Module: ActiveRecord::Persistence

Extended by:
ActiveSupport::Concern
Included in:
Base
Defined in:
lib/active_record/persistence.rb

Overview

Active Record Persistence

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: ClassMethods

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#becomes(klass) ⇒ Object

Returns an instance of the specified klass with the attributes of the current record. This is mostly useful in relation to single-table inheritance structures where you want a subclass to appear as the superclass. This can be used along with record identification in Action Pack to allow, say, Client < Company to do something like render partial: @client.becomes(Company) to render that instance using the companies/company partial instead of clients/client.

Note: The new instance will share a link to the same attributes as the original class. Therefore the sti column value will still be the same. Any change to the attributes on either instance will affect both instances. If you want to change the sti column as well, use #becomes! instead.


372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 372

def becomes(klass)
  became = klass.allocate
  became.send(:initialize)
  became.instance_variable_set("@attributes", @attributes)
  became.instance_variable_set("@mutations_from_database", @mutations_from_database) if defined?(@mutations_from_database)
  became.instance_variable_set("@changed_attributes", attributes_changed_by_setter)
  became.instance_variable_set("@new_record", new_record?)
  became.instance_variable_set("@destroyed", destroyed?)
  became.errors.copy!(errors)
  became
end

#becomes!(klass) ⇒ Object

Wrapper around #becomes that also changes the instance's sti column value. This is especially useful if you want to persist the changed class in your database.

Note: The old instance's sti column value will be changed too, as both objects share the same set of attributes.


390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 390

def becomes!(klass)
  became = becomes(klass)
  sti_type = nil
  if !klass.descends_from_active_record?
    sti_type = klass.sti_name
  end
  became.public_send("#{klass.inheritance_column}=", sti_type)
  became
end

#decrement(attribute, by = 1) ⇒ Object

Initializes attribute to zero if nil and subtracts the value passed as by (default is 1). The decrement is performed directly on the underlying attribute, no setter is invoked. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.


514
515
516
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 514

def decrement(attribute, by = 1)
  increment(attribute, -by)
end

#decrement!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil) ⇒ Object

Wrapper around #decrement that writes the update to the database. Only attribute is updated; the record itself is not saved. This means that any other modified attributes will still be dirty. Validations and callbacks are skipped. Supports the touch option from update_counters, see that for more. Returns self.


524
525
526
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 524

def decrement!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil)
  increment!(attribute, -by, touch: touch)
end

#deleteObject

Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted). Returns the frozen instance.

The row is simply removed with an SQL DELETE statement on the record's primary key, and no callbacks are executed.

Note that this will also delete records marked as #readonly?.

To enforce the object's before_destroy and after_destroy callbacks or any :dependent association options, use #destroy.


323
324
325
326
327
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 323

def delete
  _delete_row if persisted?
  @destroyed = true
  freeze
end

#destroyObject

Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).

There's a series of callbacks associated with #destroy. If the before_destroy callback throws :abort the action is cancelled and #destroy returns false. See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.


336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 336

def destroy
  _raise_readonly_record_error if readonly?
  destroy_associations
  self.class.connection.add_transaction_record(self)
  @_trigger_destroy_callback = if persisted?
    destroy_row > 0
  else
    true
  end
  @destroyed = true
  freeze
end

#destroy!Object

Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).

There's a series of callbacks associated with #destroy!. If the before_destroy callback throws :abort the action is cancelled and #destroy! raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotDestroyed. See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.


356
357
358
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 356

def destroy!
  destroy || _raise_record_not_destroyed
end

#destroyed?Boolean

Returns true if this object has been destroyed, otherwise returns false.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

237
238
239
240
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 237

def destroyed?
  sync_with_transaction_state
  @destroyed
end

#increment(attribute, by = 1) ⇒ Object

Initializes attribute to zero if nil and adds the value passed as by (default is 1). The increment is performed directly on the underlying attribute, no setter is invoked. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.


491
492
493
494
495
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 491

def increment(attribute, by = 1)
  self[attribute] ||= 0
  self[attribute] += by
  self
end

#increment!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil) ⇒ Object

Wrapper around #increment that writes the update to the database. Only attribute is updated; the record itself is not saved. This means that any other modified attributes will still be dirty. Validations and callbacks are skipped. Supports the touch option from update_counters, see that for more. Returns self.


