Class: Recog::Nizer

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/recog/nizer.rb

Constant Summary collapse

DEFAULT_OS_CERTAINTY =

Default certainty ratings where none are specified in the fingerprint itself

0.85
DEFAULT_SERVICE_CERTAINTY =

Most frequent weights are 0.9, 1.0, and 0.5

0.85
HOST_ATTRIBUTES =

Non-weighted host attributes that can be extracted from fingerprint matches

%W{
  host.domain
  host.ip
  host.mac
  host.name
  host.time
  hw.device
  hw.family
  hw.serial_number
  hw.product
  hw.vendor
}
@@db_manager =
nil
@@db_sorted =
false

Class Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.best_os_match(matches) ⇒ Object

Consider an array of match outputs, choose the best result, taking into account the granularity of OS vs Version vs SP vs Language. Only consider fields relevant to the host (OS, name, mac address, etc).


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 140

def self.best_os_match(matches)

  # The result hash we return to the caller
  result = {}

  # Certain attributes should be evaluated separately
  host_attrs  = {}

  # Bucket matches into matched OS product names
  os_products = {}

  matches.each do |m|
    # Count how many times each host attribute value is asserted
    (HOST_ATTRIBUTES & m.keys).each do |ha|
      host_attrs[ha]        ||= {}
      host_attrs[ha][m[ha]] ||= 0
      host_attrs[ha][m[ha]]  += 1
    end

    next unless m.has_key?('os.product')

    # Group matches by OS product and normalize certainty
    cm = m.dup
    cm['os.certainty'] = ( m['os.certainty'] || DEFAULT_OS_CERTAINTY ).to_f
    os_products[ cm['os.product'] ] ||= []
    os_products[ cm['os.product'] ]  << cm
  end

  #
  # Select the best host attribute value by highest frequency
  #
  host_attrs.keys.each do |hk|
    ranked_attr = host_attrs[hk].keys.sort do |a,b|
      host_attrs[hk][b] <=> host_attrs[hk][a]
    end
    result[hk] = ranked_attr.first
  end

  # Unable to guess the OS without OS matches
  unless os_products.keys.length > 0
    return result
  end

  #
  # Select the best operating system name by combined certainty of all
  # matches within an os.product group. Multiple weak matches can
  # outweigh a single strong match by design.
  #
  ranked_os = os_products.keys.sort do |a,b|
    os_products[b].map{ |r| r['os.certainty'] }.inject(:+) <=>
    os_products[a].map{ |r| r['os.certainty'] }.inject(:+)
  end

  # Within the best match group, try to fill in missing attributes
  os_name = ranked_os.first

  # Find the best match within the winning group
  ranked_os_matches = os_products[os_name].sort do |a,b|
    b['os.certainty'] <=> a['os.certainty']
  end

  # Fill in missing result values in descending order of best match
  ranked_os_matches.each do |rm|
    rm.each_pair do |k,v|
      result[k] ||= v
    end
  end

  result
end

.best_service_match(matches) ⇒ Object

Consider an array of match outputs, choose the best result, taking into account the granularity of service. Only consider fields relevant to the service.


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 216

def self.best_service_match(matches)

  # The result hash we return to the caller
  result = {}

  # Bucket matches into matched service product names
  service_products = {}

  matches.select{ |m| m.has_key?('service.product') }.each do |m|
    # Group matches by product and normalize certainty
    cm = m.dup
    cm['service.certainty'] = ( m['service.certainty'] || DEFAULT_SERVICE_CERTAINTY ).to_f
    service_products[ cm['service.product'] ] ||= []
    service_products[ cm['service.product'] ]  << cm
  end

  # Unable to guess the service without service matches
  unless service_products.keys.length > 0
    return result
  end

  #
  # Select the best service name by combined certainty of all matches
  # within an service.product group. Multiple weak matches can
  # outweigh a single strong match by design.
  #
  ranked_service = service_products.keys.sort do |a,b|
    service_products[b].map{ |r| r['service.certainty'] }.inject(:+) <=>
    service_products[a].map{ |r| r['service.certainty'] }.inject(:+)
  end

  # Within the best match group, try to fill in missing attributes
  service_name = ranked_service.first

  # Find the best match within the winning group
  ranked_service_matches = service_products[service_name].sort do |a,b|
    b['service.certainty'] <=> a['service.certainty']
  end

  # Fill in missing service values in descending order of best match
  ranked_service_matches.each do |rm|
    rm.keys.select{ |k| k.index('service.') == 0 }.each do |k|
      result[k] ||= rm[k]
    end
  end

  result
end

.display_db_orderObject

Display the fingerprint databases in the order in which they will be used to match banners. This is useful for fingerprint tuning and debugging.


