Class: Daru::Vector

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Maths::Arithmetic::Vector, Maths::Statistics::Vector, Plotting::Vector, Enumerable
Defined in:
lib/daru/vector.rb,
lib/daru/extensions/rserve.rb

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from Plotting::Vector

#plot

Methods included from Maths::Statistics::Vector

#average_deviation_population, #box_cox_transformation, #center, #coefficient_of_variation, #count, #dichotomize, #factors, #freqs, #frequencies, #kurtosis, #max, #max_index, #mean, #median, #median_absolute_deviation, #min, #mode, #percentile, #product, #proportion, #proportions, #range, #ranked, #sample_with_replacement, #sample_without_replacement, #skew, #standard_deviation_population, #standard_deviation_sample, #standard_error, #standardize, #sum, #sum_of_squared_deviation, #sum_of_squares, #variance_population, #variance_sample, #vector_centered_compute, #vector_percentile, #vector_standardized_compute

Methods included from Maths::Arithmetic::Vector

#%, #*, #**, #+, #-, #/, #abs, #exp, #round, #sqrt

Constructor Details

#initialize(source, opts = {}) ⇒ Vector

Create a Vector object.

Arguments

Hash. If Array, a numeric index will be created if not supplied in the options. Specifying more index elements than actual values in source will insert nil into the surplus index elements. When a Hash is specified, the keys of the Hash are taken as the index elements and the corresponding values as the values that populate the vector.

Options

  • :name - Name of the vector

  • :index - Index of the vector

  • :dtype - The underlying data type. Can be :array, :nmatrix or :gsl.

Default :array.

  • :nm_dtype - For NMatrix, the data type of the numbers. See the NMatrix docs for

further information on supported data type.

  • :missing_values - An Array of the values that are to be treated as 'missing'.

nil is the default missing value.

Usage

vecarr = Daru::Vector.new [1,2,3,4], index: [:a, :e, :i, :o]
vechsh = Daru::Vector.new({a: 1, e: 2, i: 3, o: 4})

Parameters:

  • source (Array, Hash)
    • Supply elements in the form of an Array or a


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 93

def initialize source, opts={}
  index = nil
  if source.is_a?(Hash)
    index  = source.keys
    source = source.values
  else
    index  = opts[:index]
    source = source || []
  end
  name   = opts[:name]
  set_name name

  @data  = cast_vector_to(opts[:dtype] || :array, source, opts[:nm_dtype])
  @index = create_index(index || @data.size)
  
  if @index.size > @data.size
    cast(dtype: :array) # NM with nils seg faults
    (@index.size - @data.size).times { @data << nil }
  elsif @index.size < @data.size
    raise IndexError, "Expected index size >= vector size. Index size : #{@index.size}, vector size : #{@data.size}"
  end

  @possibly_changed_type = true
  set_missing_values opts[:missing_values]
  set_missing_positions
  set_size
end

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method

#method_missing(name, *args, &block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 1031

def method_missing(name, *args, &block)
  if name.match(/(.+)\=/)
    self[name] = args[0]
  elsif has_index?(name)
    self[name]
  else
    super(name, *args, &block)
  end
end

Instance Attribute Details

#dtypeObject (readonly)

The underlying dtype of the Vector. Can be either :array, :nmatrix or :gsl.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 52

def dtype
  @dtype
end

#indexObject (readonly)

The row index. Can be either Daru::Index or Daru::MultiIndex.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 48

def index
  @index
end

#labelsObject

Store a hash of labels for values. Supplementary only. Recommend using index for proper usage.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 61

def labels
  @labels
end

#missing_positionsObject (readonly)

An Array or the positions in the vector that are being treated as 'missing'.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 58

def missing_positions
  @missing_positions
end

#nameObject (readonly)

The name of the Daru::Vector. String.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 46

def name
  @name
end

#nm_dtypeObject (readonly)

If the dtype is :nmatrix, this attribute represents the data type of the underlying NMatrix object. See NMatrix docs for more details on NMatrix data types.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 56

def nm_dtype
  @nm_dtype
end

#sizeObject (readonly)

The total number of elements of the vector.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 50

def size
  @size
end

Class Method Details

.[](*args) ⇒ Object

Create a vector using (almost) any object

  • Array: flattened

  • Range: transformed using to_a

  • Daru::Vector

  • Numeric and string values

Description

The `Vector.[]` class method creates a vector from almost any object that has a `#to_a` method defined on it. It is similar to R's `c` method.

