Module: Minitest::Assertions

Included in:
Test
Defined in:
lib/minitest/assertions.rb,
lib/minitest/mock.rb

Overview

Minitest Assertions. All assertion methods accept a msg which is printed if the assertion fails.

Protocol: Nearly everything here boils up to assert, which expects to be able to increment an instance accessor named assertions. This is not provided by Assertions and must be provided by the thing including Assertions. See Minitest::Runnable for an example.

Constant Summary collapse

UNDEFINED =

:nodoc:

Object.new
E =

:nodoc:

""

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.diffObject

Returns the diff command to use in #diff. Tries to intelligently figure out what diff to use.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 29

def self.diff
  return @diff if defined? @diff

  @diff = if (RbConfig::CONFIG["host_os"] =~ /mswin|mingw/ &&
              system("diff.exe", __FILE__, __FILE__)) then
            "diff.exe -u"
          elsif Minitest::Test.maglev? then
            "diff -u"
          elsif system("gdiff", __FILE__, __FILE__)
            "gdiff -u" # solaris and kin suck
          elsif system("diff", __FILE__, __FILE__)
            "diff -u"
          else
            nil
          end
end

.diff=(o) ⇒ Object

Set the diff command to use in #diff.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 49

def self.diff= o
  @diff = o
end

Instance Method Details

#_synchronizeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 171

def _synchronize # :nodoc:
  yield
end

#assert(test, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless test is truthy.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 161

def assert test, msg = nil
  self.assertions += 1
  unless test then
    msg ||= "Expected #{mu_pp test} to be truthy."
    msg = msg.call if Proc === msg
    raise Minitest::Assertion, msg
  end
  true
end

#assert_empty(obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless obj is empty.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 178

def assert_empty obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be empty" }
  assert_respond_to obj, :empty?
  assert obj.empty?, msg
end

#assert_equal(exp, act, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless exp == act printing the difference between the two, if possible.

If there is no visible difference but the assertion fails, you should suspect that your #== is buggy, or your inspect output is missing crucial details. For nicer structural diffing, set Minitest::Test.make_my_diffs_pretty!

For floats use assert_in_delta.

See also: Minitest::Assertions.diff


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 199

def assert_equal exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg, E) { diff exp, act }
  result = assert exp == act, msg

  if nil == exp then
    if Minitest::VERSION =~ /^6/ then
      refute_nil exp, "Use assert_nil if expecting nil."
    else
      where = Minitest.filter_backtrace(caller).first
      where = where.split(/:in /, 2).first # clean up noise

      warn "DEPRECATED: Use assert_nil if expecting nil from #{where}. This will fail in Minitest 6."
    end
  end

  result
end

#assert_in_delta(exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For comparing Floats. Fails unless exp and act are within delta of each other.

assert_in_delta Math::PI, (22.0 / 7.0), 0.01

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 223

def assert_in_delta exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil
  n = (exp - act).abs
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected |#{exp} - #{act}| (#{n}) to be <= #{delta}"
  }
  assert delta >= n, msg
end

#assert_in_epsilon(exp, act, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For comparing Floats. Fails unless exp and act have a relative error less than epsilon.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 235

def assert_in_epsilon exp, act, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil
  assert_in_delta exp, act, [exp.abs, act.abs].min * epsilon, msg
end

#assert_includes(collection, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless collection includes obj.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 242

def assert_includes collection, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(collection)} to include #{mu_pp(obj)}"
  }
  assert_respond_to collection, :include?
  assert collection.include?(obj), msg
end

#assert_instance_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless obj is an instance of cls.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 253

def assert_instance_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be an instance of #{cls}, not #{obj.class}"
  }

  assert obj.instance_of?(cls), msg
end

#assert_kind_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless obj is a kind of cls.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 264

def assert_kind_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be a kind of #{cls}, not #{obj.class}" }

  assert obj.kind_of?(cls), msg
end

#assert_match(matcher, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless matcher =~ obj.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 274

def assert_match matcher, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp matcher} to match #{mu_pp obj}" }
  assert_respond_to matcher, :"=~"
  matcher = Regexp.new Regexp.escape matcher if String === matcher
  assert matcher =~ obj, msg
end

#assert_mock(mock) ⇒ Object

Assert that the mock verifies correctly.


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# File 'lib/minitest/mock.rb', line 184

def assert_mock mock
  assert mock.verify
end

#assert_nil(obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless obj is nil


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 284

def assert_nil obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to be nil" }
  assert obj.nil?, msg
end

#assert_operator(o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For testing with binary operators. Eg:

assert_operator 5, :<=, 4

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 294

def assert_operator o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil
  return assert_predicate o1, op, msg if UNDEFINED == o2
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to be #{op} #{mu_pp(o2)}" }
  assert o1.__send__(op, o2), msg
end

#assert_output(stdout = nil, stderr = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if stdout or stderr do not output the expected results. Pass in nil if you don't care about that streams output. Pass in “” if you require it to be silent. Pass in a regexp if you want to pattern match.

assert_output(/hey/) { method_with_output }

NOTE: this uses #capture_io, not #capture_subprocess_io.

