Class: Mechanize::HTTP::Agent

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb

Overview

An HTTP (and local disk access) user agent. This class is an implementation detail and is subject to change at any time.

Constant Summary collapse

CREDENTIAL_HEADERS =
['Authorization', 'Cookie']
POST_HEADERS =
['Content-Length', 'Content-MD5', 'Content-Type']
RobotsKey =

:section: Robots

:__mechanize_get_robots__

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(connection_name = 'mechanize') ⇒ Agent

The connection_name can be used to segregate SSL connections. Agents with different names will not share the same persistent connection.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 139

def initialize(connection_name = 'mechanize')
  @allowed_error_codes      = []
  @conditional_requests     = true
  @context                  = nil
  @content_encoding_hooks   = []
  @cookie_jar               = Mechanize::CookieJar.new
  @follow_meta_refresh      = false
  @follow_meta_refresh_self = false
  @gzip_enabled             = true
  @history                  = Mechanize::History.new
  @ignore_bad_chunking      = false
  @keep_alive               = true
  @max_file_buffer          = 100_000 # 5MB for response bodies
  @open_timeout             = nil
  @post_connect_hooks       = []
  @pre_connect_hooks        = []
  @read_timeout             = nil
  @redirect_ok              = true
  @redirection_limit        = 20
  @request_headers          = {}
  @robots                   = false
  @robots_mutex             = Mutex.new
  @user_agent               = nil
  @webrobots                = nil

  # HTTP Authentication
  @auth_store           = Mechanize::HTTP::AuthStore.new
  @authenticate_parser  = Mechanize::HTTP::WWWAuthenticateParser.new
  @authenticate_methods = Hash.new do |methods, uri|
    methods[uri] = Hash.new do |realms, auth_scheme|
      realms[auth_scheme] = []
    end
  end
  @digest_auth          = Net::HTTP::DigestAuth.new
  @digest_challenges    = {}

  # SSL
  @pass = nil

  @scheme_handlers = Hash.new { |h, scheme|
    h[scheme] = lambda { |link, page|
      raise Mechanize::UnsupportedSchemeError.new(scheme, link)
    }
  }

  @scheme_handlers['http']      = lambda { |link, page| link }
  @scheme_handlers['https']     = @scheme_handlers['http']
  @scheme_handlers['relative']  = @scheme_handlers['http']
  @scheme_handlers['file']      = @scheme_handlers['http']

  @http =
    if defined?(Net::HTTP::Persistent::DEFAULT_POOL_SIZE)
      Net::HTTP::Persistent.new(name: connection_name)
    else
      # net-http-persistent < 3.0
      Net::HTTP::Persistent.new(connection_name)
    end
  @http.idle_timeout = 5
  @http.keep_alive   = 300
end

Instance Attribute Details

#allowed_error_codesObject

List of error codes (in String or Integer) to handle without raising Mechanize::ResponseCodeError, defaulted to an empty array. Note that 2xx, 3xx and 401 status codes will be handled without checking this list.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 82

def allowed_error_codes
  @allowed_error_codes
end

#auth_storeObject (readonly)

:section: HTTP Authentication


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 49

def auth_store
  @auth_store
end

#authenticate_methodsObject (readonly)

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 50

def authenticate_methods
  @authenticate_methods
end

#conditional_requestsObject

Disables If-Modified-Since conditional requests (enabled by default)


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 18

def conditional_requests
  @conditional_requests
end

#content_encoding_hooksObject (readonly)

A list of hooks to call to handle the content-encoding of a request.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 45

def content_encoding_hooks
  @content_encoding_hooks
end

#contextObject

The context parses responses into pages


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 120

def context
  @context
end

The cookies for this agent


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 111

def cookie_jar
  @cookie_jar
end

#digest_challengesObject (readonly)

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 51

def digest_challenges
  @digest_challenges
end

#follow_meta_refreshObject

Follow HTML meta refresh and HTTP Refresh. If set to :anywhere meta refresh tags outside of the head element will be followed.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 57

def follow_meta_refresh
  @follow_meta_refresh
end

#follow_meta_refresh_selfObject

Follow an HTML meta refresh that has no “url=” in the content attribute.

Defaults to false to prevent infinite refresh loops.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 62

def follow_meta_refresh_self
  @follow_meta_refresh_self
end

#gzip_enabledObject

Is gzip compression of requests enabled?


