Class: Google::Cloud::Spanner::Transaction

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb

Overview

Transaction

A transaction in Cloud Spanner is a set of reads and writes that execute atomically at a single logical point in time across columns, rows, and tables in a database.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes. Transactions will be automatically retried when possible. See Client#transaction.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  # Read the second album budget.
  second_album_result = tx.read "Albums", ["marketing_budget"],
                                keys: [[2, 2]], limit: 1
  second_album_row = second_album_result.rows.first
  second_album_budget = second_album_row.values.first

  transfer_amount = 200000

  if second_album_budget < 300000
    # Raising an exception will automatically roll back the
    # transaction.
    raise "The second album doesn't have enough funds to transfer"
  end

  # Read the first album's budget.
  first_album_result = tx.read "Albums", ["marketing_budget"],
                                keys: [[1, 1]], limit: 1
  first_album_row = first_album_result.rows.first
  first_album_budget = first_album_row.values.first

  # Update the budgets.
  second_album_budget -= transfer_amount
  first_album_budget += transfer_amount
  puts "Setting first album's budget to #{first_album_budget} and " \
       "the second album's budget to #{second_album_budget}."

  # Update the rows.
  rows = [
    {singer_id: 1, album_id: 1, marketing_budget: first_album_budget},
    {singer_id: 2, album_id: 2, marketing_budget: second_album_budget}
  ]
  tx.update "Albums", rows
end

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initializeTransaction

Returns a new instance of Transaction.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 83

def initialize
  @commit = Commit.new
  @seqno = 0
end

Instance Method Details

#batch_update(request_options: nil, call_options: nil) {|batch_update| ... } ⇒ Array<Integer>

Executes DML statements in a batch.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  begin
    row_counts = tx.batch_update do |b|
      statement_count = b.batch_update(
        "UPDATE users SET name = 'Charlie' WHERE id = 1"
      )
    end
    puts row_counts.inspect
  rescue Google::Cloud::Spanner::BatchUpdateError => err
    puts err.cause.message
    puts err.row_counts.inspect
  end
end

Update using SQL parameters:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  begin
    row_counts = tx.batch_update do |b|
      statement_count = b.batch_update(
        "UPDATE users SET name = 'Charlie' WHERE id = 1",
        params: { id: 1, name: "Charlie" }
      )
    end
    puts row_counts.inspect
  rescue Google::Cloud::Spanner::BatchUpdateError => err
    puts err.cause.message
    puts err.row_counts.inspect
  end
end

Parameters:

  • request_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Common request options.

    • :priority (String) The relative priority for requests. The priority acts as a hint to the Cloud Spanner scheduler and does not guarantee priority or order of execution. Valid values are :PRIORITY_LOW, :PRIORITY_MEDIUM, :PRIORITY_HIGH. If priority not set then default is PRIORITY_UNSPECIFIED is equivalent to :PRIORITY_HIGH.
    • :tag (String) A per-request tag which can be applied to queries or reads, used for statistics collection. Tag must be a valid identifier of the form: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_\-] between 2 and 64 characters in length.
  • call_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom call options, e.g., timeout, retries, etc. Call options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :timeout (Numeric) A numeric value of custom timeout in seconds that overrides the default setting.
    • :retry_policy (Hash) A hash of values that overrides the default setting of retry policy with the following keys:
      • :initial_delay (Numeric) - The initial delay in seconds.
      • :max_delay (Numeric) - The max delay in seconds.
      • :multiplier (Numeric) - The incremental backoff multiplier.
      • :retry_codes (Array<String>) - The error codes that should trigger a retry.

Yields:

Yield Parameters:

Returns:

  • (Array<Integer>)

    A list with the exact number of rows that were modified for each DML statement.

Raises:

  • (Google::Cloud::Spanner::BatchUpdateError)

    If an error occurred while executing a statement. The error object contains a cause error with the service error type and message, and a list with the exact number of rows that were modified for each successful statement before the error.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 613

def batch_update request_options: nil, call_options: nil, &block
  ensure_session!
  @seqno += 1

  request_options = build_request_options request_options
  session.batch_update tx_selector, @seqno,
                       request_options: request_options,
                       call_options: call_options, &block
end

#commit_timestampColumnValue

Creates a column value object representing setting a field's value to the timestamp of the commit. (See Client#commit_timestamp)

This placeholder value can only be used for timestamp columns that have set the option "(allow_commit_timestamp=true)" in the schema.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new

db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  tx.insert "users", [
    { id: 5, name: "Murphy", updated_at: tx.commit_timestamp }
  ]
end

Returns:

  • (ColumnValue)

    The commit timestamp column value object.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 1069

def commit_timestamp
  ColumnValue.commit_timestamp
end

#delete(table, keys = []) ⇒ Object

Deletes rows from a table. Succeeds whether or not the specified rows were present.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction { |tx| tx.delete "users", [1, 2, 3] }

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be modified.