Usage

a = Daru::Vector[1,2,3,4,6..10]
#=>
# <Daru::Vector:99448510 @name = nil @size = 9 >
#   nil
# 0   1
# 1   2
# 2   3
# 3   4
# 4   6
# 5   7
# 6   8
# 7   9
# 8  10

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 174

def self.[](*args)
  values = []
  args.each do |a|
    case a
    when Array
      values.concat a.flatten
    when Daru::Vector
      values.concat a.to_a
    when Range
      values.concat  a.to_a
    else
      values << a
    end
  end
  Daru::Vector.new(values)
end

._load(data) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 1019

def self._load(data) # :nodoc:
  h = Marshal.load(data)
  Daru::Vector.new(h[:data], index: h[:index], 
    name: h[:name], dtype: h[:dtype], missing_values: h[:missing_values])
end

.new_with_size(n, opts = {}, &block) ⇒ Object

Create a new vector by specifying the size and an optional value and block to generate values.

Description

The new_with_size class method lets you create a Daru::Vector by specifying the size as the argument. The optional block, if supplied, is run once for populating each element in the Vector.

The result of each run of the block is the value that is ultimately assigned to that position in the Vector.

Options

:value All the rest like .new


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 136

def self.new_with_size n, opts={}, &block
  value = opts[:value]
  opts.delete :value
  if block
    vector = Daru::Vector.new n.times.map { |i| block.call(i) }, opts
  else
    vector = Daru::Vector.new n.times.map { value }, opts
  end
  vector
end

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Object

Two vectors are equal if the have the exact same index values corresponding with the exact same elements. Name is ignored.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 329

def == other
  case other
  when Daru::Vector
    @index == other.index and @size == other.size and
    @index.all? do |index|
      self[index] == other[index]
    end
  else
    # TODO: Compare against some other obj (string, number, etc.)
  end
end

#[](*indexes) ⇒ Object

Get one or more elements with specified index or a range.

Usage

# For vectors employing single layer Index

v[:one, :two] # => Daru::Vector with indexes :one and :two
v[:one]       # => Single element
v[:one..:three] # => Daru::Vector with indexes :one, :two and :three

# For vectors employing hierarchial multi index

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 202

def [](*indexes)
  indexes.map! { |e| e.respond_to?(:to_sym) ? e.to_sym : e }
  location = indexes[0]
  if @index.is_a?(MultiIndex)
    result = 
    if location.is_a?(Integer)
      element_from_numeric_index(location)
    elsif location.is_a?(Range)
      arry = location.inject([]) do |memo, num|
        memo << element_from_numeric_index(num)
        memo
      end

      new_index = Daru::MultiIndex.new(@index.to_a[location])
      Daru::Vector.new(arry, index: new_index, name: @name, dtype: dtype)
    else
      sub_index = @index[indexes]

      if sub_index.is_a?(Integer)
        element_from_numeric_index(sub_index)
      else
        elements = sub_index.map do |tuple|
          @data[@index[(indexes + tuple)]]
        end
        Daru::Vector.new(elements, index: Daru::MultiIndex.new(sub_index.to_a),
          name: @name, dtype: @dtype)
      end
    end

    return result
  else
    unless indexes[1]
      case location
      when Range
        range = 
        if location.first.is_a?(Numeric)
          location
        else
          first = location.first
          last  = location.last

          (first..last)
        end
        indexes = @index[range]
      else
        return element_from_numeric_index(location)
      end
    end

    Daru::Vector.new indexes.map { |loc| @data[index_for(loc)] }, name: @name, 
      index: indexes.map { |e| named_index_for(e) }, dtype: @dtype
  end
end

#[]=(*location, value) ⇒ Object

Just like in Hashes, you can specify the index label of the Daru::Vector and assign an element an that place in the Daru::Vector.