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 21

def gzip_enabled
  @gzip_enabled
end

#historyObject

history of requests made


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 32

def history
  @history
end

#httpObject (readonly)

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 122

def http
  @http
end

#ignore_bad_chunkingObject

When set to true mechanize will ignore an EOF during chunked transfer encoding so long as at least one byte was received. Be careful when enabling this as it may cause data loss.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 127

def ignore_bad_chunking
  @ignore_bad_chunking
end

#keep_aliveObject

Set to false to disable HTTP/1.1 keep-alive requests


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 100

def keep_alive
  @keep_alive
end

#max_file_bufferObject

Responses larger than this will be written to a Tempfile instead of stored in memory. Setting this to nil disables creation of Tempfiles.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 115

def max_file_buffer
  @max_file_buffer
end

#open_timeoutObject

Length of time to wait until a connection is opened in seconds


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 103

def open_timeout
  @open_timeout
end

#passObject

OpenSSL key password


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 95

def pass
  @pass
end

#post_connect_hooksObject (readonly)

A list of hooks to call after retrieving a response. Hooks are called with the agent and the response returned.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 38

def post_connect_hooks
  @post_connect_hooks
end

#pre_connect_hooksObject (readonly)

A list of hooks to call before making a request. Hooks are called with the agent and the request to be performed.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 42

def pre_connect_hooks
  @pre_connect_hooks
end

#read_timeoutObject

Length of time to attempt to read data from the server


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 106

def read_timeout
  @read_timeout
end

#redirect_okObject

Controls how this agent deals with redirects. The following values are allowed:

:all, true

All 3xx redirects are followed (default)

:permanent

Only 301 Moved Permanantly redirects are followed

false

No redirects are followed


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 70

def redirect_ok
  @redirect_ok
end

#redirection_limitObject

Maximum number of redirects to follow


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 73

def redirection_limit
  @redirection_limit
end

#request_headersObject

A hash of request headers to be used for every request


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 24

def request_headers
  @request_headers
end

#robotsObject

When true, this agent will consult the site's robots.txt for each access.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 87

def robots
  @robots
end

#robots_mutexObject (readonly)

Mutex used when fetching robots.txt


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 90

def robots_mutex
  @robots_mutex
end

#scheme_handlersObject

Handlers for various URI schemes


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 130

def scheme_handlers
  @scheme_handlers
end

#user_agentObject

The User-Agent header to send


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 27

def user_agent
  @user_agent
end

Instance Method Details

#add_auth(uri, user, password, realm = nil, domain = nil) ⇒ Object

Adds credentials user, pass for uri. If realm is set the credentials are used only for that realm. If realm is not set the credentials become the default for any realm on that URI.

domain and realm are exclusive as NTLM does not follow RFC 2617. If domain is given it is only used for NTLM authentication.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 208

def add_auth uri, user, password, realm = nil, domain = nil
  @auth_store.add_auth uri, user, password, realm, domain
end

#add_default_auth(user, password, domain = nil) ⇒ Object

USE OF add_default_auth IS NOT RECOMMENDED AS IT MAY EXPOSE PASSWORDS TO THIRD PARTIES

Adds credentials user, pass as the default authentication credentials. If no other credentials are available these will be returned from credentials_for.

If domain is given it is only used for NTLM authentication.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 222

def add_default_auth user, password, domain = nil # :nodoc:
  @auth_store.add_default_auth user, password, domain
end

#auto_io(name, read_size, input_io) ⇒ Object

Creates a new output IO by reading input_io in read_size chunks. If the output is over the max_file_buffer size a Tempfile with name is created.

If a block is provided, each chunk of input_io is yielded for further processing.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1189

def auto_io name, read_size, input_io
  out_io = StringIO.new.set_encoding(Encoding::BINARY)

  until input_io.eof? do
    if StringIO === out_io and use_tempfile? out_io.size then
      new_io = make_tempfile name
      new_io.write out_io.string
      out_io = new_io
    end

    chunk = input_io.read read_size
    chunk = yield chunk if block_given?

    out_io.write chunk
  end

  out_io.rewind

  out_io
end

#backObject

Equivalent to the browser back button. Returns the most recent page visited.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 365

def back
  @history.pop
end

#ca_fileObject

Path to an OpenSSL CA certificate file


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1080

def ca_file
  @http.ca_file
end

#ca_file=(ca_file) ⇒ Object

Sets the path to an OpenSSL CA certificate file


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1085

def ca_file= ca_file
  @http.ca_file = ca_file
end

#cert_storeObject

The SSL certificate store used for validating connections


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1090

def cert_store
  @http.cert_store
end

#cert_store=(cert_store) ⇒ Object

Sets the SSL certificate store used for validating connections


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1095

def cert_store= cert_store
  @http.cert_store = cert_store
end

#certificateObject

The client X509 certificate


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1100

def certificate
  @http.certificate
end

#certificate=(certificate) ⇒ Object

Sets the client certificate to given X509 certificate. If a path is given the certificate will be loaded and set.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1106

def certificate= certificate
  certificate = if OpenSSL::X509::Certificate === certificate then
                  certificate
                else
                  OpenSSL::X509::Certificate.new File.read certificate
                end