  • keys (Object, Array<Object>) (defaults to: [])

    A single, or list of keys or key ranges to match returned data to. Values should have exactly as many elements as there are columns in the primary key.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 904

def delete table, keys = []
  ensure_session!
  @commit.delete table, keys
end

#execute_query(sql, params: nil, types: nil, query_options: nil, request_options: nil, call_options: nil) ⇒ Google::Cloud::Spanner::Results Also known as: execute, query, execute_sql

Executes a SQL query.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  results = tx.execute_query "SELECT * FROM users"

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Query using query parameters:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  results = tx.execute_query(
    "SELECT * FROM users WHERE active = @active",
    params: { active: true }
  )

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Query with a SQL STRUCT query parameter as a Hash:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  user_hash = { id: 1, name: "Charlie", active: false }

  results = tx.execute_query(
    "SELECT * FROM users WHERE " \
    "ID = @user_struct.id " \
    "AND name = @user_struct.name " \
    "AND active = @user_struct.active",
    params: { user_struct: user_hash }
  )

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Specify the SQL STRUCT type using Fields object:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  user_type = tx.fields id: :INT64, name: :STRING, active: :BOOL
  user_hash = { id: 1, name: nil, active: false }

  results = tx.execute_query(
    "SELECT * FROM users WHERE " \
    "ID = @user_struct.id " \
    "AND name = @user_struct.name " \
    "AND active = @user_struct.active",
    params: { user_struct: user_hash },
    types: { user_struct: user_type }
  )

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Or, query with a SQL STRUCT as a typed Data object:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  user_type = tx.fields id: :INT64, name: :STRING, active: :BOOL
  user_data = user_type.struct id: 1, name: nil, active: false

  results = tx.execute_query(
    "SELECT * FROM users WHERE " \
    "ID = @user_struct.id " \
    "AND name = @user_struct.name " \
    "AND active = @user_struct.active",
    params: { user_struct: user_data }
  )

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Query using query options:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  results = tx.execute_query \
    "SELECT * FROM users", query_options: {
    optimizer_version: "1",
    optimizer_statistics_package: "auto_20191128_14_47_22UTC"
  }

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Query using custom timeout and retry policy:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

timeout = 30.0
retry_policy = {
  initial_delay: 0.25,
  max_delay:     32.0,
  multiplier:    1.3,
  retry_codes:   ["UNAVAILABLE"]
}
call_options = { timeout: timeout, retry_policy: retry_policy }

db.transaction do |tx|
  results = tx.execute_query \
    "SELECT * FROM users", call_options: call_options

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Parameters:

  • sql (String)

    The SQL query string. See Query syntax.

    The SQL query string can contain parameter placeholders. A parameter placeholder consists of "@" followed by the parameter name. Parameter names consist of any combination of letters, numbers, and underscores.

  • params (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    SQL parameters for the query string. The parameter placeholders, minus the "@", are the the hash keys, and the literal values are the hash values. If the query string contains something like "WHERE id > @msg_id", then the params must contain something like :msg_id => 1.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.
    STRUCT Hash, Data

    See Data types.

    See Data Types - Constructing a STRUCT.

  • types (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Types of the SQL parameters in params. It is not always possible for Cloud Spanner to infer the right SQL type from a value in params. In these cases, the types hash must be used to specify the SQL type for these values.

    The keys of the hash should be query string parameter placeholders, minus the "@". The values of the hash should be Cloud Spanner type codes from the following list:

    • :BOOL
    • :BYTES
    • :DATE
    • :FLOAT64
    • :NUMERIC
    • :INT64
    • :STRING
    • :TIMESTAMP
    • Array - Lists are specified by providing the type code in an array. For example, an array of integers are specified as [:INT64].
    • Fields - Types for STRUCT values (Hash/Data objects) are specified using a Fields object.

    Types are optional.

  • query_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom query options for executing SQL query. Query options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :optimizer_version (String) The version of optimizer to use. Empty to use database default. "latest" to use the latest available optimizer version.
    • :optimizer_statistics_package (String) Statistics package to use. Empty to use the database default.
  • request_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Common request options.