See also: #assert_silent


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 312

def assert_output stdout = nil, stderr = nil
  flunk "assert_output requires a block to capture output." unless
    block_given?

  out, err = capture_io do
    yield
  end

  err_msg = Regexp === stderr ? :assert_match : :assert_equal if stderr
  out_msg = Regexp === stdout ? :assert_match : :assert_equal if stdout

  y = send err_msg, stderr, err, "In stderr" if err_msg
  x = send out_msg, stdout, out, "In stdout" if out_msg

  (!stdout || x) && (!stderr || y)
end

#assert_predicate(o1, op, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For testing with predicates. Eg:

assert_predicate str, :empty?

This is really meant for specs and is front-ended by assert_operator:

str.must_be :empty?

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 338

def assert_predicate o1, op, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to be #{op}" }
  assert o1.__send__(op), msg
end

#assert_raises(*exp) ⇒ Object

Fails unless the block raises one of exp. Returns the exception matched so you can check the message, attributes, etc.

exp takes an optional message on the end to help explain failures and defaults to StandardError if no exception class is passed.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 351

def assert_raises *exp
  flunk "assert_raises requires a block to capture errors." unless
    block_given?

  msg = "#{exp.pop}.\n" if String === exp.last
  exp << StandardError if exp.empty?

  begin
    yield
  rescue *exp => e
    pass # count assertion
    return e
  rescue Minitest::Skip, Minitest::Assertion
    # don't count assertion
    raise
  rescue SignalException, SystemExit
    raise
  rescue Exception => e
    flunk proc {
      exception_details(e, "#{msg}#{mu_pp(exp)} exception expected, not")
    }
  end

  exp = exp.first if exp.size == 1

  flunk "#{msg}#{mu_pp(exp)} expected but nothing was raised."
end

#assert_respond_to(obj, meth, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless obj responds to meth.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 382

def assert_respond_to obj, meth, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} (#{obj.class}) to respond to ##{meth}"
  }
  assert obj.respond_to?(meth), msg
end

#assert_same(exp, act, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless exp and act are #equal?


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 392

def assert_same exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    data = [mu_pp(act), act.object_id, mu_pp(exp), exp.object_id]
    "Expected %s (oid=%d) to be the same as %s (oid=%d)" % data
  }
  assert exp.equal?(act), msg
end

#assert_send(send_ary, m = nil) ⇒ Object

send_ary is a receiver, message and arguments.

Fails unless the call returns a true value


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 405

def assert_send send_ary, m = nil
  where = Minitest.filter_backtrace(caller).first
  where = where.split(/:in /, 2).first # clean up noise
  warn "DEPRECATED: assert_send. From #{where}"

  recv, msg, *args = send_ary
  m = message(m) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(recv)}.#{msg}(*#{mu_pp(args)}) to return true" }
  assert recv.__send__(msg, *args), m
end

#assert_silentObject

Fails if the block outputs anything to stderr or stdout.

See also: #assert_output


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 421

def assert_silent
  assert_output "", "" do
    yield
  end
end

#assert_throws(sym, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails unless the block throws sym


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 430

def assert_throws sym, msg = nil
  default = "Expected #{mu_pp(sym)} to have been thrown"
  caught = true
  catch(sym) do
    begin
      yield
    rescue ThreadError => e       # wtf?!? 1.8 + threads == suck
      default += ", not \:#{e.message[/uncaught throw \`(\w+?)\'/, 1]}"
    rescue ArgumentError => e     # 1.9 exception
      raise e unless e.message.include?("uncaught throw")
      default += ", not #{e.message.split(/ /).last}"
    rescue NameError => e         # 1.8 exception
      raise e unless e.name == sym
      default += ", not #{e.name.inspect}"
    end
    caught = false
  end

  assert caught, message(msg) { default }
end

#capture_ioObject

Captures $stdout and $stderr into strings:

out, err = capture_io do
  puts "Some info"
  warn "You did a bad thing"
end

assert_match %r%info%, out
assert_match %r%bad%, err

NOTE: For efficiency, this method uses StringIO and does not capture IO for subprocesses. Use #capture_subprocess_io for that.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 466

def capture_io
  _synchronize do
    begin
      captured_stdout, captured_stderr = StringIO.new, StringIO.new

      orig_stdout, orig_stderr = $stdout, $stderr
      $stdout, $stderr         = captured_stdout, captured_stderr

      yield

      return captured_stdout.string, captured_stderr.string
    ensure
      $stdout = orig_stdout
      $stderr = orig_stderr
    end
  end
end