  @http.certificate = certificate
end

#connection_for(uri) ⇒ Object

:section: Request


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 428

def connection_for uri
  case uri.scheme.downcase
  when 'http', 'https' then
    return @http
  when 'file' then
    return Mechanize::FileConnection.new
  end
end

#content_encoding_gunzip(body_io) ⇒ Object

Decodes a gzip-encoded body_io. If it cannot be decoded, inflate is tried followed by raising an error.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 446

def content_encoding_gunzip body_io
  log.debug('gzip response') if log

  zio = Zlib::GzipReader.new body_io
  out_io = auto_io 'mechanize-gunzip', 16384, zio
  zio.finish

  return out_io
rescue Zlib::Error => gz_error
  log.warn "unable to gunzip response: #{gz_error} (#{gz_error.class})" if
    log

  body_io.rewind
  body_io.read 10

  begin
    log.warn "trying raw inflate on response" if log
    return inflate body_io, -Zlib::MAX_WBITS
  rescue Zlib::Error => e
    log.error "unable to inflate response: #{e} (#{e.class})" if log
    raise
  end
ensure
  # do not close a second time if we failed the first time
  zio.close if zio and !(zio.closed? or gz_error)
  body_io.close unless body_io.closed?
end

#content_encoding_inflate(body_io) ⇒ Object

Decodes a deflate-encoded body_io. If it cannot be decoded, raw inflate is tried followed by raising an error.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 478

def content_encoding_inflate body_io
  log.debug('deflate body') if log

  return inflate body_io
rescue Zlib::Error
  log.error('unable to inflate response, trying raw deflate') if log

  body_io.rewind

  begin
    return inflate body_io, -Zlib::MAX_WBITS
  rescue Zlib::Error => e
    log.error("unable to inflate response: #{e}") if log
    raise
  end
ensure
  body_io.close
end

#current_pageObject

Returns the latest page loaded by the agent


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 372

def current_page
  @history.last
end

#disable_keep_alive(request) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 497

def disable_keep_alive request
  request['connection'] = 'close' unless @keep_alive
end

#enable_gzip(request) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 501

def enable_gzip request
  request['accept-encoding'] = if @gzip_enabled
                                 'gzip,deflate,identity'
                               else
                                 'identity'
                               end
end

#fetch(uri, method = :get, headers = {}, params = [], referer = current_page, redirects = 0) ⇒ Object

Retrieves uri and parses it into a page or other object according to PluggableParser. If the URI is an HTTP or HTTPS scheme URI the given HTTP method is used to retrieve it, along with the HTTP headers, request params and HTTP referer.

The final URI to access is built with uri and params, the latter of which is formatted into a string using Mechanize::Util.build_query_string, which see.

redirects tracks the number of redirects experienced when retrieving the page. If it is over the redirection_limit an error will be raised.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 239

def fetch uri, method = :get, headers = {}, params = [],
          referer = current_page, redirects = 0

  referer_uri = referer ? referer.uri : nil
  uri         = resolve uri, referer
  uri, params = resolve_parameters uri, method, params
  request     = http_request uri, method, params
  connection  = connection_for uri

  request_auth             request, uri
  disable_keep_alive       request
  enable_gzip              request
  request_language_charset request
  request_cookies          request, uri
  request_host             request, uri
  request_referer          request, uri, referer_uri
  request_user_agent       request
  request_add_headers      request, headers
  pre_connect              request

  # Consult robots.txt
  if robots && uri.is_a?(URI::HTTP)
    robots_allowed?(uri) or raise Mechanize::RobotsDisallowedError.new(uri)
  end

  # Add If-Modified-Since if page is in history
  if page = visited_page(uri) and last_modified = page.response['Last-Modified']
    request['If-Modified-Since'] = last_modified
  end if @conditional_requests

  # Specify timeouts if supplied and our connection supports them
  if @open_timeout && connection.respond_to?(:open_timeout=)
    connection.open_timeout = @open_timeout
  end
  if @read_timeout && connection.respond_to?(:read_timeout=)
    connection.read_timeout = @read_timeout
  end

  request_log request

  response_body_io = nil

  # Send the request
  begin
    response = connection.request(uri, request) { |res|
      response_log res

      response_body_io = response_read res, request, uri

      res
    }
  rescue Mechanize::ChunkedTerminationError => e
    raise unless @ignore_bad_chunking

    response = e.response
    response_body_io = e.body_io
  end

  hook_content_encoding response, uri, response_body_io

  response_body_io = response_content_encoding response, response_body_io if
    request.response_body_permitted?

