Class: AST::Node

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/ast/node.rb

Overview

Node is an immutable class, instances of which represent abstract syntax tree nodes. It combines semantic information (i.e. anything that affects the algorithmic properties of a program) with meta-information (line numbers or compiler intermediates).

Notes on inheritance

The distinction between semantics and metadata is important. Complete semantic information should be contained within just the #type and #children of a Node instance; in other words, if an AST was to be stripped of all meta-information, it should remain a valid AST which could be successfully processed to yield a result with the same algorithmic properties.

Thus, Node should never be inherited in order to define methods which affect or return semantic information, such as getters for class_name, superclass and body in the case of a hypothetical ClassNode. The correct solution is to use a generic Node with a #type of :class and three children. See also Processor for tips on working with such ASTs.

On the other hand, Node can and should be inherited to define application-specific metadata (see also #initialize) or customize the printing format. It is expected that an application would have one or two such classes and use them across the entire codebase.

The rationale for this pattern is extensibility and maintainability. Unlike static ones, dynamic languages do not require the presence of a predefined, rigid structure, nor does it improve dispatch efficiency, and while such a structure can certainly be defined, it does not add any value but incurs a maintaining cost. For example, extending the AST even with a transformation-local temporary node type requires making globally visible changes to the codebase.

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(type, children = [], properties = {}) ⇒ Node

Constructs a new instance of Node.

The arguments type and children are converted with to_sym and to_a respectively. Additionally, the result of converting children is frozen. While mutating the arguments is generally considered harmful, the most common case is to pass an array literal to the constructor. If your code does not expect the argument to be frozen, use #dup.

The properties hash is passed to #assign_properties.


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 72

def initialize(type, children=[], properties={})
  @type, @children = type.to_sym, children.to_a.freeze

  assign_properties(properties)

  @hash = [@type, @children, self.class].hash

  freeze
end

Instance Attribute Details

#childrenArray (readonly) Also known as: to_a

Returns the children of this node. The returned value is frozen. The to_a alias is useful for decomposing nodes concisely. For example:

node = s(:gasgn, :$foo, s(:integer, 1))
var_name, value = *node
p var_name # => :$foo
p value    # => (integer 1)

Returns:

  • (Array)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 56

def children
  @children
end

#hashFixnum (readonly)

Returns the precomputed hash value for this node

Returns:

  • (Fixnum)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 61

def hash
  @hash
end

#typeSymbol (readonly)

Returns the type of this node.

Returns:

  • (Symbol)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 43

def type
  @type
end

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Boolean

Compares self to other, possibly converting with to_ast. Only type and children are compared; metadata is deliberately ignored.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 151

def ==(other)
  if equal?(other)
    true
  elsif other.respond_to? :to_ast
    other = other.to_ast
    other.type == self.type &&
      other.children == self.children
  else
    false
  end
end

#append(element) ⇒ AST::Node Also known as: <<

Appends element to children and returns the resulting node.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 175

def append(element)
  updated(nil, @children + [element])
end

#assign_properties(properties) ⇒ nil (protected)

By default, each entry in the properties hash is assigned to an instance variable in this instance of Node. A subclass should define attribute readers for such variables. The values passed in the hash are not frozen or whitelisted; such behavior can also be implemented by subclassing Node and overriding this method.

Returns:

  • (nil)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 98

def assign_properties(properties)
  properties.each do |name, value|
    instance_variable_set :"@#{name}", value
  end

  nil
end

#concat(array) ⇒ AST::Node Also known as: +

Concatenates array with children and returns the resulting node.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 166

def concat(array)
  updated(nil, @children + array.to_a)
end

#dupObject Also known as: clone

Nodes are already frozen, so there is no harm in returning the current node as opposed to initializing from scratch and freezing another one.

Returns:

  • self


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 115

def dup
  self
end

#eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Test if other object is equal to

Parameters:

  • other (Object)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 85

def eql?(other)
  self.class.eql?(other.class)   &&
  @type.eql?(other.type)         &&
  @children.eql?(other.children)
end

#fancy_typeString (protected)

Returns @type with all underscores replaced by dashes. This allows to write symbol literals without quotes in Ruby sources and yet have nicely looking s-expressions.

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 254

def fancy_type
  @type.to_s.gsub('_', '-')
end

#inspect(indent = 0) ⇒ String

Converts self to a s-expression ruby string. The code return will recreate the node, using the sexp module s()

Parameters:

  • indent (Integer) (defaults to: 0)

    Base indentation level.

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 209

def inspect(indent=0)
  indented = "  " * indent
  sexp = "#{indented}s(:#{@type}"

  children.each do |child|
    if child.is_a?(Node)
      sexp += ",\n#{child.inspect(indent + 1)}"
    else
      sexp += ", #{child.inspect}"
    end
  end

  sexp += ")"

  sexp
end

#to_astAST::Node

Returns self

Returns:


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 227

def to_ast
  self
end

#to_sexp(indent = 0) ⇒ String Also known as: to_s

Converts self to a pretty-printed s-expression.

Parameters:

  • indent (Integer) (defaults to: 0)

    Base indentation level.

Returns:

  • (String)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 185

def to_sexp(indent=0)
  indented = "  " * indent
  sexp = "#{indented}(#{fancy_type}"

  children.each do |child|
    if child.is_a?(Node)
      sexp += "\n#{child.to_sexp(indent + 1)}"
    else
      sexp += " #{child.inspect}"
    end
  end

  sexp += ")"

  sexp
end

#to_sexp_arrayArray<Symbol, [...Array]>

Converts self to an Array where the first element is the type as a Symbol, and subsequent elements are the same representation of its children.

Returns:

  • (Array<Symbol, [...Array]>)

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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 235

def to_sexp_array
  children_sexp_arrs = children.map do |child|
    if child.is_a?(Node)
      child.to_sexp_array
    else
      child
    end
  end

  [type, *children_sexp_arrs]
end

#updated(type = nil, children = nil, properties = nil) ⇒ AST::Node

Returns a new instance of Node where non-nil arguments replace the corresponding fields of self.

For example, Node.new(:foo, [ 1, 2 ]).updated(:bar) would yield (bar 1 2), and Node.new(:foo, [ 1, 2 ]).updated(nil, []) would yield (foo).

If the resulting node would be identical to self, does nothing.

Parameters:

  • type (Symbol, nil) (defaults to: nil)
  • children (Array, nil) (defaults to: nil)
  • properties (Hash, nil) (defaults to: nil)

Returns:


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# File 'lib/ast/node.rb', line 133

def updated(type=nil, children=nil, properties=nil)
  new_type       = type       || @type
  new_children   = children   || @children
  new_properties = properties || {}

  if @type == new_type &&
      @children == new_children &&
      properties.nil?
    self
  else
    original_dup.send :initialize, new_type, new_children, new_properties
  end
end