    • :priority (String) The relative priority for requests. The priority acts as a hint to the Cloud Spanner scheduler and does not guarantee priority or order of execution. Valid values are :PRIORITY_LOW, :PRIORITY_MEDIUM, :PRIORITY_HIGH. If priority not set then default is PRIORITY_UNSPECIFIED is equivalent to :PRIORITY_HIGH.
    • :tag (String) A per-request tag which can be applied to queries or reads, used for statistics collection. Tag must be a valid identifier of the form: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_\-] between 2 and 64 characters in length.
  • call_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom call options, e.g., timeout, retries, etc. Call options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :timeout (Numeric) A numeric value of custom timeout in seconds that overrides the default setting.
    • :retry_policy (Hash) A hash of values that overrides the default setting of retry policy with the following keys:
      • :initial_delay (Numeric) - The initial delay in seconds.
      • :max_delay (Numeric) - The max delay in seconds.
      • :multiplier (Numeric) - The incremental backoff multiplier.
      • :retry_codes (Array<String>) - The error codes that should trigger a retry.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 336

def execute_query sql, params: nil, types: nil, query_options: nil,
                  request_options: nil, call_options: nil
  ensure_session!

  @seqno += 1

  params, types = Convert.to_input_params_and_types params, types
  request_options = build_request_options request_options
  session.execute_query sql, params: params, types: types,
                             transaction: tx_selector, seqno: @seqno,
                             query_options: query_options,
                             request_options: request_options,
                             call_options: call_options
end

#execute_update(sql, params: nil, types: nil, query_options: nil, request_options: nil, call_options: nil) ⇒ Integer

Executes a DML statement.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  row_count = tx.execute_update(
    "UPDATE users SET name = 'Charlie' WHERE id = 1"
  )
end

Update using SQL parameters:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  row_count = tx.execute_update(
    "UPDATE users SET name = @name WHERE id = @id",
    params: { id: 1, name: "Charlie" }
  )
end

Update using query options

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  row_count = tx.execute_update(
    "UPDATE users SET name = 'Charlie' WHERE id = 1",
    query_options: {
      optimizer_version: "1",
      optimizer_statistics_package: "auto_20191128_14_47_22UTC"
    }
  )
end

Update using custom timeout and retry policy:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

timeout = 30.0
retry_policy = {
  initial_delay: 0.25,
  max_delay:     32.0,
  multiplier:    1.3,
  retry_codes:   ["UNAVAILABLE"]
}
call_options = { timeout: timeout, retry_policy: retry_policy }

db.transaction do |tx|
  row_count = tx.execute_update(
    "UPDATE users SET name = 'Charlie' WHERE id = 1",
    call_options: call_options
  )
end

Parameters:

  • sql (String)

    The DML statement string. See Query syntax.

    The DML statement string can contain parameter placeholders. A parameter placeholder consists of "@" followed by the parameter name. Parameter names consist of any combination of letters, numbers, and underscores.

  • params (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Parameters for the DML statement string. The parameter placeholders, minus the "@", are the the hash keys, and the literal values are the hash values. If the query string contains something like "WHERE id > @msg_id", then the params must contain something like :msg_id => 1.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.
    STRUCT Hash, Data

    See Data types.

    See Data Types - Constructing a STRUCT.

  • types (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Types of the SQL parameters in params. It is not always possible for Cloud Spanner to infer the right SQL type from a value in params. In these cases, the types hash can be used to specify the exact SQL type for some or all of the SQL query parameters.

    The keys of the hash should be query string parameter placeholders, minus the "@". The values of the hash should be Cloud Spanner type codes from the following list:

    • :BOOL
    • :BYTES
    • :DATE
    • :FLOAT64
    • :NUMERIC
    • :INT64
    • :STRING
    • :TIMESTAMP
    • Array - Lists are specified by providing the type code in an array. For example, an array of integers are specified as [:INT64].
    • Fields - Nested Structs are specified by providing a Fields object.
  • query_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom query options for executing SQL query. Query options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :optimizer_version (String) The version of optimizer to use. Empty to use database default. "latest" to use the latest available optimizer version.
    • :optimizer_statistics_package (String) Statistics package to use. Empty to use the database default.
  • request_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Common request options.

    • :priority (String) The relative priority for requests. The priority acts as a hint to the Cloud Spanner scheduler and does not guarantee priority or order of execution. Valid values are :PRIORITY_LOW, :PRIORITY_MEDIUM, :PRIORITY_HIGH. If priority not set then default is PRIORITY_UNSPECIFIED is equivalent to :PRIORITY_HIGH.
    • :tag (String) A per-request tag which can be applied to queries or reads, used for statistics collection. Tag must be a valid identifier of the form: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_\-] between 2 and 64 characters in length.
  • call_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom call options, e.g., timeout, retries, etc. Call options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :timeout (Numeric) A numeric value of custom timeout in seconds that overrides the default setting.
    • :retry_policy (Hash) A hash of values that overrides the default setting of retry policy with the following keys:
      • :initial_delay (Numeric) - The initial delay in seconds.
      • :max_delay (Numeric) - The max delay in seconds.
      • :multiplier (Numeric) - The incremental backoff multiplier.
      • :retry_codes (Array<String>) - The error codes that should trigger a retry.