  post_connect uri, response, response_body_io

  page = response_parse response, response_body_io, uri

  response_cookies response, uri, page

  meta = response_follow_meta_refresh response, uri, page, redirects
  return meta if meta

  if robots && page.is_a?(Mechanize::Page)
    page.parser.noindex? and raise Mechanize::RobotsDisallowedError.new(uri)
  end

  case response
  when Net::HTTPSuccess
    page
  when Mechanize::FileResponse
    page
  when Net::HTTPNotModified
    log.debug("Got cached page") if log
    visited_page(uri) || page
  when Net::HTTPRedirection
    response_redirect response, method, page, redirects, headers, referer
  when Net::HTTPUnauthorized
    response_authenticate(response, page, uri, request, headers, params,
                          referer)
  else
    if @allowed_error_codes.any? {|code| code.to_s == page.code} then
      page
    else
      raise Mechanize::ResponseCodeError.new(page, 'unhandled response')
    end
  end
end

#get_meta_refresh(response, uri, page) ⇒ Object

:section: Response


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 724

def get_meta_refresh response, uri, page
  return nil unless @follow_meta_refresh

  if page.respond_to?(:meta_refresh) and
     (redirect = page.meta_refresh.first) then
    [redirect.delay, redirect.href] unless
      not @follow_meta_refresh_self and redirect.link_self
  elsif refresh = response['refresh']
    delay, href, link_self = Mechanize::Page::MetaRefresh.parse refresh, uri
    raise Mechanize::Error, 'Invalid refresh http header' unless delay
    [delay.to_f, href] unless
      not @follow_meta_refresh_self and link_self
  end
end

#get_robots(uri) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1014

def get_robots(uri) # :nodoc:
  robots_mutex.synchronize do
    Thread.current[RobotsKey] = true
    begin
      fetch(uri).body
    rescue Mechanize::ResponseCodeError => e
      case e.response_code
      when /\A4\d\d\z/
        ''
      else
        raise e
      end
    rescue Mechanize::RedirectLimitReachedError
      ''
    ensure
      Thread.current[RobotsKey] = false
    end
  end
end

#hook_content_encoding(response, uri, response_body_io) ⇒ Object

:section: Hooks


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 393

def hook_content_encoding response, uri, response_body_io
  @content_encoding_hooks.each do |hook|
    hook.call self, uri, response, response_body_io
  end
end

#http_request(uri, method, params = nil) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 509

def http_request uri, method, params = nil
  case uri.scheme.downcase
  when 'http', 'https' then
    klass = Net::HTTP.const_get(method.to_s.capitalize)

    request ||= klass.new(uri.request_uri)
    request.body = params.first if params

    request
  when 'file' then
    Mechanize::FileRequest.new uri
  end
end

#idle_timeoutObject

Reset connections that have not been used in this many seconds


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1170

def idle_timeout
  @http.idle_timeout
end

#idle_timeout=(timeout) ⇒ Object

Sets the connection idle timeout for persistent connections


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1175

def idle_timeout= timeout
  @http.idle_timeout = timeout
end

#inflate(compressed, window_bits = nil) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1210

def inflate compressed, window_bits = nil
  inflate = Zlib::Inflate.new window_bits

  out_io = auto_io 'mechanize-inflate', 1024, compressed do |chunk|
    inflate.inflate chunk
  end

  inflate.finish

  out_io
ensure
  inflate.close if inflate.finished?
end

#logObject


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1224

def log
  @context.log
end

#make_tempfile(name) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1268

def make_tempfile name
  io = Tempfile.new name
  io.unlink
  io.binmode
  io
end

#max_historyObject

Returns the maximum size for the history stack.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 377

def max_history
  @history.max_size
end

#max_history=(length) ⇒ Object

Set the maximum size for the history stack.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 382

def max_history=(length)
  @history.max_size = length
end

#post_connect(uri, response, body_io) ⇒ Object

Invokes hooks added to post_connect_hooks after a response is returned and the response body is handled.

