Class: ActiveRecord::Relation

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Batches, Calculations, Delegation, Explain, FinderMethods, QueryMethods, SpawnMethods, Enumerable
Defined in:
lib/active_record/relation.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/merger.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/from_clause.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/where_clause.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/query_attribute.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/record_fetch_warning.rb,
lib/active_record/relation/where_clause_factory.rb

Overview

Active Record Relation

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: RecordFetchWarning Classes: FromClause, HashMerger, Merger, QueryAttribute, WhereClause, WhereClauseFactory

Constant Summary collapse

MULTI_VALUE_METHODS =
[:includes, :eager_load, :preload, :select, :group,
:order, :joins, :left_joins, :left_outer_joins, :references,
:extending, :unscope]
SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS =
[:limit, :offset, :lock, :readonly, :reordering,
:reverse_order, :distinct, :create_with]
CLAUSE_METHODS =
[:where, :having, :from]
INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL =
[:limit, :distinct, :offset, :group, :having]
VALUE_METHODS =
MULTI_VALUE_METHODS + SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS + CLAUSE_METHODS

Constants included from FinderMethods

FinderMethods::ONE_AS_ONE

Constants included from QueryMethods

QueryMethods::FROZEN_EMPTY_ARRAY, QueryMethods::FROZEN_EMPTY_HASH, QueryMethods::VALID_UNSCOPING_VALUES

Constants included from Batches

Batches::ORDER_IGNORE_MESSAGE

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from FinderMethods

#exists?, #fifth, #fifth!, #find, #find_by, #find_by!, #first, #first!, #forty_two, #forty_two!, #fourth, #fourth!, #last, #last!, #raise_record_not_found_exception!, #second, #second!, #second_to_last, #second_to_last!, #take, #take!, #third, #third!, #third_to_last, #third_to_last!

Methods included from Calculations

#average, #calculate, #count, #ids, #maximum, #minimum, #pluck, #sum

Methods included from SpawnMethods

#except, #merge, #merge!, #only, #spawn

Methods included from QueryMethods

#_select!, #arel, #bound_attributes, #create_with, #create_with!, #distinct, #distinct!, #eager_load, #eager_load!, #extending, #extending!, #from, #from!, #get_value, #group, #group!, #having, #having!, #includes, #includes!, #joins, #joins!, #left_outer_joins, #left_outer_joins!, #limit, #limit!, #lock, #lock!, #none, #none!, #offset, #offset!, #or, #or!, #order, #order!, #preload, #preload!, #readonly, #readonly!, #references, #references!, #reorder, #reorder!, #reverse_order, #reverse_order!, #rewhere, #select, #set_value, #unscope, #unscope!, #where, #where!

Methods included from Batches

#find_each, #find_in_batches, #in_batches

Methods included from Explain

#collecting_queries_for_explain, #exec_explain

Methods included from Delegation

#respond_to_missing?

Constructor Details

#initialize(klass, table, predicate_builder, values = {}) ⇒ Relation

Returns a new instance of Relation.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 22

def initialize(klass, table, predicate_builder, values = {})
  @klass  = klass
  @table  = table
  @values = values
  @offsets = {}
  @loaded = false
  @predicate_builder = predicate_builder
end

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method in the class ActiveRecord::Delegation

Instance Attribute Details

#klassObject (readonly) Also known as: model

Returns the value of attribute klass


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 18

def klass
  @klass
end

#loadedObject (readonly) Also known as: loaded?

