capybara::Node::Element tag="#{base.tag_name}" path="#{base.path}">)
rescue NotSupportedByDriverError
  %(#<Capybara::Node::Element tag="#{base.tag_name}">)
rescue StandardError => err
  raise unless session.driver.invalid_element_errors.any? { |et| err.is_a?(et) }

  %(Obsolete #<Capybara::Node::Element>)
end

#multiple?Boolean

Whether or not the element supports multiple results.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element supports multiple results.



339
340
341
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 339

def multiple?
  synchronize { base.multiple? }
end

#nativeObject

Returns The native element from the driver, this allows access to driver specific methods

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The native element from the driver, this allows access to driver specific methods



40
41
42
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 40

def native
  synchronize { base.native }
end

#pathString

An XPath expression describing where on the page the element can be found

Returns:

  • (String)

    An XPath expression



349
350
351
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 349

def path
  synchronize { base.path }
end

#readonly?Boolean

Whether or not the element is readonly.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is readonly



329
330
331
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 329

def readonly?
  synchronize { base.readonly? }
end

#reloadObject



435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 435

def reload
  if @allow_reload
    begin
      reloaded = query_scope.reload.first(@query.name, @query.locator, @query.options)
      @base = reloaded.base if reloaded
    rescue StandardError => err
      raise err unless catch_error?(err)
    end
  end
  self
end

#right_click(*modifier_keys, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Right Click the Element

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Options Hash (**offset):

  • x (Integer)

    X coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

  • y (Integer)

    Y coordinate to offset the click location from the top left corner of the element

Returns:

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


168
169
170
171
172
173
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 168

def right_click(*keys, wait: nil, **offset)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must specify both x: and y: for a click offset' if nil ^ offset[:x] ^ offset[:y]

  synchronize(wait) { base.right_click(keys, offset) }
  self
end

#select_option(wait: nil) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Select this node if is an option element inside a select tag

Returns:



128
129
130
131
132
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 128

def select_option(wait: nil)
  warn "Attempt to select disabled option: #{value || text}" if disabled?
  synchronize(wait) { base.select_option }
  self
end

#selected?Boolean

Whether or not the element is selected.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is selected



309
310
311
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 309

def selected?
  synchronize { base.selected? }
end

#send_keys(keys, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Send Keystrokes to the Element

Examples:

element.send_keys "foo"                     #=> value: 'foo'
element.send_keys "tet", :left, "s"   #=> value: 'test'
element.send_keys [:control, 'a'], :space   #=> value: ' ' - assuming ctrl-a selects all contents

Symbols supported for keys :cancel :help :backspace :tab :clear :return :enter :shift :control :alt :pause :escape :space :page_up :page_down :end :home :left :up :right :down :insert :delete :semicolon :equals :numpad0 :numpad1 :numpad2 :numpad3 :numpad4 :numpad5 :numpad6 :numpad7 :numpad8 :numpad9 :multiply - numeric keypad * :add - numeric keypad + :separator - numeric keypad 'separator' key ?? :subtract - numeric keypad - :decimal - numeric keypad . :divide - numeric keypad / :f1 :f2 :f3 :f4 :f5 :f6 :f7 :f8 :f9 :f10 :f11 :f12 :meta :command - alias of :meta

Parameters:

  • keys (String, Symbol, Array<String,Symbol>)

Returns:



259
260
261
262
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 259

def send_keys(*args)
  synchronize { base.send_keys(*args) }
  self
end

#set(value, **options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Set the value of the form element to the given value.

Parameters:

  • value (String)

    The new value

  • options (Hash{})

    Driver specific options for how to set the value. Take default values from `Capybara#default_set_options` - See configure

Returns:

Raises:



115
116
117
118
119
120
121
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 115

def set(value, **options)
  raise Capybara::ReadOnlyElementError, "Attempt to set readonly element with value: #{value}" if readonly?

  options = session_options.default_set_options.to_h.merge(options)
  synchronize { base.set(value, options) }
  self
end

#style(*styles) ⇒ Hash

Retrieve the given CSS styles

element.style('color', 'font-size') # => Computed values of CSS 'color' and 'font-size' styles

Parameters:

  • styles (Array<String>)

    Names of the desired CSS properties

Returns:

  • (Hash)

    Hash of the CSS property names to computed values

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 84

def style(*styles)
  styles = styles.flatten.map(&:to_s)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must specify at least one CSS style' if styles.empty?

  begin
    synchronize { base.style(styles) }
  rescue NotImplementedError => err
    begin
      evaluate_script(STYLE_SCRIPT, *styles)
    rescue Capybara::NotSupportedByDriverError
      raise err
    end
  end
end

#tag_nameString

Returns The tag name of the element

Returns:

  • (String)

    The tag name of the element



278
279
280
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 278

def tag_name
  synchronize { base.tag_name }
end

#text(type = nil, normalize_ws: false) ⇒ String

Retrieve the text of the element. If `Capybara.ignore_hidden_elements` is `true`, which it is by default, then this will return only text which is visible. The exact semantics of this may differ between drivers, but generally any text within elements with `display:none` is ignored. This behaviour can be overridden by passing `:all` to this method.

Parameters:

  • type (:all, :visible) (defaults to: nil)

    Whether to return only visible or all text

Returns:

  • (String)

    The text of the element



56
57
58
59
60
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 56

def text(type = nil, normalize_ws: false)
  type ||= :all unless session_options.ignore_hidden_elements || session_options.visible_text_only
  txt = synchronize { type == :all ? base.all_text : base.visible_text }
  normalize_ws ? txt.gsub(/[[:space:]]+/, ' ').strip : txt
end

#trigger(event) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Trigger any event on the current element, for example mouseover or focus events. Not supported with the Selenium driver, and SHOULDN'T BE USED IN TESTING unless you fully understand why you're using it, that it can allow actions a user could never perform, and that it may completely invalidate your test.

Parameters:

  • event (String)

    The name of the event to trigger

Returns:



363
364
365
366
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 363

def trigger(event)
  synchronize { base.trigger(event) }
  self
end

#unselect_option(wait: nil) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Unselect this node if is an option element inside a multiple select tag

Returns:



139
140
141
142
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 139

def unselect_option(wait: nil)
  synchronize(wait) { base.unselect_option }
  self
end

#valueString

Returns The value of the form element

Returns:

  • (String)

    The value of the form element



103
104
105
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 103

def value
  synchronize { base.value }
end

#visible?Boolean

Whether or not the element is visible. Not all drivers support CSS, so the result may be inaccurate.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is visible



289
290
291
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 289

def visible?
  synchronize { base.visible? }
end