503
504
505
506
507
508
509
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 503

def increment!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil)
  increment(attribute, by)
  change = public_send(attribute) - (attribute_in_database(attribute.to_s) || 0)
  self.class.update_counters(id, attribute => change, touch: touch)
  clear_attribute_change(attribute) # eww
  self
end

#new_record?Boolean

Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet – that is, a record for the object doesn't exist in the database yet; otherwise, returns false.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

231
232
233
234
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 231

def new_record?
  sync_with_transaction_state
  @new_record
end

#persisted?Boolean

Returns true if the record is persisted, i.e. it's not a new record and it was not destroyed, otherwise returns false.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

244
245
246
247
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 244

def persisted?
  sync_with_transaction_state
  !(@new_record || @destroyed)
end

#reload(options = nil) ⇒ Object

Reloads the record from the database.

This method finds the record by its primary key (which could be assigned manually) and modifies the receiver in-place:

 = Account.new
# => #<Account id: nil, email: nil>
.id = 1
.reload
# Account Load (1.2ms)  SELECT "accounts".* FROM "accounts" WHERE "accounts"."id" = $1 LIMIT 1  [["id", 1]]
# => #<Account id: 1, email: '[email protected]'>

Attributes are reloaded from the database, and caches busted, in particular the associations cache and the QueryCache.

If the record no longer exists in the database ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound is raised. Otherwise, in addition to the in-place modification the method returns self for convenience.

The optional :lock flag option allows you to lock the reloaded record:

reload(lock: true) # reload with pessimistic locking

Reloading is commonly used in test suites to test something is actually written to the database, or when some action modifies the corresponding row in the database but not the object in memory:

assert .deposit!(25)
assert_equal 25, .credit        # check it is updated in memory
assert_equal 25, .reload.credit # check it is also persisted

Another common use case is optimistic locking handling:

def with_optimistic_retry
  begin
    yield
  rescue ActiveRecord::StaleObjectError
    begin
      # Reload lock_version in particular.
      reload
    rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound
      # If the record is gone there is nothing to do.
    else
      retry
    end
  end
end

601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 601

def reload(options = nil)
  self.class.connection.clear_query_cache

  fresh_object =
    if options && options[:lock]
      self.class.unscoped { self.class.lock(options[:lock]).find(id) }
    else
      self.class.unscoped { self.class.find(id) }
    end

  @attributes = fresh_object.instance_variable_get("@attributes")
  @new_record = false
  self
end

#save(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

save(*args)

Saves the model.

If the model is new, a record gets created in the database, otherwise the existing record gets updated.

By default, save always runs validations. If any of them fail the action is cancelled and #save returns false, and the record won't be saved. However, if you supply validate: false, validations are bypassed altogether. See ActiveRecord::Validations for more information.

By default, #save also sets the updated_at/updated_on attributes to the current time. However, if you supply touch: false, these timestamps will not be updated.

There's a series of callbacks associated with #save. If any of the before_* callbacks throws :abort the action is cancelled and #save returns false. See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.

Attributes marked as readonly are silently ignored if the record is being updated.


274
275
276
277
278
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 274

def save(*args, &block)
  create_or_update(*args, &block)
rescue ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid
  false
end

#save!(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

save!(*args)

Saves the model.

If the model is new, a record gets created in the database, otherwise the existing record gets updated.

By default, #save! always runs validations. If any of them fail ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid gets raised, and the record won't be saved. However, if you supply validate: false, validations are bypassed altogether. See ActiveRecord::Validations for more information.

By default, #save! also sets the updated_at/updated_on attributes to the current time. However, if you supply touch: false, these timestamps will not be updated.

There's a series of callbacks associated with #save!. If any of the before_* callbacks throws :abort the action is cancelled and #save! raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotSaved. See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.

Attributes marked as readonly are silently ignored if the record is being updated.

Unless an error is raised, returns true.


307
308
309
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 307

def save!(*args, &block)
  create_or_update(*args, &block) || raise(RecordNotSaved.new("Failed to save the record", self))
end

#toggle(attribute) ⇒ Object

Assigns to attribute the boolean opposite of attribute?. So if the predicate returns true the attribute will become false. This method toggles directly the underlying value without calling any setter. Returns self.

Example:

user = User.first
user.banned? # => false
user.toggle(:banned)
user.banned? # => true

540
541
542
543
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 540

def toggle(attribute)
  self[attribute] = !public_send("#{attribute}?")
  self
end

#toggle!(attribute) ⇒ Object

Wrapper around #toggle that saves the record. This method differs from its non-bang version in the sense that it passes through the attribute setter. Saving is not subjected to validation checks. Returns true if the record could be saved.