Yields the context, the uri for the request, the response and the response body.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 406

def post_connect uri, response, body_io # :yields: agent, uri, response, body
  @post_connect_hooks.each do |hook|
    begin
      hook.call self, uri, response, body_io.read
    ensure
      body_io.rewind
    end
  end
end

#pre_connect(request) ⇒ Object

Invokes hooks added to pre_connect_hooks before a request is made. Yields the agent and the request that will be performed to each hook.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 420

def pre_connect request # :yields: agent, request
  @pre_connect_hooks.each do |hook|
    hook.call self, request
  end
end

#private_keyObject

An OpenSSL private key or the path to a private key


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1117

def private_key
  @http.private_key
end

#private_key=(private_key) ⇒ Object

Sets the client's private key


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1122

def private_key= private_key
  private_key = if OpenSSL::PKey::PKey === private_key then
                  private_key
                else
                  OpenSSL::PKey::RSA.new File.read(private_key), @pass
                end

  @http.private_key = private_key
end

#proxy_uriObject

URI for a proxy connection


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 339

def proxy_uri
  @http.proxy_uri
end

#request_add_headers(request, headers = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 523

def request_add_headers request, headers = {}
  @request_headers.each do |k,v|
    request[k] = v
  end

  headers.each do |field, value|
    case field
    when :etag              then request["ETag"] = value
    when :if_modified_since then request["If-Modified-Since"] = value
    when Symbol then
      raise ArgumentError, "unknown header symbol #{field}"
    else
      request[field] = value
    end
  end
end

#request_auth(request, uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 540

def request_auth request, uri
  base_uri = uri + '/'
  base_uri.user     &&= nil
  base_uri.password &&= nil
  schemes = @authenticate_methods[base_uri]

  if realm = schemes[:digest].find { |r| r.uri == base_uri } then
    request_auth_digest request, uri, realm, base_uri, false
  elsif realm = schemes[:iis_digest].find { |r| r.uri == base_uri } then
    request_auth_digest request, uri, realm, base_uri, true
  elsif realm = schemes[:basic].find { |r| r.uri == base_uri } then
    user, password, = @auth_store.credentials_for uri, realm.realm
    request.basic_auth user, password
  end
end

#request_auth_digest(request, uri, realm, base_uri, iis) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 556

def request_auth_digest request, uri, realm, base_uri, iis
  challenge = @digest_challenges[realm]

  uri.user, uri.password, = @auth_store.credentials_for uri, realm.realm

  auth = @digest_auth.auth_header uri, challenge.to_s, request.method, iis
  request['Authorization'] = auth
end

#request_cookies(request, uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 565

def request_cookies request, uri
  return if @cookie_jar.empty? uri

  cookies = @cookie_jar.cookies uri

  return if cookies.empty?

  request.add_field 'Cookie', cookies.join('; ')
end

#request_host(request, uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 575

def request_host request, uri
  port = [80, 443].include?(uri.port.to_i) ? nil : uri.port
  host = uri.host

  request['Host'] = [host, port].compact.join ':'
end

#request_language_charset(request) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 582

def request_language_charset request
  request['accept-charset']  = 'ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7'
  request['accept-language'] = 'en-us,en;q=0.5'
end

#request_log(request) ⇒ Object

Log specified headers for the request


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 588

def request_log request
  return unless log

  log.info("#{request.class}: #{request.path}")

  request.each_header do |k, v|
    log.debug("request-header: #{k} => #{v}")
  end
end

#request_referer(request, uri, referer) ⇒ Object

Sets a Referer header. Fragment part is removed as demanded by RFC 2616 14.36, and user information part is removed just like major browsers do.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 601

def request_referer request, uri, referer
  return unless referer
  return if 'https'.casecmp(referer.scheme) == 0 and
            'https'.casecmp(uri.scheme) != 0
  if referer.fragment || referer.user || referer.password
    referer = referer.dup
    referer.fragment = referer.user = referer.password = nil
  end
  request['Referer'] = referer
end

#request_user_agent(request) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 612

def request_user_agent request
  request['User-Agent'] = @user_agent if @user_agent
end

#resetObject


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1282

def reset
  @cookie_jar.clear
  @history.clear
end

#resolve(uri, referer = current_page) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 616

def resolve(uri, referer = current_page)
  referer_uri = referer && referer.uri
  if uri.is_a?(URI)
    uri = uri.dup
  elsif uri.nil?
    if referer_uri
      return referer_uri
    end
    raise ArgumentError, "absolute URL needed (not nil)"
  else
    url = uri.to_s.strip
    if url.empty?
      if referer_uri
        return referer_uri.dup.tap { |u| u.fragment = nil }
      end
      raise ArgumentError, "absolute URL needed (not #{uri.inspect})"
    end

    url.gsub!(/[^#{0.chr}-#{126.chr}]/o) { |match|
      Mechanize::Util.uri_escape(match)
    }

    escaped_url = Mechanize::Util.html_unescape(
      url.split(/((?:%[0-9A-Fa-f]{2})+|#)/).each_slice(2).map { |x, y|
        "#{WEBrick::HTTPUtils.escape(x)}#{y}"
      }.join('')
    )

    begin
      uri = URI.parse(escaped_url)
    rescue
      uri = URI.parse(WEBrick::HTTPUtils.escape(escaped_url))
    end
  end

  uri.host = referer_uri.host if referer_uri && URI::HTTP === uri && uri.host.nil?