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 53

def self.display_db_order
  self.load_db unless @@db_manager

  puts format('%s  %-22s  %-8s %s', 'Preference', 'Database', 'Type', 'Protocol')
  @@db_manager.databases.each do |db|
    puts format('%10.3f  %-22s  %-8s %s', db.preference, db.match_key,
                db.database_type, db.protocol)
  end
end

.load_db(path = nil) ⇒ Object

Load fingerprints from a specific file or directory This will not preserve any fingerprints that have already been loaded

Parameters:

  • path (String) (defaults to: nil)

    Path to file or directory of XML fingerprints


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 30

def self.load_db(path = nil)
  if path
    @@db_manager = Recog::DBManager.new(path)
  else
    @@db_manager = Recog::DBManager.new
  end

  # Sort the databases, no behavior or result change for those calling
  # Nizer.match or Nizer.multi_match as they have a single DB
  @@db_manager.databases.sort! { |a, b| b.preference <=> a.preference }
  @@db_sorted = true
end

.match(match_key, match_string) ⇒ see Fingerprint#match

2016.11 - Rewritten to be wrapper around #match_db_all, functionality and results must remain unchanged.

Locate a database that corresponds with the match_key and attempt to find a matching fingerprint, stopping at the first hit. Returns nil when no matching database or fingerprint is found.

Parameters:

  • match_key (String)

    Fingerprint DB name, e.g. 'smb.native_os'

  • match_string (String)

    String to match

Returns:


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 74

def self.match(match_key, match_string)
  filter = { match_key: match_key, multi_match: false }
  matches = self.match_all_db(match_string, filter)

  matches[0] 
end

.match_all_db(match_string, filters = {}) ⇒ Array

Search all fingerprint dbs and attempt to find matching fingerprints. It will return the first match found unless the :multi_match option is used to request all matches. Returns an array of all matching fingerprints or an empty array.

Parameters:

  • match_string (String)

    Service banner to match

  • filters (Hash) (defaults to: {})

    This hash contains filters used to limit the results to just those from specific types of fingerprints. The values that these filters match come from the 'fingerprints' top level element in the fingerprint DB XML or, in the case of 'protocol', this value can be overridden at the individual fingerprint level by setting a value for 'service.protocol'

    With the exception of 'match_key', the filters below match the 'fingerprints' attributes with the same name.

Options Hash (filters):

  • :match_key (String)

    Value from XML 'matches' or file name

  • :database_type (String)

    fprint db type: service, util.os, etc.

  • :protocol (String)

    Protocol (ftp, smtp, etc.)

  • :multi_match (Boolean)

    Return all matches instead of first

Returns:

  • (Array)

    Array of Fingerprint#match or empty array


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 111

def self.match_all_db(match_string, filters = {})
  match_string = match_string.to_s.unpack('C*').pack('C*')
  matches = Array.new # array to hold all fingerprint matches

  self.load_db unless @@db_manager

  @@db_manager.databases.each do |db|
    next if filters[:match_key] && !filters[:match_key].eql?(db.match_key)
    next if filters[:database_type] && !filters[:database_type].eql?(db.database_type)
    db.fingerprints.each do |fp|
      m = fp.match(match_string)
      if m
        # Filter on protocol after match since each individual fp
        # can contain its own 'protocol' value that overrides the
        # one set at the DB level.
        matches.push(m) unless filters[:protocol] && !filters[:protocol].eql?(m['service.protocol'])
        return matches unless filters[:multi_match]
      end
    end
  end

  matches
end

.multi_match(match_key, match_string) ⇒ Array

Returns Array of Fingerprint#match or empty array.

Parameters:

  • match_key (String)

    Fingerprint DB name, e.g. 'smb.native_os'

  • match_string (String)

    String to match

Returns:

  • (Array)

    Array of Fingerprint#match or empty array


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 85

def self.multi_match(match_key, match_string)
  filter = { match_key: match_key, multi_match: true }
  self.match_all_db(match_string, filter)
end

.unload_dbObject

Destroy the current DBManager object


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# File 'lib/recog/nizer.rb', line 45

def self.unload_db
  @@db_manager = nil
  @@db_sorted = false
end