Usage

v = Daru::Vector.new([1,2,3], index: [:a, :b, :c])
v[:a] = 999
#=> 
##<Daru::Vector:90257920 @name = nil @size = 3 >
#    nil
#  a 999
#  b   2
#  c   3

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 269

def []=(*location, value)
  cast(dtype: :array) if value.nil? and dtype != :array

  @possibly_changed_type = true if @type == :object  and (value.nil? or 
    value.is_a?(Numeric))
  @possibly_changed_type = true if @type == :numeric and (!value.is_a?(Numeric) and
    !value.nil?)

  pos =
  if @index.is_a?(MultiIndex) and !location[0].is_a?(Integer)
    index_for location
  else
    index_for location[0]
  end

  if pos.is_a?(MultiIndex)
    pos.each do |sub_tuple|
      self[*(location + sub_tuple)] = value
    end
  else
    @data[pos] = value
  end

  set_size
  set_missing_positions unless Daru.lazy_update
end

#_dump(depth) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 1010

def _dump(depth) # :nodoc:
  Marshal.dump({
    data:  @data.to_a, 
    dtype: @dtype, 
    name:  @name, 
    index: @index,
    missing_values: @missing_values})
end

#all?(&block) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 455

def all? &block
  @data.data.all?(&block)
end

#any?(&block) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 451

def any? &block
  @data.data.any?(&block)
end

#bootstrap(estimators, nr, s = nil) ⇒ Object

Bootstrap

Generate nr resamples (with replacement) of size s from vector, computing each estimate from estimators over each resample. estimators could be a) Hash with variable names as keys and lambdas as values

a.bootstrap(:log_s2=>lambda {|v| Math.log(v.variance)},1000)

b) Array with names of method to bootstrap

a.bootstrap([:mean, :sd],1000)

c) A single method to bootstrap

a.jacknife(:mean, 1000)

If s is nil, is set to vector size by default.

Returns a DataFrame where each vector is a vector of length nr containing the computed resample estimates.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 870

def bootstrap(estimators, nr, s=nil)
  s ||= size
  h_est, es, bss = prepare_bootstrap(estimators)

  nr.times do |i|
    bs = sample_with_replacement(s)
    es.each do |estimator|
      bss[estimator].push(h_est[estimator].call(bs))
    end
  end

  es.each do |est|
    bss[est] = Daru::Vector.new bss[est]
  end

  Daru::DataFrame.new bss
end

#cast(opts = {}) ⇒ Object

Cast a vector to a new data type.

Options

  • :dtype - :array for Ruby Array. :nmatrix for NMatrix.

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 382

def cast opts={}
  dt = opts[:dtype]
  raise ArgumentError, "Unsupported dtype #{opts[:dtype]}" unless 
    dt == :array or dt == :nmatrix or dt == :gsl

  @data = cast_vector_to dt unless @dtype == dt
end

#clone_structureObject

Copies the structure of the vector (i.e the index, size, etc.) and fills all all values with nils.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 997

def clone_structure
  Daru::Vector.new(([nil]*@size), name: @name, index: @index.dup)
end

#concat(element, index = nil) ⇒ Object Also known as: push, <<

Append an element to the vector by specifying the element and index

Raises:

  • (IndexError)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 357

def concat element, index=nil
  raise IndexError, "Expected new unique index" if @index.include? index

  if index.nil? and @index.index_class == Integer
    @index = create_index(@size + 1)
    index  = @size
  else
    begin
      @index = create_index(@index + index)
    rescue StandardError => e
      raise e, "Expected valid index."
    end
  end
  @data[@index[index]] = element
  set_size
  set_missing_positions unless Daru.lazy_update
end

#daru_vector(*name) ⇒ Object Also known as: dv


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 1025

def daru_vector *name
  self
end

#db_type(dbs = :mysql) ⇒ Object

Returns the database type for the vector, according to its content


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 982

def db_type(dbs=:mysql)
  # first, detect any character not number
  if @data.find {|v| v.to_s=~/\d{2,2}-\d{2,2}-\d{4,4}/} or @data.find {|v| v.to_s=~/\d{4,4}-\d{2,2}-\d{2,2}/}
    return "DATE"
  elsif @data.find {|v|  v.to_s=~/[^0-9e.-]/ }
    return "VARCHAR (255)"
  elsif @data.find {|v| v.to_s=~/\./}
    return "DOUBLE"
  else
    return "INTEGER"
  end
end

#delete(element) ⇒ Object

Delete an element by value


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 391

def delete element
  self.delete_at index_of(element)      
end

#delete_at(index) ⇒ Object

Delete element by index


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 396

def delete_at index
  idx = named_index_for index
  @data.delete_at @index[idx]

  if @index.index_class == Integer
    @index = Daru::Index.new @size-1
  else
    @index = Daru::Index.new (@index.to_a - [idx])
  end

  set_size
  set_missing_positions unless Daru.lazy_update
end

#delete_if(&block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 518

def delete_if &block
  return to_enum(:delete_if) unless block_given?