Returns:

  • (Integer)

    The exact number of rows that were modified.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 513

def execute_update sql, params: nil, types: nil, query_options: nil,
                   request_options: nil, call_options: nil
  results = execute_query sql, params: params, types: types,
                          query_options: query_options,
                          request_options: request_options,
                          call_options: call_options
  # Stream all PartialResultSet to get ResultSetStats
  results.rows.to_a
  # Raise an error if there is not a row count returned
  if results.row_count.nil?
    raise Google::Cloud::InvalidArgumentError,
          "DML statement is invalid."
  end
  results.row_count
end

#fields(types) ⇒ Fields

Creates a configuration object (Fields) that may be provided to queries or used to create STRUCT objects. (The STRUCT will be represented by the Data class.) See Client#execute and/or Fields#struct.

For more information, see Data Types - Constructing a STRUCT.

Examples:

Create a STRUCT value with named fields using Fields object:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  named_type = tx.fields(
    { id: :INT64, name: :STRING, active: :BOOL }
  )
  named_data = named_type.struct(
    { id: 42, name: nil, active: false }
  )
end

Create a STRUCT value with anonymous field names:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  anon_type = tx.fields [:INT64, :STRING, :BOOL]
  anon_data = anon_type.struct [42, nil, false]
end

Create a STRUCT value with duplicate field names:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  dup_type = tx.fields [[:x, :INT64], [:x, :STRING], [:x, :BOOL]]
  dup_data = dup_type.struct [42, nil, false]
end

Parameters:

  • types (Array, Hash)

    Accepts an array or hash types.

    Arrays can contain just the type value, or a sub-array of the field's name and type value. Hash keys must contain the field name as a Symbol or String, or the field position as an Integer. Hash values must contain the type value. If a Hash is used the fields will be created using the same order as the Hash keys.

    Supported type values incude:

    • :BOOL
    • :BYTES
    • :DATE
    • :FLOAT64
    • :NUMERIC
    • :INT64
    • :STRING
    • :TIMESTAMP
    • Array - Lists are specified by providing the type code in an array. For example, an array of integers are specified as [:INT64].
    • Fields - Nested Structs are specified by providing a Fields object.

Returns:

  • (Fields)

    The fields of the given types.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 1008

def fields types
  Fields.new types
end

#insert(table, *rows) ⇒ Object

Inserts new rows in a table. If any of the rows already exist, the write or request fails with error AlreadyExistsError.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  tx.insert "users", [{ id: 1, name: "Charlie", active: false },
                      { id: 2, name: "Harvey",  active: true }]
end

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be modified.

  • rows (Array<Hash>)

    One or more hash objects with the hash keys matching the table's columns, and the hash values matching the table's values.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.

    See Data types.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 784

def insert table, *rows
  ensure_session!
  @commit.insert table, rows
end

#range(beginning, ending, exclude_begin: false, exclude_end: false) ⇒ Google::Cloud::Spanner::Range

Creates a Cloud Spanner Range. This can be used in place of a Ruby Range when needing to exclude the beginning value.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  key_range = tx.range 1, 100
  results = tx.read "users", [:id, :name], keys: key_range

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Parameters:

  • beginning (Object)

    The object that defines the beginning of the range.

  • ending (Object)

    The object that defines the end of the range.

  • exclude_begin (Boolean) (defaults to: false)

    Determines if the range excludes its beginning value. Default is false.

  • exclude_end (Boolean) (defaults to: false)

    Determines if the range excludes its ending value. Default is false.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 1041

def range beginning, ending, exclude_begin: false, exclude_end: false
  Range.new beginning, ending,
            exclude_begin: exclude_begin,
            exclude_end: exclude_end
end

#read(table, columns, keys: nil, index: nil, limit: nil, request_options: nil, call_options: nil) ⇒ Google::Cloud::Spanner::Results

Read rows from a database table, as a simple alternative to #execute_query.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  results = tx.read "users", [:id, :name]

  results.rows.each do |row|
    puts "User #{row[:id]} is #{row[:name]}"
  end
end

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be read.

  • columns (Array<String, Symbol>)

    The columns of table to be returned for each row matching this request.