  scheme = uri.relative? ? 'relative' : uri.scheme.downcase
  uri = @scheme_handlers[scheme].call(uri, referer)

  if uri.relative?
    raise ArgumentError, "absolute URL needed (not #{uri})" unless
      referer_uri

    if referer.respond_to?(:bases) && referer.parser &&
        (lbase = referer.bases.last) && lbase.uri && lbase.uri.absolute?
      base = lbase
    else
      base = nil
    end

    base = referer_uri + (base ? base.uri : referer_uri)

    # Workaround for URI's bug in that it squashes consecutive
    # slashes.  See #304.
    if uri.path.match(%r{\A(.*?/)(?!/\.\.?(?!/))(/.*)\z}i)
      uri = URI((base + $1).to_s + $2)
    else
      uri = base + uri
    end

    # Strip initial "/.." bits from the path
    uri.path.sub!(/^(\/\.\.)+(?=\/)/, '')
  end

  unless ['http', 'https', 'file'].include?(uri.scheme.downcase)
    raise ArgumentError, "unsupported scheme: #{uri.scheme}"
  end

  case uri.path
  when nil
    raise ArgumentError, "hierarchical URL needed (not #{uri})"
  when ''.freeze
    uri.path = '/'
  end

  uri
end

#resolve_parameters(uri, method, parameters) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 707

def resolve_parameters uri, method, parameters
  case method
  when :head, :get, :delete, :trace then
    if parameters and parameters.length > 0
      uri.query ||= ''
      uri.query << '&' if uri.query.length > 0
      uri.query << Mechanize::Util.build_query_string(parameters)
    end

    return uri, nil
  end

  return uri, parameters
end

#response_authenticate(response, page, uri, request, headers, params, referer) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 739

def response_authenticate(response, page, uri, request, headers, params,
                          referer)
  www_authenticate = response['www-authenticate']

  unless www_authenticate = response['www-authenticate'] then
    message = 'WWW-Authenticate header missing in response'
    raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, nil, message)
  end

  challenges = @authenticate_parser.parse www_authenticate

  unless @auth_store.credentials? uri, challenges then
    message = "no credentials found, provide some with #add_auth"
    raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, challenges, message)
  end

  if challenge = challenges.find { |c| c.scheme =~ /^Digest$/i } then
    realm = challenge.realm uri

    auth_scheme = if response['server'] =~ /Microsoft-IIS/ then
                    :iis_digest
                  else
                    :digest
                  end

    existing_realms = @authenticate_methods[realm.uri][auth_scheme]

    if existing_realms.include? realm
      message = 'Digest authentication failed'
      raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, challenges, message)
    end

    existing_realms << realm
    @digest_challenges[realm] = challenge
  elsif challenge = challenges.find { |c| c.scheme == 'NTLM' } then
    existing_realms = @authenticate_methods[uri + '/'][:ntlm]

    if existing_realms.include?(realm) and not challenge.params then
      message = 'NTLM authentication failed'
      raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, challenges, message)
    end

    existing_realms << realm

    if challenge.params then
      type_2 = Net::NTLM::Message.decode64 challenge.params

      user, password, domain = @auth_store.credentials_for uri, nil

      type_3 = type_2.response({ :user => user, :password => password,
                                 :domain => domain },
                               { :ntlmv2 => true }).encode64

      headers['Authorization'] = "NTLM #{type_3}"
    else
      type_1 = Net::NTLM::Message::Type1.new.encode64
      headers['Authorization'] = "NTLM #{type_1}"
    end
  elsif challenge = challenges.find { |c| c.scheme == 'Basic' } then
    realm = challenge.realm uri

    existing_realms = @authenticate_methods[realm.uri][:basic]

    if existing_realms.include? realm then
      message = 'Basic authentication failed'
      raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, challenges, message)
    end

    existing_realms << realm
  else
    message = 'unsupported authentication scheme'
    raise Mechanize::UnauthorizedError.new(page, challenges, message)
  end

  fetch uri, request.method.downcase.to_sym, headers, params, referer
end

#response_content_encoding(response, body_io) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 816

def response_content_encoding response, body_io
  length = response.content_length ||
    case body_io
    when Tempfile, IO then
      body_io.stat.size
    else
      body_io.length
    end

  return body_io if length.zero?