#capture_subprocess_ioObject

Captures $stdout and $stderr into strings, using Tempfile to ensure that subprocess IO is captured as well.

out, err = capture_subprocess_io do
  system "echo Some info"
  system "echo You did a bad thing 1>&2"
end

assert_match %r%info%, out
assert_match %r%bad%, err

NOTE: This method is approximately 10x slower than #capture_io so only use it when you need to test the output of a subprocess.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 499

def capture_subprocess_io
  _synchronize do
    begin
      require "tempfile"

      captured_stdout, captured_stderr = Tempfile.new("out"), Tempfile.new("err")

      orig_stdout, orig_stderr = $stdout.dup, $stderr.dup
      $stdout.reopen captured_stdout
      $stderr.reopen captured_stderr

      yield

      $stdout.rewind
      $stderr.rewind

      return captured_stdout.read, captured_stderr.read
    ensure
      captured_stdout.unlink
      captured_stderr.unlink
      $stdout.reopen orig_stdout
      $stderr.reopen orig_stderr
    end
  end
end

#diff(exp, act) ⇒ Object

Returns a diff between exp and act. If there is no known diff command or if it doesn't make sense to diff the output (single line, short output), then it simply returns a basic comparison between the two.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 59

def diff exp, act
  expect = mu_pp_for_diff exp
  butwas = mu_pp_for_diff act
  result = nil

  e1, e2 = expect.include?("\n"), expect.include?("\\n")
  b1, b2 = butwas.include?("\n"), butwas.include?("\\n")

  need_to_diff =
    (e1 ^ e2           ||
     b1 ^ b2           ||
     expect.size > 30  ||
     butwas.size > 30  ||
     expect == butwas) &&
    Minitest::Assertions.diff

  return "Expected: #{mu_pp exp}\n  Actual: #{mu_pp act}" unless
    need_to_diff

  Tempfile.open("expect") do |a|
    a.puts expect
    a.flush

    Tempfile.open("butwas") do |b|
      b.puts butwas
      b.flush

      result = `#{Minitest::Assertions.diff} #{a.path} #{b.path}`
      result.sub!(/^\-\-\- .+/, "--- expected")
      result.sub!(/^\+\+\+ .+/, "+++ actual")

      if result.empty? then
        klass = exp.class
        result = [
                  "No visible difference in the #{klass}#inspect output.\n",
                  "You should look at the implementation of #== on ",
                  "#{klass} or its members.\n",
                  expect,
                 ].join
      end
    end
  end

  result
end

#exception_details(e, msg) ⇒ Object

Returns details for exception e


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 528

def exception_details e, msg
  [
   "#{msg}",
   "Class: <#{e.class}>",
   "Message: <#{e.message.inspect}>",
   "---Backtrace---",
   "#{Minitest.filter_backtrace(e.backtrace).join("\n")}",
   "---------------",
  ].join "\n"
end

#flunk(msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails with msg


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 542

def flunk msg = nil
  msg ||= "Epic Fail!"
  assert false, msg
end

#message(msg = nil, ending = nil, &default) ⇒ Object

Returns a proc that will output msg along with the default message.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 550

def message msg = nil, ending = nil, &default
  proc {
    msg = msg.call.chomp(".") if Proc === msg
    custom_message = "#{msg}.\n" unless msg.nil? or msg.to_s.empty?
    "#{custom_message}#{default.call}#{ending || "."}"
  }
end

#mu_pp(obj) ⇒ Object

This returns a human-readable version of obj. By default #inspect is called. You can override this to use #pretty_inspect if you want.

See Minitest::Test.make_my_diffs_pretty!


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 112

def mu_pp obj
  s = obj.inspect

  if defined? Encoding then
    s = s.encode Encoding.default_external

    if String === obj && (obj.encoding != Encoding.default_external ||
                          !obj.valid_encoding?) then
      enc = "# encoding: #{obj.encoding}"
      val = "#    valid: #{obj.valid_encoding?}"
      s = "#{enc}\n#{val}\n#{s}"
    end
  end

  s
end

#mu_pp_for_diff(obj) ⇒ Object

This returns a diff-able more human-readable version of obj. This differs from the regular mu_pp because it expands escaped newlines and makes hex-values (like object_ids) generic. This uses mu_pp to do the first pass and then cleans it up.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 135

def mu_pp_for_diff obj
  str = mu_pp obj

  # both '\n' & '\\n' (_after_ mu_pp (aka inspect))
  single = !!str.match(/(?<!\\|^)\\n/)
  double = !!str.match(/(?<=\\|^)\\n/)

  process =
    if single ^ double then
      if single then
        lambda { |s| s == "\\n"   ? "\n"    : s } # unescape
      else
        lambda { |s| s == "\\\\n" ? "\\n\n" : s } # unescape a bit, add nls
      end
    else
      :itself                                     # leave it alone
    end

  str.
    gsub(/\\?\\n/, &process).
    gsub(/:0x[a-fA-F0-9]{4,}/m, ":0xXXXXXX") # anonymize hex values
end