549
550
551
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 549

def toggle!(attribute)
  toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
end

#touch(*names, time: nil) ⇒ Object

Saves the record with the updated_at/on attributes set to the current time or the time specified. Please note that no validation is performed and only the after_touch, after_commit and after_rollback callbacks are executed.

This method can be passed attribute names and an optional time argument. If attribute names are passed, they are updated along with updated_at/on attributes. If no time argument is passed, the current time is used as default.

product.touch                         # updates updated_at/on with current time
product.touch(time: Time.new(2015, 2, 16, 0, 0, 0)) # updates updated_at/on with specified time
product.touch(:designed_at)           # updates the designed_at attribute and updated_at/on
product.touch(:started_at, :ended_at) # updates started_at, ended_at and updated_at/on attributes

If used along with belongs_to then touch will invoke touch method on associated object.

class Brake < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :car, touch: true
end

class Car < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :corporation, touch: true
end

# triggers @brake.car.touch and @brake.car.corporation.touch
@brake.touch

Note that touch must be used on a persisted object, or else an ActiveRecordError will be thrown. For example:

ball = Ball.new
ball.touch(:updated_at)   # => raises ActiveRecordError

650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 650

def touch(*names, time: nil)
  unless persisted?
    raise ActiveRecordError, <<-MSG.squish
      cannot touch on a new or destroyed record object. Consider using
      persisted?, new_record?, or destroyed? before touching
    MSG
  end

  attribute_names = timestamp_attributes_for_update_in_model
  attribute_names |= names.map(&:to_s)

  unless attribute_names.empty?
    affected_rows = _touch_row(attribute_names, time)
    @_trigger_update_callback = affected_rows == 1
  else
    true
  end
end

#update(attributes) ⇒ Object Also known as: update_attributes

Updates the attributes of the model from the passed-in hash and saves the record, all wrapped in a transaction. If the object is invalid, the saving will fail and false will be returned.


423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 423

def update(attributes)
  # The following transaction covers any possible database side-effects of the
  # attributes assignment. For example, setting the IDs of a child collection.
  with_transaction_returning_status do
    assign_attributes(attributes)
    save
  end
end

#update!(attributes) ⇒ Object Also known as: update_attributes!

Updates its receiver just like #update but calls #save! instead of save, so an exception is raised if the record is invalid and saving will fail.


436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 436

def update!(attributes)
  # The following transaction covers any possible database side-effects of the
  # attributes assignment. For example, setting the IDs of a child collection.
  with_transaction_returning_status do
    assign_attributes(attributes)
    save!
  end
end

#update_attribute(name, value) ⇒ Object

Updates a single attribute and saves the record. This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records. Also note that

  • Validation is skipped.

  • Callbacks are invoked.

  • updated_at/updated_on column is updated if that column is available.

  • Updates all the attributes that are dirty in this object.

This method raises an ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError if the attribute is marked as readonly.

Also see #update_column.


412
413
414
415
416
417
418
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 412

def update_attribute(name, value)
  name = name.to_s
  verify_readonly_attribute(name)
  public_send("#{name}=", value)

  save(validate: false)
end

#update_column(name, value) ⇒ Object

Equivalent to update_columns(name => value).


448
449
450
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 448

def update_column(name, value)
  update_columns(name => value)
end

#update_columns(attributes) ⇒ Object

Updates the attributes directly in the database issuing an UPDATE SQL statement and sets them in the receiver:

user.update_columns(last_request_at: Time.current)

This is the fastest way to update attributes because it goes straight to the database, but take into account that in consequence the regular update procedures are totally bypassed. In particular:

  • Validations are skipped.

  • Callbacks are skipped.

  • updated_at/updated_on are not updated.

  • However, attributes are serialized with the same rules as ActiveRecord::Relation#update_all

This method raises an ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError when called on new objects, or when at least one of the attributes is marked as readonly.

Raises:


468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
# File 'lib/active_record/persistence.rb', line 468

def update_columns(attributes)
  raise ActiveRecordError, "cannot update a new record" if new_record?
  raise ActiveRecordError, "cannot update a destroyed record" if destroyed?

  attributes.each_key do |key|
    verify_readonly_attribute(key.to_s)
  end

  affected_rows = self.class._update_record(
    attributes,
    self.class.primary_key => id_in_database
  )

  attributes.each do |k, v|
    write_attribute_without_type_cast(k, v)
  end

  affected_rows == 1
end