  keep_e = []
  keep_i = []
  each_with_index do |n, i|
    if yield(n)
      keep_e << n
      keep_i << i
    end
  end

  @data = cast_vector_to @dtype, keep_e
  @index = @index.is_a?(MultiIndex) ? MultiIndex.new(keep_i) : Index.new(keep_i)
  set_missing_positions unless Daru.lazy_update
  set_size

  self
end

#detach_indexObject


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 667

def detach_index
  Daru::DataFrame.new({
    index: @index.to_a.map(&:to_s),
    vector: @data.to_a
  })
end

#dupObject

Duplicate elements and indexes


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 851

def dup 
  Daru::Vector.new @data.dup, name: @name, index: @index.dup
end

#each(&block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 17

def each(&block)
  return to_enum(:each) unless block_given?
  
  @data.each(&block)
  self
end

#each_index(&block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 24

def each_index(&block)
  return to_enum(:each_index) unless block_given?

  @index.each(&block)
  self
end

#each_with_index(&block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 31

def each_with_index(&block)
  return to_enum(:each_with_index) unless block_given?

  @index.each { |i|  yield(self[i], i) }
  self
end

#exists?(value) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the value passed is actually exists or is not marked as a *missing value*.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 498

def exists? value
  !@missing_values.has_key?(self[index_of(value)])
end

#has_index?(index) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if an index exists

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 685

def has_index? index
  @index.include? index
end

#has_missing_data?Boolean Also known as: flawed?

Reports whether missing data is present in the Vector.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 350

def has_missing_data?
  !missing_positions.empty?
end

#head(q = 10) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 341

def head q=10
  self[0..(q-1)]
end

#index_of(element) ⇒ Object

Get index of element


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 436

def index_of element
  @index.key @data.index(element)
end

#inspect(spacing = 20, threshold = 15) ⇒ Object

Over rides original inspect for pretty printing in irb


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 804

def inspect spacing=20, threshold=15
  longest = [@name.to_s.size,
             (@index.to_a.map(&:to_s).map(&:size).max || 0), 
             (@data    .map(&:to_s).map(&:size).max || 0),
             'nil'.size].max

  content   = ""
  longest   = spacing if longest > spacing
  name      = @name || 'nil'
  formatter = "\n%#{longest}.#{longest}s %#{longest}.#{longest}s"
  content  += "\n#<" + self.class.to_s + ":" + self.object_id.to_s + " @name = " + name.to_s + " @size = " + size.to_s + " >"

  content += sprintf formatter, "", name
  @index.each_with_index do |index, num|
    content += sprintf formatter, index.to_s, (self[*index] || 'nil').to_s
    if num > threshold
      content += sprintf formatter, '...', '...'
      break
    end
  end
  content += "\n"

  content
end

#is_nil?Boolean

Returns a vector which has true in the position where the element in self is nil, and false otherwise.

Usage

v = Daru::Vector.new([1,2,4,nil])
v.is_nil?
# => 
#<Daru::Vector:89421000 @name = nil @size = 4 >
#      nil
#  0  false
#  1  false
#  2  false
#  3  true

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 634

def is_nil?
  nil_truth_vector = clone_structure
  @index.each do |idx|
    nil_truth_vector[idx] = self[idx].nil? ? true : false
  end

  nil_truth_vector
end

#jackknife(estimators, k = 1) ⇒ Object

Jacknife

Returns a dataset with jacknife delete-k estimators estimators could be: a) Hash with variable names as keys and lambdas as values

a.jacknife(:log_s2=>lambda {|v| Math.log(v.variance)})

b) Array with method names to jacknife

a.jacknife([:mean, :sd])

c) A single method to jacknife

a.jacknife(:mean)

k represent the block size for block jacknife. By default is set to 1, for classic delete-one jacknife.

Returns a dataset where each vector is an vector of length cases/k containing the computed jacknife estimates.