Returns the value of attribute loaded


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 18

def loaded
  @loaded
end

#predicate_builderObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute predicate_builder


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 18

def predicate_builder
  @predicate_builder
end

#tableObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute table


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 18

def table
  @table
end

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Object

Compares two relations for equality.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 612

def ==(other)
  case other
  when Associations::CollectionProxy, AssociationRelation
    self == other.records
  when Relation
    other.to_sql == to_sql
  when Array
    records == other
  end
end

#_update_record(values, id, id_was) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 70

def _update_record(values, id, id_was) # :nodoc:
  substitutes, binds = substitute_values values

  scope = @klass.unscoped

  if @klass.finder_needs_type_condition?
    scope.unscope!(where: @klass.inheritance_column)
  end

  relation = scope.where(@klass.primary_key => (id_was || id))
  bvs = binds + relation.bound_attributes
  um = relation
    .arel
    .compile_update(substitutes, @klass.primary_key)

  @klass.connection.update(
    um,
    "SQL",
    bvs,
  )
end

#any?Boolean

Returns true if there are any records.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 282

def any?
  return super if block_given?
  !empty?
end

#arel_attribute(name) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 104

def arel_attribute(name) # :nodoc:
  klass.arel_attribute(name, table)
end

#blank?Boolean

Returns true if relation is blank.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 628

def blank?
  records.blank?
end

#cache_key(timestamp_column = :updated_at) ⇒ Object

Returns a cache key that can be used to identify the records fetched by this query. The cache key is built with a fingerprint of the sql query, the number of records matched by the query and a timestamp of the last updated record. When a new record comes to match the query, or any of the existing records is updated or deleted, the cache key changes.

Product.where("name like ?", "%Cosmic Encounter%").cache_key
# => "products/query-1850ab3d302391b85b8693e941286659-1-20150714212553907087000"

If the collection is loaded, the method will iterate through the records to generate the timestamp, otherwise it will trigger one SQL query like:

SELECT COUNT(*), MAX("products"."updated_at") FROM "products" WHERE (name like '%Cosmic Encounter%')

You can also pass a custom timestamp column to fetch the timestamp of the last updated record.

Product.where("name like ?", "%Game%").cache_key(:last_reviewed_at)

You can customize the strategy to generate the key on a per model basis overriding ActiveRecord::Base#collection_cache_key.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 320

def cache_key(timestamp_column = :updated_at)
  @cache_keys ||= {}
  @cache_keys[timestamp_column] ||= @klass.collection_cache_key(self, timestamp_column)
end

#create(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Tries to create a new record with the same scoped attributes defined in the relation. Returns the initialized object if validation fails.

Expects arguments in the same format as ActiveRecord::Base.create.

Examples

users = User.where(name: 'Oscar')
users.create # => #<User id: 3, name: "Oscar", ...>

users.create(name: 'fxn')
users.create # => #<User id: 4, name: "fxn", ...>

users.create { |user| user.name = 'tenderlove' }
# => #<User id: 5, name: "tenderlove", ...>

users.create(name: nil) # validation on name
# => #<User id: nil, name: nil, ...>

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 145

def create(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create(*args, &block) }
end

#create!(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Similar to #create, but calls create! on the base class. Raises an exception if a validation error occurs.

Expects arguments in the same format as ActiveRecord::Base.create!.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 155

def create!(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create!(*args, &block) }
end

#delete(id_or_array) ⇒ Object

Deletes the row with a primary key matching the id argument, using a SQL DELETE statement, and returns the number of rows deleted. Active Record objects are not instantiated, so the object's callbacks are not executed, including any :dependent association options.

You can delete multiple rows at once by passing an Array of ids.

Note: Although it is often much faster than the alternative, #destroy, skipping callbacks might bypass business logic in your application that ensures referential integrity or performs other essential jobs.

Examples

# Delete a single row
Todo.delete(1)

# Delete multiple rows
Todo.delete([2,3,4])

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 535

def delete(id_or_array)
  where(primary_key => id_or_array).delete_all
end

#delete_allObject

Deletes the records without instantiating the records first, and hence not calling the #destroy method nor invoking callbacks. This is a single SQL DELETE statement that goes straight to the database, much more efficient than #destroy_all. Be careful with relations though, in particular :dependent rules defined on associations are not honored. Returns the number of rows affected.

Post.where(person_id: 5).where(category: ['Something', 'Else']).delete_all

Both calls delete the affected posts all at once with a single DELETE statement. If you need to destroy dependent associations or call your before_* or after_destroy callbacks, use the #destroy_all method instead.