  • keys (Object, Array<Object>) (defaults to: nil)

    A single, or list of keys or key ranges to match returned data to. Values should have exactly as many elements as there are columns in the primary key.

  • index (String) (defaults to: nil)

    The name of an index to use instead of the table's primary key when interpreting id and sorting result rows. Optional.

  • limit (Integer) (defaults to: nil)

    If greater than zero, no more than this number of rows will be returned. The default is no limit.

  • request_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    Common request options.

    • :priority (String) The relative priority for requests. The priority acts as a hint to the Cloud Spanner scheduler and does not guarantee priority or order of execution. Valid values are :PRIORITY_LOW, :PRIORITY_MEDIUM, :PRIORITY_HIGH. If priority not set then default is PRIORITY_UNSPECIFIED is equivalent to :PRIORITY_HIGH.
    • :tag (String) A per-request tag which can be applied to queries or reads, used for statistics collection. Tag must be a valid identifier of the form: [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_\-] between 2 and 64 characters in length.
  • call_options (Hash) (defaults to: nil)

    A hash of values to specify the custom call options, e.g., timeout, retries, etc. Call options are optional. The following settings can be provided:

    • :timeout (Numeric) A numeric value of custom timeout in seconds that overrides the default setting.
    • :retry_policy (Hash) A hash of values that overrides the default setting of retry policy with the following keys:
      • :initial_delay (Numeric) - The initial delay in seconds.
      • :max_delay (Numeric) - The max delay in seconds.
      • :multiplier (Numeric) - The incremental backoff multiplier.
      • :retry_codes (Array<String>) - The error codes that should trigger a retry.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 682

def read table, columns, keys: nil, index: nil, limit: nil,
         request_options: nil, call_options: nil
  ensure_session!

  columns = Array(columns).map(&:to_s)
  keys = Convert.to_key_set keys
  request_options = build_request_options request_options
  session.read table, columns, keys: keys, index: index, limit: limit,
                               transaction: tx_selector,
                               request_options: request_options,
                               call_options: call_options
end

#replace(table, *rows) ⇒ Object

Inserts or replaces rows in a table. If any of the rows already exist, it is deleted, and the column values provided are inserted instead. Unlike #upsert, this means any values not explicitly written become NULL.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  tx.replace "users", [{ id: 1, name: "Charlie", active: false },
                       { id: 2, name: "Harvey",  active: true }]
end

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be modified.

  • rows (Array<Hash>)

    One or more hash objects with the hash keys matching the table's columns, and the hash values matching the table's values.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.

    See Data types.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 878

def replace table, *rows
  ensure_session!
  @commit.replace table, rows
end

#transaction_idString

Identifier of the transaction results were run in.

Returns:

  • (String)

    The transaction id.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 91

def transaction_id
  return nil if @grpc.nil?
  @grpc.id
end

#update(table, *rows) ⇒ Object

Updates existing rows in a table. If any of the rows does not already exist, the request fails with error NotFoundError.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  tx.update "users", [{ id: 1, name: "Charlie", active: false },
                      { id: 2, name: "Harvey",  active: true }]
end

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be modified.

  • rows (Array<Hash>)

    One or more hash objects with the hash keys matching the table's columns, and the hash values matching the table's values.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.

    See Data types.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 830

def update table, *rows
  ensure_session!
  @commit.update table, rows
end

#upsert(table, *rows) ⇒ Object Also known as: save

Inserts or updates rows in a table. If any of the rows already exist, then its column values are overwritten with the ones provided. Any column values not explicitly written are preserved.

All changes are accumulated in memory until the block passed to Client#transaction completes.

Examples:

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new
db = spanner.client "my-instance", "my-database"

db.transaction do |tx|
  tx.upsert "users", [{ id: 1, name: "Charlie", active: false },
                      { id: 2, name: "Harvey",  active: true }]
end

Parameters:

  • table (String)

    The name of the table in the database to be modified.

  • rows (Array<Hash>)

    One or more hash objects with the hash keys matching the table's columns, and the hash values matching the table's values.

    Ruby types are mapped to Spanner types as follows:

    Spanner Ruby Notes
    BOOL true/false
    INT64 Integer
    FLOAT64 Float
    NUMERIC BigDecimal
    STRING String
    DATE Date
    TIMESTAMP Time, DateTime
    BYTES File, IO, StringIO, or similar
    ARRAY Array Nested arrays are not supported.

    See Data types.


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# File 'lib/google/cloud/spanner/transaction.rb', line 737

def upsert table, *rows
  ensure_session!
  @commit.upsert table, rows
end