  out_io = case response['Content-Encoding']
           when nil, 'none', '7bit', 'identity', "" then
             body_io
           when 'deflate' then
             content_encoding_inflate body_io
           when 'gzip', 'x-gzip' then
             content_encoding_gunzip body_io
           else
             raise Mechanize::Error,
               "unsupported content-encoding: #{response['Content-Encoding']}"
           end

  out_io.flush
  out_io.rewind

  out_io
rescue Zlib::Error => e
  message = String.new("error handling content-encoding #{response['Content-Encoding']}:")
  message << " #{e.message} (#{e.class})"
  raise Mechanize::Error, message
ensure
  begin
    if Tempfile === body_io and
       (StringIO === out_io or (out_io and out_io.path != body_io.path)) then
      body_io.close!
    end
  rescue IOError
    # HACK ruby 1.8 raises IOError when closing the stream
  end
end

#response_cookies(response, uri, page) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 858

def response_cookies response, uri, page
  if Mechanize::Page === page and page.body =~ /Set-Cookie/n
    page.search('//head/meta[@http-equiv="Set-Cookie"]').each do |meta|
      save_cookies(uri, meta['content'])
    end
  end

  header_cookies = response.get_fields 'Set-Cookie'

  return unless header_cookies

  header_cookies.each do |set_cookie|
    save_cookies(uri, set_cookie)
  end
end

#response_follow_meta_refresh(response, uri, page, redirects) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 886

def response_follow_meta_refresh response, uri, page, redirects
  delay, new_url = get_meta_refresh(response, uri, page)
  return nil unless delay
  new_url = new_url ? secure_resolve!(new_url, page) : uri

  raise Mechanize::RedirectLimitReachedError.new(page, redirects) if
    redirects + 1 > @redirection_limit

  sleep delay
  @history.push(page, page.uri)
  fetch new_url, :get, {}, [],
        Mechanize::Page.new, redirects + 1
end

#response_log(response) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 900

def response_log response
  return unless log

  log.info("status: #{response.class} #{response.http_version} " \
           "#{response.code} #{response.message}")

  response.each_header do |k, v|
    log.debug("response-header: #{k} => #{v}")
  end
end

#response_parse(response, body_io, uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 911

def response_parse response, body_io, uri
  @context.parse uri, response, body_io
end

#response_read(response, request, uri) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 915

def response_read response, request, uri
  content_length = response.content_length

  if use_tempfile? content_length then
    body_io = make_tempfile 'mechanize-raw'
  else
    body_io = StringIO.new.set_encoding(Encoding::BINARY)
  end

  total = 0

  begin
    response.read_body { |part|
      total += part.length

      if StringIO === body_io and use_tempfile? total then
        new_io = make_tempfile 'mechanize-raw'

        new_io.write body_io.string

        body_io = new_io
      end

      body_io.write(part)
      log.debug("Read #{part.length} bytes (#{total} total)") if log
    }
  rescue EOFError => e
    # terminating CRLF might be missing, let the user check the document
    raise unless response.chunked? and total.nonzero?

    body_io.rewind
    raise Mechanize::ChunkedTerminationError.new(e, response, body_io, uri,
                                                 @context)
  rescue Net::HTTP::Persistent::Error, Errno::ECONNRESET => e
    body_io.rewind
    raise Mechanize::ResponseReadError.new(e, response, body_io, uri,
                                           @context)
  end

  body_io.flush
  body_io.rewind

  raise Mechanize::ResponseCodeError.new(response, uri) if
    Net::HTTPUnknownResponse === response

  content_length = response.content_length

  unless Net::HTTP::Head === request or Net::HTTPRedirection === response then
    if content_length and content_length != body_io.length
      err = EOFError.new("Content-Length (#{content_length}) does not " \
                    "match response body length (#{body_io.length})")
      raise Mechanize::ResponseReadError.new(err, response, body_io, uri,
                                              @context)
    end
  end

  body_io
end

#response_redirect(response, method, page, redirects, headers, referer = current_page) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 974

def response_redirect(response, method, page, redirects, headers,
                      referer = current_page)
  case @redirect_ok
  when true, :all
    # shortcut
  when false, nil
    return page
  when :permanent
    return page unless Net::HTTPMovedPermanently === response
  end

  log.info("follow redirect to: #{response['Location']}") if log

  raise Mechanize::RedirectLimitReachedError.new(page, redirects) if
    redirects + 1 > @redirection_limit

  redirect_method = method == :head ? :head : :get

  new_uri = secure_resolve!(response['Location'].to_s, page)
  @history.push(page, page.uri)

  # Make sure we are not copying over the POST headers from the original request
  POST_HEADERS.each do |key|
    headers.delete_if { |h| h.casecmp?(key) }
  end

  # Make sure we clear credential headers if being redirected to another site
  if new_uri.host != page.uri.host
    CREDENTIAL_HEADERS.each do |ch|
      headers.delete_if { |h| h.casecmp?(ch) }
    end
  end

  fetch new_uri, redirect_method, headers, [], referer, redirects + 1
end

#retry_change_requestsObject

Retry non-idempotent requests?