#pass(_msg = nil) ⇒ Object

used for counting assertions


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 561

def pass _msg = nil
  assert true
end

#refute(test, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if test is truthy.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 568

def refute test, msg = nil
  msg ||= message { "Expected #{mu_pp(test)} to not be truthy" }
  not assert !test, msg
end

#refute_empty(obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if obj is empty.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 576

def refute_empty obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be empty" }
  assert_respond_to obj, :empty?
  refute obj.empty?, msg
end

#refute_equal(exp, act, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if exp == act.

For floats use refute_in_delta.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 587

def refute_equal exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(act)} to not be equal to #{mu_pp(exp)}"
  }
  refute exp == act, msg
end

#refute_in_delta(exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For comparing Floats. Fails if exp is within delta of act.

refute_in_delta Math::PI, (22.0 / 7.0)

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 599

def refute_in_delta exp, act, delta = 0.001, msg = nil
  n = (exp - act).abs
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected |#{exp} - #{act}| (#{n}) to not be <= #{delta}"
  }
  refute delta >= n, msg
end

#refute_in_epsilon(a, b, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For comparing Floats. Fails if exp and act have a relative error less than epsilon.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 611

def refute_in_epsilon a, b, epsilon = 0.001, msg = nil
  refute_in_delta a, b, a * epsilon, msg
end

#refute_includes(collection, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if collection includes obj.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 618

def refute_includes collection, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(collection)} to not include #{mu_pp(obj)}"
  }
  assert_respond_to collection, :include?
  refute collection.include?(obj), msg
end

#refute_instance_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if obj is an instance of cls.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 629

def refute_instance_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be an instance of #{cls}"
  }
  refute obj.instance_of?(cls), msg
end

#refute_kind_of(cls, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if obj is a kind of cls.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 639

def refute_kind_of cls, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be a kind of #{cls}" }
  refute obj.kind_of?(cls), msg
end

#refute_match(matcher, obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if matcher =~ obj.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 647

def refute_match matcher, obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp matcher} to not match #{mu_pp obj}" }
  assert_respond_to matcher, :"=~"
  matcher = Regexp.new Regexp.escape matcher if String === matcher
  refute matcher =~ obj, msg
end

#refute_nil(obj, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if obj is nil.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 657

def refute_nil obj, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not be nil" }
  refute obj.nil?, msg
end

#refute_operator(o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if o1 is not op o2. Eg:

refute_operator 1, :>, 2 #=> pass
refute_operator 1, :<, 2 #=> fail

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 668

def refute_operator o1, op, o2 = UNDEFINED, msg = nil
  return refute_predicate o1, op, msg if UNDEFINED == o2
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to not be #{op} #{mu_pp(o2)}" }
  refute o1.__send__(op, o2), msg
end

#refute_predicate(o1, op, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

For testing with predicates.

refute_predicate str, :empty?

This is really meant for specs and is front-ended by refute_operator:

str.wont_be :empty?

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 683

def refute_predicate o1, op, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(o1)} to not be #{op}" }
  refute o1.__send__(op), msg
end

#refute_respond_to(obj, meth, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if obj responds to the message meth.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 691

def refute_respond_to obj, meth, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) { "Expected #{mu_pp(obj)} to not respond to #{meth}" }

  refute obj.respond_to?(meth), msg
end

#refute_same(exp, act, msg = nil) ⇒ Object

Fails if exp is the same (by object identity) as act.


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 700

def refute_same exp, act, msg = nil
  msg = message(msg) {
    data = [mu_pp(act), act.object_id, mu_pp(exp), exp.object_id]
    "Expected %s (oid=%d) to not be the same as %s (oid=%d)" % data
  }
  refute exp.equal?(act), msg
end

#skip(msg = nil, bt = caller) ⇒ Object

Skips the current run. If run in verbose-mode, the skipped run gets listed at the end of the run but doesn't cause a failure exit code.

Raises:


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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 713

def skip msg = nil, bt = caller
  msg ||= "Skipped, no message given"
  @skip = true
  raise Minitest::Skip, msg, bt
end

#skipped?Boolean

Was this testcase skipped? Meant for #teardown.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/minitest/assertions.rb', line 722

def skipped?
  defined?(@skip) and @skip
end