If an invalid method is supplied, #delete_all raises an ActiveRecordError:

Post.limit(100).delete_all
# => ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError: delete_all doesn't support limit

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 492

def delete_all
  invalid_methods = INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL.select do |method|
    value = get_value(method)
    SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS.include?(method) ? value : value.any?
  end
  if invalid_methods.any?
    raise ActiveRecordError.new("delete_all doesn't support #{invalid_methods.join(', ')}")
  end

  stmt = Arel::DeleteManager.new
  stmt.from(table)

  if has_join_values?
    @klass.connection.join_to_delete(stmt, arel, arel_attribute(primary_key))
  else
    stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
  end

  affected = @klass.connection.delete(stmt, "SQL", bound_attributes)

  reset
  affected
end

#destroy(id) ⇒ Object

Destroy an object (or multiple objects) that has the given id. The object is instantiated first, therefore all callbacks and filters are fired off before the object is deleted. This method is less efficient than #delete but allows cleanup methods and other actions to be run.

This essentially finds the object (or multiple objects) with the given id, creates a new object from the attributes, and then calls destroy on it.

Parameters

  • id - Can be either an Integer or an Array of Integers.

Examples

# Destroy a single object
Todo.destroy(1)

# Destroy multiple objects
todos = [1,2,3]
Todo.destroy(todos)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 466

def destroy(id)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map { |one_id| destroy(one_id) }
  else
    find(id).destroy
  end
end

#destroy_allObject

Destroys the records by instantiating each record and calling its #destroy method. Each object's callbacks are executed (including :dependent association options). Returns the collection of objects that were destroyed; each will be frozen, to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).

Note: Instantiation, callback execution, and deletion of each record can be time consuming when you're removing many records at once. It generates at least one SQL DELETE query per record (or possibly more, to enforce your callbacks). If you want to delete many rows quickly, without concern for their associations or callbacks, use #delete_all instead.

Examples

Person.where(age: 0..18).destroy_all

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 443

def destroy_all
  records.each(&:destroy).tap { reset }
end

#eager_loading?Boolean

Returns true if relation needs eager loading.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 597

def eager_loading?
  @should_eager_load ||=
    eager_load_values.any? ||
    includes_values.any? && (joined_includes_values.any? || references_eager_loaded_tables?)
end

#empty?Boolean

Returns true if there are no records.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 270

def empty?
  return @records.empty? if loaded?
  !exists?
end

#encode_with(coder) ⇒ Object

Serializes the relation objects Array.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 260

def encode_with(coder)
  coder.represent_seq(nil, records)
end

#explainObject

Runs EXPLAIN on the query or queries triggered by this relation and returns the result as a string. The string is formatted imitating the ones printed by the database shell.

Note that this method actually runs the queries, since the results of some are needed by the next ones when eager loading is going on.

Please see further details in the Active Record Query Interface guide.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 245

def explain
  exec_explain(collecting_queries_for_explain { exec_queries })
end

#find_or_create_by(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Finds the first record with the given attributes, or creates a record with the attributes if one is not found:

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
# We already have one so the existing record will be returned.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with
# a particular last name.
User.create_with(last_name: 'Johansson').find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett')
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method accepts a block, which is passed down to #create. The last example above can be alternatively written this way:

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with a
# different last name.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett') do |user|
  user.last_name = 'Johansson'
end
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method always returns a record, but if creation was attempted and failed due to validation errors it won't be persisted, you get what #create returns in such situation.

Please note *this method is not atomic*, it runs first a SELECT, and if there are no results an INSERT is attempted. If there are other threads or processes there is a race condition between both calls and it could be the case that you end up with two similar records.