Reference:

  • Sawyer, S. (2005). Resampling Data: Using a Statistical Jacknife.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 905

def jackknife(estimators, k=1)
  raise "n should be divisible by k:#{k}" unless size % k==0

  nb = (size / k).to_i
  h_est, es, ps = prepare_bootstrap(estimators)

  est_n = es.inject({}) do |h,v|
    h[v] = h_est[v].call(self)
    h
  end

  nb.times do |i|
    other = @data.dup
    other.slice!(i*k, k)
    other = Daru::Vector.new other

    es.each do |estimator|
      # Add pseudovalue
      ps[estimator].push(
        nb * est_n[estimator] - (nb-1) * h_est[estimator].call(other))
    end
  end

  es.each do |est|
    ps[est] = Daru::Vector.new ps[est]
  end
  Daru::DataFrame.new ps
end

#map!(&block) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 38

def map!(&block)
  return to_enum(:map!) unless block_given?
  @data.map!(&block)
  update
  self
end

#missing_valuesObject

The values to be treated as 'missing'. nil is the default missing type. To set missing values see the missing_values= method.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 298

def missing_values
  @missing_values.keys  
end

#missing_values=(values) ⇒ Object

Assign an Array to treat certain values as 'missing'.

Usage

v = Daru::Vector.new [1,2,3,4,5]
v.missing_values = [3]
v.update
v.missing_positions 
#=> [2]

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 311

def missing_values= values
  set_missing_values values
  set_missing_positions unless Daru.lazy_update
end

#n_validObject

number of non-missing elements


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 680

def n_valid
  @size - missing_positions.size
end

#not_nil?Boolean

Opposite of #is_nil?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 644

def not_nil?
  nil_truth_vector = clone_structure
  @index.each do |idx|
    nil_truth_vector[idx] = self[idx].nil? ? false : true
  end

  nil_truth_vector
end

#only_missing(as_a = :vector) ⇒ Object

Returns a Vector containing only missing data (preserves indexes).


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 961

def only_missing as_a=:vector
  if as_a == :vector
    self[*missing_positions]
  elsif as_a == :array
    self[*missing_positions].to_a
  end
end

#only_numericsObject

Returns a Vector with only numerical data. Missing data is included but non-Numeric objects are excluded. Preserves index.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 971

def only_numerics
  numeric_indexes = []

  each_with_index do |v, i|
    numeric_indexes << i if(v.kind_of?(Numeric) or @missing_values.has_key?(v))
  end

  self[*numeric_indexes]
end

#only_valid(as_a = :vector, duplicate = true) ⇒ Object

Creates a new vector consisting only of non-nil data

Arguments

as an Array. Otherwise will return a Daru::Vector.

vector, setting this to false will return the same vector. Otherwise, a duplicate will be returned irrespective of presence of missing data.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 945

def only_valid as_a=:vector, duplicate=true
  return self.dup if !has_missing_data? and as_a == :vector and duplicate
  return self if !has_missing_data? and as_a == :vector and !duplicate
  return self.to_a if !has_missing_data? and as_a != :vector

  new_index = @index.to_a - missing_positions
  new_vector = new_index.map do |idx|
    self[idx]
  end

  return new_vector if as_a != :vector
  
  Daru::Vector.new new_vector, index: new_index, name: @name, dtype: dtype
end

#recode(dt = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

Like map, but returns a Daru::Vector with the returned values.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 503

def recode dt=nil, &block
  return to_enum(:recode) unless block_given?

  dup.recode! dt, &block
end

#recode!(dt = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

Destructive version of recode!


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 510

def recode! dt=nil, &block
  return to_enum(:recode!) unless block_given?

  @data.map!(&block).data
  @data = cast_vector_to(dt || @dtype)
  self
end

#reindex(new_index) ⇒ Object

Create a new vector with a different index.

Parameters:

  • new_index (Symbol, Array, Daru::Index)

    The new index. Passing :seq will reindex with sequential numbers from 0 to (n-1).


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 833

def reindex new_index
  index = create_index(new_index == :seq ? @size : new_index)
  Daru::Vector.new @data.to_a, index: index, name: name, dtype: @dtype
end

#rename(new_name) ⇒ Object

Give the vector a new name

Parameters:

  • new_name (Symbol)

    The new name.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 841

def rename new_name
  if new_name.is_a?(Numeric)
    @name = new_name 
    return
  end
  
  @name = new_name.to_sym
end

#replace_nils(replacement) ⇒ Object

Non-destructive version of #replace_nils!


