Class: Capybara::Node::Element

Inherits:
Base
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/capybara/node/element.rb

Overview

A Element represents a single element on the page. It is possible to interact with the contents of this element the same as with a document:

session = Capybara::Session.new(:rack_test, my_app)

bar = session.find('#bar')              # from Capybara::Node::Finders
bar.select('Baz', from: 'Quox')      # from Capybara::Node::Actions

Element also has access to HTML attributes and other properties of the element:

 bar.value
 bar.text
 bar[:title]

See Also:

Constant Summary collapse

STYLE_SCRIPT =
<<~JS
  (function(){
    var s = window.getComputedStyle(this);
    var result = {};
    for (var i = arguments.length; i--; ) {
      var property_name = arguments[i];
      result[property_name] = s.getPropertyValue(property_name);
    }
    return result;
  }).apply(this, arguments)
JS

Instance Attribute Summary

Attributes inherited from Base

#base, #query_scope, #session

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from Base

#find_css, #find_xpath, #session_options, #synchronize, #to_capybara_node

Methods included from Minitest::Expectations

#must_have_style

Methods included from Matchers

#==, #assert_all_of_selectors, #assert_ancestor, #assert_any_of_selectors, #assert_matches_selector, #assert_matches_style, #assert_no_ancestor, #assert_no_selector, #assert_no_sibling, #assert_no_text, #assert_none_of_selectors, #assert_not_matches_selector, #assert_selector, #assert_sibling, #assert_style, #assert_text, #has_ancestor?, #has_button?, #has_checked_field?, #has_css?, #has_field?, #has_link?, #has_no_ancestor?, #has_no_button?, #has_no_checked_field?, #has_no_css?, #has_no_field?, #has_no_link?, #has_no_select?, #has_no_selector?, #has_no_sibling?, #has_no_table?, #has_no_text?, #has_no_unchecked_field?, #has_no_xpath?, #has_select?, #has_selector?, #has_sibling?, #has_style?, #has_table?, #has_text?, #has_unchecked_field?, #has_xpath?, #matches_css?, #matches_selector?, #matches_style?, #matches_xpath?, #not_matches_css?, #not_matches_selector?, #not_matches_xpath?

Methods included from Actions

#attach_file, #check, #choose, #click_button, #click_link, #click_link_or_button, #fill_in, #select, #uncheck, #unselect

Methods included from Finders

#all, #ancestor, #find, #find_button, #find_by_id, #find_field, #find_link, #first, #sibling

Constructor Details

#initialize(session, base, query_scope, query) ⇒ Element

Returns a new instance of Element


25
26
27
28
29
30
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 25

def initialize(session, base, query_scope, query)
  super(session, base)
  @query_scope = query_scope
  @query = query
  @allow_reload = false
end

Instance Method Details

#[](attribute) ⇒ String

Retrieve the given attribute.

element[:title] # => HTML title attribute

Parameters:

  • attribute (Symbol)

    The attribute to retrieve

Returns:

  • (String)

    The value of the attribute


71
72
73
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 71

def [](attribute)
  synchronize { base[attribute] }
end

#allow_reload!Object


32
33
34
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 32

def allow_reload!
  @allow_reload = true
end

#checked?Boolean

Whether or not the element is checked.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is checked


320
321
322
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 320

def checked?
  synchronize { base.checked? }
end

#click(*modifier_keys, wait: nil, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Click the Element.

If the driver dynamic pages (JS) and the element is currently non-interactable, this method will continuously retry the action until either the element becomes interactable or the maximum wait time expires.

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element.

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Parameters:

  • wait (false, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for the action to succeed. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:


165
166
167
168
169
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 165

def click(*keys, **options)
  perform_click_action(keys, options) do |k, opts|
    base.click(k, opts)
  end
end

#disabled?Boolean

Whether or not the element is disabled.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is disabled


340
341
342
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 340

def disabled?
  synchronize { base.disabled? }
end

#double_click(*modifier_keys, wait: nil, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Double Click the Element.

If the driver dynamic pages (JS) and the element is currently non-interactable, this method will continuously retry the action until either the element becomes interactable or the maximum wait time expires.

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element.

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Parameters:

  • wait (false, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for the action to succeed. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:


191
192
193
194
195
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 191

def double_click(*keys, **options)
  perform_click_action(keys, options) do |k, opts|
    base.double_click(k, opts)
  end
end

#drag_to(node, **options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Drag the element to the given other element.

source = page.find('#foo')
target = page.find('#bar')
source.drag_to(target)

Parameters:

  • node (Capybara::Node::Element)

    The element to drag to

  • options (Hash)

    Driver specific options for dragging. May not be supported by all drivers.