Whether that is a problem or not depends on the logic of the application, but in the particular case in which rows have a UNIQUE constraint an exception may be raised, just retry:

begin
  CreditAccount.transaction(requires_new: true) do
    CreditAccount.find_or_create_by(user_id: user.id)
  end
rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique
  retry
end

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 219

def find_or_create_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create(attributes, &block)
end

#find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Like #find_or_create_by, but calls create! so an exception is raised if the created record is invalid.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 226

def find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create!(attributes, &block)
end

#find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Like #find_or_create_by, but calls new instead of create.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 232

def find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || new(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_create(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 159

def first_or_create(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || create(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_create!(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 163

def first_or_create!(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || create!(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_initialize(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 167

def first_or_initialize(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || new(attributes, &block)
end

#initialize_copy(other) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 31

def initialize_copy(other)
  @values = @values.dup
  reset
end

#insert(values) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 36

def insert(values) # :nodoc:
  primary_key_value = nil

  if primary_key && Hash === values
    primary_key_value = values[values.keys.find { |k|
      k.name == primary_key
    }]

    if !primary_key_value && klass.prefetch_primary_key?
      primary_key_value = klass.next_sequence_value
      values[arel_attribute(klass.primary_key)] = primary_key_value
    end
  end

  im = arel.create_insert
  im.into @table

  substitutes, binds = substitute_values values

  if values.empty? # empty insert
    im.values = Arel.sql(connection.empty_insert_statement_value)
  else
    im.insert substitutes
  end

  @klass.connection.insert(
    im,
    "SQL",
    primary_key || false,
    primary_key_value,
    nil,
    binds)
end

#inspectObject


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 636

def inspect
  subject = loaded? ? records : self
  entries = subject.take([limit_value, 11].compact.min).map!(&:inspect)

  entries[10] = "..." if entries.size == 11

  "#<#{self.class.name} [#{entries.join(', ')}]>"
end

#joined_includes_valuesObject

Joins that are also marked for preloading. In which case we should just eager load them. Note that this is a naive implementation because we could have strings and symbols which represent the same association, but that aren't matched by this. Also, we could have nested hashes which partially match, e.g. { a: :b } & { a: [:b, :c] }


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 607

def joined_includes_values
  includes_values & joins_values
end

#load(&block) ⇒ Object

Causes the records to be loaded from the database if they have not been loaded already. You can use this if for some reason you need to explicitly load some records before actually using them. The return value is the relation itself, not the records.

Post.where(published: true).load # => #<ActiveRecord::Relation>

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 545

def load(&block)
  exec_queries(&block) unless loaded?

  self
end

#many?Boolean

Returns true if there is more than one record.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 294

def many?
  return super if block_given?
  limit_value ? records.many? : size > 1
end

#new(*args, &block) ⇒ Object Also known as: build

Initializes new record from relation while maintaining the current scope.

Expects arguments in the same format as ActiveRecord::Base.new.

users = User.where(name: 'DHH')
user = users.new # => #<User id: nil, name: "DHH", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>

You can also pass a block to new with the new record as argument:

user = users.new { |user| user.name = 'Oscar' }
user.name # => Oscar

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 120

def new(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.new(*args, &block) }
end

#none?Boolean

Returns true if there are no records.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 276

def none?
  return super if block_given?
  empty?
end

#one?Boolean

Returns true if there is exactly one record.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 288

def one?
  return super if block_given?
  limit_value ? records.one? : size == 1
end

#pretty_print(q) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 623

def pretty_print(q)
  q.pp(records)
end

#recordsObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 254

def records # :nodoc:
  load
  @records
end

#reloadObject

Forces reloading of relation.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 552

def reload
  reset
  load
end

#resetObject


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 557

def reset
  @last = @to_sql = @order_clause = @scope_for_create = @arel = @loaded = nil
  @should_eager_load = @join_dependency = nil
  @records = [].freeze
  @offsets = {}
  self
end

#scope_for_createObject


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 592

def scope_for_create
  @scope_for_create ||= where_values_hash.merge(create_with_value)
end

#scopingObject

Scope all queries to the current scope.