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 675

def replace_nils replacement
  self.dup.replace_nils!(replacement)
end

#replace_nils!(replacement) ⇒ Object

Replace all nils in the vector with the value passed as an argument. Destructive. See #replace_nils for non-destructive version

Arguments

  • replacement - The value which should replace all nils


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 659

def replace_nils! replacement
  missing_positions.each do |idx|
    self[idx] = replacement
  end

  self
end

#report_building(b) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 774

def report_building b
  b.section(:name => name) do |s|
    s.text "n :#{size}"
    s.text "n valid:#{n_valid}"
    if @type == :object
      s.text  "factors: #{factors.to_a.join(',')}"
      s.text  "mode: #{mode}"

      s.table(:name => "Distribution") do |t|
        frequencies.sort_by { |a| a.to_s }.each do |k,v|
          key = @index.include?(k) ? @index[k] : k
          t.row [key, v , ("%0.2f%%" % (v.quo(n_valid)*100))]
        end
      end
    end

    s.text "median: #{median.to_s}" if (@type==:numeric or @type==:numeric)
    if @type==:numeric
      s.text "mean: %0.4f" % mean
      if sd
        s.text "std.dev.: %0.4f" % sd
        s.text "std.err.: %0.4f" % se
        s.text "skew: %0.4f" % skew
        s.text "kurtosis: %0.4f" % kurtosis
      end
    end
  end
end

#reset_index!Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 615

def reset_index!
  @index = Daru::Index.new(Array.new(size) { |i| i })
  self
end

#save(filename) ⇒ Object

Save the vector to a file

Arguments

  • filename - Path of file where the vector is to be saved


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 1006

def save filename
  Daru::IO.save self, filename
end

#sort(opts = {}, &block) ⇒ Object

Sorts a vector according to its values. If a block is specified, the contents will be evaluated and data will be swapped whenever the block evaluates to true. Defaults to ascending order sorting. Any missing values will be put at the end of the vector. Preserves indexing. Default sort algorithm is quick sort.

Options

  • :ascending - if false, will sort in descending order. Defaults to true.

  • :type - Specify the sorting algorithm. Only supports quick_sort for now.

Usage

v = Daru::Vector.new ["My first guitar", "jazz", "guitar"]
# Say you want to sort these strings by length.
v.sort(ascending: false) { |a,b| a.length <=> b.length }

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 475

def sort opts={}, &block
  opts = {
    ascending: true,
    type: :quick_sort
  }.merge(opts)

  block = lambda { |a,b| a <=> b } unless block

  order = opts[:ascending] ? :ascending : :descending
  vector, index = send(opts[:type], @data.to_a.dup, @index.to_a, order, &block)
  index = @index.is_a?(MultiIndex) ? Daru::MultiIndex.new(index) : index

  Daru::Vector.new(vector, index: create_index(index), name: @name, dtype: @dtype)
end

#sorted_data(&block) ⇒ Object

Just sort the data and get an Array in return using Enumerable#sort. Non-destructive.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 492

def sorted_data &block
  @data.to_a.sort(&block)
end

#split_by_separator(sep = ",") ⇒ Object

Returns a hash of Vectors, defined by the different values defined on the fields Example:

a=Daru::Vector.new(["a,b","c,d","a,b"])
a.split_by_separator
=>  {"a"=>#<Daru::Vector:0x7f2dbcc09d88
      @data=[1, 0, 1]>,
     "b"=>#<Daru::Vector:0x7f2dbcc09c48
      @data=[1, 1, 0]>,
    "c"=>#<Daru::Vector:0x7f2dbcc09b08
      @data=[0, 1, 1]>}

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 581

def split_by_separator sep=","
  split_data = splitted sep
  factors = split_data.flatten.uniq.compact

  out = factors.inject({}) do |h,x|
    h[x] = []
    h
  end

  split_data.each do |r|
    if r.nil?
      factors.each do |f|
        out[f].push(nil)
      end
    else
      factors.each do |f|
        out[f].push(r.include?(f) ? 1:0)
      end
    end
  end

  out.inject({}) do |s,v|
    s[v[0]] = Daru::Vector.new v[1]
    s
  end
end

#split_by_separator_freq(sep = ",") ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 608

def split_by_separator_freq(sep=",")
  split_by_separator(sep).inject({}) do |a,v|
    a[v[0]] = v[1].inject { |s,x| s+x.to_i }
    a
  end
end

#splitted(sep = ",") ⇒ Object

Return an Array with the data splitted by a separator.

a=Daru::Vector.new(["a,b","c,d","a,b","d"])
a.splitted
  =>
[["a","b"],["c","d"],["a","b"],["d"]]

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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 556

def splitted sep=","
  @data.map do |s|
    if s.nil?
      nil
    elsif s.respond_to? :split
      s.split sep
    else
      [s]
    end
  end
end