Options Hash (**options):

  • :delay (Numeric) — default: 0.05

    When using Chrome/Firefox with Selenium and HTML5 dragging this is the number of seconds between each stage of the drag.

  • :html5 (Boolean)

    When using Chrome/Firefox with Selenium enables to force the use of HTML5 (true) or legacy (false) dragging. If not specified the driver will attempt to detect the correct method to use.

Returns:


410
411
412
413
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 410

def drag_to(node, **options)
  synchronize { base.drag_to(node.base, **options) }
  self
end

#drop(path, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element #drop(strings, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Drop items on the current element.

target = page.find('#foo')
target.drop('/some/path/file.csv')

Overloads:

  • #drop(path, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

    Parameters:

    • path (String, #to_path)

      Location of the file to drop on the element

  • #drop(strings, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

    Parameters:

    • strings (Hash)

      A hash of type to data to be dropped - { "text/url" => "https://www.google.com" }

Returns:


429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 429

def drop(*args)
  options = args.map do |arg|
    return arg.to_path if arg.respond_to?(:to_path)

    arg
  end
  synchronize { base.drop(*options) }
  self
end

#evaluate_async_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Evaluate the given JavaScript in the context of the element and obtain the result from a callback function which will be passed as the last argument to the script. this in the script will refer to the element this is called on.

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to evaluate

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The result of the evaluated JavaScript (may be driver specific)


514
515
516
517
518
519
520
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 514

def evaluate_async_script(script, *args)
  session.evaluate_async_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function (){
      #{script}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#evaluate_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Evaluate the given JS in the context of the element and return the result. Be careful when using this with scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. #execute_script might be a better alternative. this in the script will refer to the element this is called on.

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to evaluate

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The result of the evaluated JavaScript (may be driver specific)


497
498
499
500
501
502
503
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 497

def evaluate_script(script, *args)
  session.evaluate_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function(){
      return #{script.strip}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#execute_script(script, *args) ⇒ Object

Execute the given JS in the context of the element not returning a result. This is useful for scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. #execute_script should be used over #evaluate_script whenever a result is not expected or needed. this in the script will refer to the element this is called on.

Parameters:

  • script (String)

    A string of JavaScript to execute

  • args

    Optional arguments that will be passed to the script. Driver support for this is optional and types of objects supported may differ between drivers


480
481
482
483
484
485
486
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 480

def execute_script(script, *args)
  session.execute_script(<<~JS, self, *args)
    (function (){
      #{script}
    }).apply(arguments[0], Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments,1));
  JS
end

#flashCapybara::Node::Element

Toggle the elements background color between white and black for a period of time.

Returns:


527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 527

def flash
  execute_script(<<~JS, 100)
    async function flash(el, delay){
      var old_bg = el.style.backgroundColor;
      var colors = ["black", "white"];
      for(var i=0; i<20; i++){
        el.style.backgroundColor = colors[i % colors.length];
        await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, delay));
      }
      el.style.backgroundColor = old_bg;
    }
    flash(this, arguments[0]);
  JS

  self
end

#hoverCapybara::Node::Element

Hover on the Element.

Returns:


278
279
280
281
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 278

def hover
  synchronize { base.hover }
  self
end

#initial_cacheObject

This method is part of a private API. You should avoid using this method if possible, as it may be removed or be changed in the future.


572
573
574
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 572

def initial_cache
  base.respond_to?(:initial_cache) ? base.initial_cache : {}
end

#inspectString

A human-readable representation of the element.

Returns:

  • (String)

    A string representation


563
564
565
566
567
568
569
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 563

def inspect
  %(#<Capybara::Node::Element tag="#{base.tag_name}" path="#{base.path}">)
rescue NotSupportedByDriverError
  %(#<Capybara::Node::Element tag="#{base.tag_name}">)
rescue *session.driver.invalid_element_errors
  %(Obsolete #<Capybara::Node::Element>)
end

#multiple?Boolean

Whether or not the element supports multiple results.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element supports multiple results.


360
361
362
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 360

def multiple?
  synchronize { base.multiple? }
end

#nativeObject

Returns The native element from the driver, this allows access to driver specific methods

Returns:

  • (Object)

    The native element from the driver, this allows access to driver specific methods


40
41
42
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 40

def native
  synchronize { base.native }
end

#obscured?Boolean

Whether or not the element is currently in the viewport and it (or descendants) would be considered clickable at the elements center point.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the elements center is obscured.