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 344

def retry_change_requests
  @http.retry_change_requests
end

#retry_change_requests=(retri) ⇒ Object

Retry non-idempotent requests


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 350

def retry_change_requests= retri
  @http.retry_change_requests = retri
end

#robots_allowed?(uri) ⇒ Boolean

Tests if this agent is allowed to access url, consulting the site's robots.txt.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1044

def robots_allowed? uri
  return true if Thread.current[RobotsKey]

  webrobots.allowed? uri
end

#robots_disallowed?(url) ⇒ Boolean

Opposite of robots_allowed?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1052

def robots_disallowed? url
  !robots_allowed? url
end

#robots_error(url) ⇒ Object

Returns an error object if there is an error in fetching or parsing robots.txt of the site url.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1058

def robots_error(url)
  webrobots.error(url)
end

#robots_error!(url) ⇒ Object

Raises the error if there is an error in fetching or parsing robots.txt of the site url.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1064

def robots_error!(url)
  webrobots.error!(url)
end

#robots_reset(url) ⇒ Object

Removes robots.txt cache for the site url.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1069

def robots_reset(url)
  webrobots.reset(url)
end

#save_cookies(uri, set_cookie) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 874

def save_cookies(uri, set_cookie)
  return [] if set_cookie.nil?
  if log = log()	 # reduce method calls
    @cookie_jar.parse(set_cookie, uri, :logger => log) { |c|
      log.debug("saved cookie: #{c}")
      true
    }
  else
    @cookie_jar.parse(set_cookie, uri)
  end
end

#secure_resolve!(uri, referer = current_page) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 695

def secure_resolve!(uri, referer = current_page)
  new_uri = resolve(uri, referer)

  if (referer_uri = referer && referer.uri) &&
     referer_uri.scheme != 'file'.freeze &&
     new_uri.scheme == 'file'.freeze
    raise Mechanize::Error, "insecure redirect to a file URI"
  end

  new_uri
end

#set_proxy(addr, port = nil, user = nil, pass = nil) ⇒ Object

Sets the proxy address, port, user, and password. addr may be an HTTP URL/URI or a host name, port may be a port number, service name or port number string.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1233

def set_proxy addr, port = nil, user = nil, pass = nil
  case addr
  when URI::HTTP
    proxy_uri = addr.dup
  when %r{\Ahttps?://}i
    proxy_uri = URI addr
  when String
    proxy_uri = URI "http://#{addr}"
  when nil
    @http.proxy = nil
    return
  end

  case port
  when Integer
    proxy_uri.port = port
  when nil
  else
    begin
      proxy_uri.port = Socket.getservbyname port
    rescue SocketError
      begin
        proxy_uri.port = Integer port
      rescue ArgumentError
        raise ArgumentError, "invalid value for port: #{port.inspect}"
      end
    end
  end

  proxy_uri.user     = user if user
  proxy_uri.password = pass if pass

  @http.proxy = proxy_uri
end

#shutdownObject

Closes all open connections for this agent.


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 438

def shutdown
  http.shutdown
end

#ssl_versionObject

SSL version to use


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1133

def ssl_version
  @http.ssl_version
end

#ssl_version=(ssl_version) ⇒ Object

Sets the SSL version to use


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1138

def ssl_version= ssl_version
  @http.ssl_version = ssl_version
end

#use_tempfile?(size) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1275

def use_tempfile? size
  return false unless @max_file_buffer
  return false unless size

  size >= @max_file_buffer
end

#verify_callbackObject

A callback for additional certificate verification. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#verify_callback

The callback can be used for debugging or to ignore errors by always returning true. Specifying nil uses the default method that was valid when the SSLContext was created


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1148

def verify_callback
  @http.verify_callback
end

#verify_callback=(verify_callback) ⇒ Object

Sets the certificate verify callback


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1153

def verify_callback= verify_callback
  @http.verify_callback = verify_callback
end

#verify_modeObject

How to verify SSL connections. Defaults to VERIFY_PEER


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1158

def verify_mode
  @http.verify_mode
end

#verify_mode=(verify_mode) ⇒ Object

Sets the mode for verifying SSL connections


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1163

def verify_mode= verify_mode
  @http.verify_mode = verify_mode
end

#visited_page(url) ⇒ Object

Returns a visited page for the url passed in, otherwise nil


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 387

def visited_page url
  @history.visited_page resolve url
end

#webrobotsObject


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# File 'lib/mechanize/http/agent.rb', line 1073

def webrobots
  @webrobots ||= WebRobots.new(@user_agent, :http_get => method(:get_robots))
end