Comment.where(post_id: 1).scoping do
  Comment.first
end
# => SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" = 1 ORDER BY "comments"."id" ASC LIMIT 1

Please check unscoped if you want to remove all previous scopes (including the default_scope) during the execution of a block.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 334

def scoping
  previous, klass.current_scope = klass.current_scope, self
  yield
ensure
  klass.current_scope = previous
end

#sizeObject

Returns size of the records.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 265

def size
  loaded? ? @records.length : count(:all)
end

#substitute_values(values) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 92

def substitute_values(values) # :nodoc:
  binds = []
  substitutes = []

  values.each do |arel_attr, value|
    binds.push QueryAttribute.new(arel_attr.name, value, klass.type_for_attribute(arel_attr.name))
    substitutes.push [arel_attr, Arel::Nodes::BindParam.new]
  end

  [substitutes, binds]
end

#to_aObject

Converts relation objects to Array.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 250

def to_a
  records.dup
end

#to_sqlObject

Returns sql statement for the relation.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').to_sql
# => SELECT "users".* FROM "users"  WHERE "users"."name" = 'Oscar'

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 569

def to_sql
  @to_sql ||= begin
                relation = self

                if eager_loading?
                  find_with_associations { |rel| relation = rel }
                end

                conn = klass.connection
                conn.unprepared_statement {
                  conn.to_sql(relation.arel, relation.bound_attributes)
                }
              end
end

#update(id = :all, attributes) ⇒ Object

Updates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass. The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.

Parameters

  • id - This should be the id or an array of ids to be updated.

  • attributes - This should be a hash of attributes or an array of hashes.

Examples

# Updates one record
Person.update(15, user_name: 'Samuel', group: 'expert')

# Updates multiple records
people = { 1 => { "first_name" => "David" }, 2 => { "first_name" => "Jeremy" } }
Person.update(people.keys, people.values)

# Updates multiple records from the result of a relation
people = Person.where(group: 'expert')
people.update(group: 'masters')

Note: Updating a large number of records will run an UPDATE query for each record, which may cause a performance issue. So if it is not needed to run callbacks for each update, it is preferred to use #update_all for updating all records using a single query.


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 409

def update(id = :all, attributes)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map.with_index { |one_id, idx| update(one_id, attributes[idx]) }
  elsif id == :all
    records.each { |record| record.update(attributes) }
  else
    if ActiveRecord::Base === id
      raise ArgumentError, <<-MSG.squish
        You are passing an instance of ActiveRecord::Base to `update`.
        Please pass the id of the object by calling `.id`.
      MSG
    end
    object = find(id)
    object.update(attributes)
    object
  end
end

#update_all(updates) ⇒ Object

Updates all records in the current relation with details given. This method constructs a single SQL UPDATE statement and sends it straight to the database. It does not instantiate the involved models and it does not trigger Active Record callbacks or validations. However, values passed to #update_all will still go through Active Record's normal type casting and serialization.

Parameters

  • updates - A string, array, or hash representing the SET part of an SQL statement.

Examples

# Update all customers with the given attributes
Customer.update_all wants_email: true

# Update all books with 'Rails' in their title
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').update_all(author: 'David')

# Update all books that match conditions, but limit it to 5 ordered by date
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').order(:created_at).limit(5).update_all(author: 'David')

# Update all invoices and set the number column to its id value.
Invoice.update_all('number = id')

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 363

def update_all(updates)
  raise ArgumentError, "Empty list of attributes to change" if updates.blank?

  stmt = Arel::UpdateManager.new

  stmt.set Arel.sql(@klass.send(:sanitize_sql_for_assignment, updates))
  stmt.table(table)

  if has_join_values?
    @klass.connection.join_to_update(stmt, arel, arel_attribute(primary_key))
  else
    stmt.key = arel_attribute(primary_key)
    stmt.take(arel.limit)
    stmt.order(*arel.orders)
    stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
  end

  @klass.connection.update stmt, "SQL", bound_attributes
end

#valuesObject


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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 632

def values
  @values.dup
end

#where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name) ⇒ Object

Returns a hash of where conditions.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').where_values_hash
# => {name: "Oscar"}

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# File 'lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 588

def where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name)
  where_clause.to_h(relation_table_name)
end