#summary(method = :to_text) ⇒ Object

Create a summary of the Vector using Report Builder.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 770

def summary(method = :to_text)
  ReportBuilder.new(no_title: true).add(self).send(method)
end

#tail(q = 10) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 345

def tail q=10
  self[(@size - q - 1)..(@size-1)]
end

#to_aObject

Return an array


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 727

def to_a
  @data.to_a
end

#to_gslObject

If dtype != gsl, will convert data to GSL::Vector with to_a. Otherwise returns the stored GSL::Vector object.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 706

def to_gsl
  if Daru.has_gsl?
    if dtype == :gsl
      return @data.data
    else
      GSL::Vector.alloc only_valid(:array).to_a
    end
  else
    raise NoMethodError, "Install gsl-nmatrix for access to this functionality."
  end
end

#to_hashObject

Convert to hash. Hash keys are indexes and values are the correspoding elements


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 719

def to_hash
  @index.inject({}) do |hsh, index|
    hsh[index] = self[index]
    hsh
  end
end

#to_html(threshold = 30) ⇒ Object

Convert to html for iruby


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 737

def to_html threshold=30
  name = @name || 'nil'
  html = "<table>" + 
    "<tr>" +
      "<th colspan=\"2\">" + 
        "Daru::Vector:#{self.object_id} " + " size: #{size}" + 
      "</th>" +
    "</tr>"
  html += '<tr><th> </th><th>' + name.to_s + '</th></tr>'
  @index.each_with_index do |index, num|
    html += '<tr><td>' + index.to_s + '</td>' + '<td>' + self[index].to_s + '</td></tr>'

    if num > threshold
      html += '<tr><td>...</td><td>...</td></tr>'

      last_index = @index.to_a.last
      html += '<tr>' + 
                '<td>' + last_index.to_s       + '</td>' +
                '<td>' + self[last_index].to_s + '</td>' +
              '</tr>'
      break
    end
  end
  html += '</table>'

  html
end

#to_json(*args) ⇒ Object

Convert the hash from to_hash to json


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 732

def to_json *args 
  self.to_hash.to_json
end

#to_matrix(axis = :horizontal) ⇒ Object

Convert Vector to a horizontal or vertical Ruby Matrix.

Arguments

  • axis - Specify whether you want a :horizontal or a :vertical matrix.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 694

def to_matrix axis=:horizontal
  if axis == :horizontal
    Matrix[to_a]
  elsif axis == :vertical
    Matrix.columns([to_a])
  else
    raise ArgumentError, "axis should be either :horizontal or :vertical, not #{axis}"
  end
end

#to_REXPObject


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# File 'lib/daru/extensions/rserve.rb', line 17

def to_REXP
  Rserve::REXP::Wrapper.wrap(self.to_a)
end

#to_sObject


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 765

def to_s
  to_html
end

#typeObject

The type of data contained in the vector. Can be :object or :numeric. If the underlying dtype is an NMatrix, this method will return the data type of the NMatrix object.

Running through the data to figure out the kind of data is delayed to the last possible moment.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 416

def type
  return @data.nm_dtype if dtype == :nmatrix

  if @type.nil? or @possibly_changed_type
    @type = :numeric
    self.each do |e|
      unless e.nil?
        unless e.is_a?(Numeric)
          @type = :object
          break
        end
      end
    end
    @possibly_changed_type = false
  end

  @type
end

#uniqObject

Keep only unique elements of the vector alongwith their indexes.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 441

def uniq
  uniq_vector = @data.uniq
  new_index   = uniq_vector.inject([]) do |acc, element|  
    acc << index_of(element) 
    acc
  end

  Daru::Vector.new uniq_vector, name: @name, index: new_index, dtype: @dtype
end

#updateObject

Method for updating the metadata (i.e. missing value positions) of the after assingment/deletion etc. are complete. This is provided so that time is not wasted in creating the metadata for the vector each time assignment/deletion of elements is done. Updating data this way is called lazy loading. To set or unset lazy loading, see the .lazy_update= method.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 321

def update
  if Daru.lazy_update
    set_missing_positions
  end
end

#verify(&block) ⇒ Object

Reports all values that doesn't comply with a condition. Returns a hash with the index of data and the invalid data.


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# File 'lib/daru/vector.rb', line 540

def verify &block
  h = {}
  (0...size).each do |i|
    if !(yield @data[i])
      h[i] = @data[i]
    end
  end

  h
end