310
311
312
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 310

def obscured?
  synchronize { base.obscured? }
end

#pathString

An XPath expression describing where on the page the element can be found.

Returns:

  • (String)

    An XPath expression


370
371
372
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 370

def path
  synchronize { base.path }
end

#readonly?Boolean

Whether or not the element is readonly.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is readonly


350
351
352
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 350

def readonly?
  synchronize { base.readonly? }
end

#rectObject


374
375
376
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 374

def rect
  synchronize { base.rect }
end

#reloadObject

This method is part of a private API. You should avoid using this method if possible, as it may be removed or be changed in the future.


545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 545

def reload
  if @allow_reload
    begin
      reloaded = @query.resolve_for(query_scope.reload)&.first

      @base = reloaded.base if reloaded
    rescue StandardError => e
      raise e unless catch_error?(e)
    end
  end
  self
end

#right_click(*modifier_keys, wait: nil, **offset) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Right Click the Element.

If the driver dynamic pages (JS) and the element is currently non-interactable, this method will continuously retry the action until either the element becomes interactable or the maximum wait time expires.

Both x: and y: must be specified if an offset is wanted, if not specified the click will occur at the middle of the element.

Parameters:

  • *modifier_keys (:alt, :control, :meta, :shift)

    ([]) Keys to be held down when clicking

Parameters:

  • wait (false, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for the action to succeed. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:


178
179
180
181
182
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 178

def right_click(*keys, **options)
  perform_click_action(keys, options) do |k, opts|
    base.right_click(k, opts)
  end
end

#scroll_to(position, offset: [0,0]) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element #scroll_to(element, align: :top) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element #scroll_to(x, y) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Scroll the page or element.

Overloads:

  • #scroll_to(position, offset: [0,0]) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

    Scroll the page or element to its top, bottom or middle.

    Parameters:

    • position (:top, :bottom, :center, :current)
    • offset ([Integer, Integer])
  • #scroll_to(element, align: :top) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

    Scroll the page or current element until the given element is aligned at the top, bottom, or center of it.

    Parameters:

    • element (Capybara::Node::Element)

      The element to be scrolled into view

    • align (:top, :bottom, :center)

      Where to align the element being scrolled into view with relation to the current page/element if possible

  • #scroll_to(x, y) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

    Parameters:

    • x (Integer)

      Horizontal scroll offset

    • y (Integer)

      Vertical scroll offset

Returns:


458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 458

def scroll_to(pos_or_el_or_x, y = nil, align: :top, offset: nil)
  case pos_or_el_or_x
  when Symbol
    synchronize { base.scroll_to(nil, pos_or_el_or_x) } unless pos_or_el_or_x == :current
  when Capybara::Node::Element
    synchronize { base.scroll_to(pos_or_el_or_x.base, align) }
  else
    synchronize { base.scroll_to(nil, nil, [pos_or_el_or_x, y]) }
  end
  synchronize { base.scroll_by(*offset) } unless offset.nil?
  self
end

#select_option(wait: nil) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Select this node if it is an option element inside a select tag.

If the driver dynamic pages (JS) and the element is currently non-interactable, this method will continuously retry the action until either the element becomes interactable or the maximum wait time expires.

Parameters:

  • wait (false, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for the action to succeed. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:


135
136
137
138
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 135

def select_option(wait: nil)
  synchronize(wait) { base.select_option }
  self
end

#selected?Boolean

Whether or not the element is selected.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is selected


330
331
332
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 330

def selected?
  synchronize { base.selected? }
end

#send_keys(keys, ...) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Send Keystrokes to the Element.

Examples:

element.send_keys "foo"                     #=> value: 'foo'
element.send_keys "tet", :left, "s"         #=> value: 'test'
element.send_keys [:control, 'a'], :space   #=> value: ' ' - assuming ctrl-a selects all contents

Symbols supported for keys:

  • :cancel
  • :help
  • :backspace
  • :tab
  • :clear
  • :return
  • :enter
  • :shift
  • :control
  • :alt
  • :pause
  • :escape
  • :space
  • :page_up
  • :page_down
  • :end
  • :home
  • :left
  • :up
  • :right
  • :down
  • :insert
  • :delete
  • :semicolon
  • :equals
  • :numpad0
  • :numpad1
  • :numpad2
  • :numpad3
  • :numpad4
  • :numpad5
  • :numpad6
  • :numpad7
  • :numpad8
  • :numpad9
  • :multiply - numeric keypad *
  • :add - numeric keypad +
  • :separator - numeric keypad 'separator' key ??
  • :subtract - numeric keypad -
  • :decimal - numeric keypad .
  • :divide - numeric keypad /
  • :f1
  • :f2
  • :f3
  • :f4
  • :f5
  • :f6
  • :f7
  • :f8
  • :f9
  • :f10
  • :f11
  • :f12
  • :meta
  • :command - alias of :meta

Parameters:

  • keys (String, Symbol, Array<String,Symbol>)

Returns:


268
269
270
271
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 268

def send_keys(*args)
  synchronize { base.send_keys(*args) }
  self
end

#set(value, **options) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Set the value of the form element to the given value.

Parameters:

  • value (String)

    The new value

  • options (Hash)

    Driver specific options for how to set the value. Take default values from default_set_options.

Returns:

Raises:


115
116
117
118
119
120
121
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 115

def set(value, **options)
  raise Capybara::ReadOnlyElementError, "Attempt to set readonly element with value: #{value}" if ENV['CAPYBARA_THOROUGH'] && readonly?

  options = session_options.default_set_options.to_h.merge(options)
  synchronize { base.set(value, options) }
  self
end

#style(*styles) ⇒ Hash

Retrieve the given CSS styles.

element.style('color', 'font-size') # => Computed values of CSS 'color' and 'font-size' styles

Parameters:

  • styles (Array<String>)

    Names of the desired CSS properties

Returns:

  • (Hash)

    Hash of the CSS property names to computed values

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 84

def style(*styles)
  styles = styles.flatten.map(&:to_s)
  raise ArgumentError, 'You must specify at least one CSS style' if styles.empty?

  begin
    synchronize { base.style(styles) }
  rescue NotImplementedError => e
    begin
      evaluate_script(STYLE_SCRIPT, *styles)
    rescue Capybara::NotSupportedByDriverError
      raise e
    end
  end
end

#tag_nameString

Returns The tag name of the element

Returns:

  • (String)

    The tag name of the element


287
288
289
290
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 287

def tag_name
  # Element type is immutable so cache it
  @tag_name ||= initial_cache[:tag_name] || synchronize { base.tag_name }
end

#text(type = nil, normalize_ws: false) ⇒ String

Retrieve the text of the element. If ignore_hidden_elements is true, which it is by default, then this will return only text which is visible. The exact semantics of this may differ between drivers, but generally any text within elements with display:none is ignored. This behaviour can be overridden by passing :all to this method.

Parameters:

  • type (:all, :visible) (defaults to: nil)

    Whether to return only visible or all text

Returns:

  • (String)

    The text of the element


56
57
58
59
60
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 56

def text(type = nil, normalize_ws: false)
  type ||= :all unless session_options.ignore_hidden_elements || session_options.visible_text_only
  txt = synchronize { type == :all ? base.all_text : base.visible_text }
  normalize_ws ? txt.gsub(/[[:space:]]+/, ' ').strip : txt
end

#trigger(event) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Trigger any event on the current element, for example mouseover or focus events. Not supported with the Selenium driver, and SHOULDN'T BE USED IN TESTING unless you fully understand why you're using it, that it can allow actions a user could never perform, and that it may completely invalidate your test.

Parameters:

  • event (String)

    The name of the event to trigger

Returns:


388
389
390
391
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 388

def trigger(event)
  synchronize { base.trigger(event) }
  self
end

#unselect_option(wait: nil) ⇒ Capybara::Node::Element

Unselect this node if it is an option element inside a multiple select tag.

If the driver dynamic pages (JS) and the element is currently non-interactable, this method will continuously retry the action until either the element becomes interactable or the maximum wait time expires.

Parameters:

  • wait (false, Numeric)

    Maximum time to wait for the action to succeed. Defaults to default_max_wait_time.

Returns:


146
147
148
149
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 146

def unselect_option(wait: nil)
  synchronize(wait) { base.unselect_option }
  self
end

#valueString

Returns The value of the form element

Returns:

  • (String)

    The value of the form element


103
104
105
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 103

def value
  synchronize { base.value }
end

#visible?Boolean

Whether or not the element is visible. Not all drivers support CSS, so the result may be inaccurate.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Whether the element is visible


299
300
301
# File 'lib/capybara/node/element.rb', line 299

def visible?
  synchronize { base.visible? }
end