Module: ActiveSupport::Multibyte::Unicode

Extended by:
Unicode
Included in:
Unicode
Defined in:
activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: Codepoint, UnicodeDatabase

Constant Summary collapse

NORMALIZATION_FORMS =

A list of all available normalization forms. See www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/tr15-29.html for more information about normalization.

[:c, :kc, :d, :kd]
UNICODE_VERSION =

The Unicode version that is supported by the implementation

'6.2.0'
HANGUL_SBASE =

Hangul character boundaries and properties

0xAC00
HANGUL_LBASE =
0x1100
HANGUL_VBASE =
0x1161
HANGUL_TBASE =
0x11A7
HANGUL_LCOUNT =
19
HANGUL_VCOUNT =
21
HANGUL_TCOUNT =
28
HANGUL_NCOUNT =
HANGUL_VCOUNT * HANGUL_TCOUNT
HANGUL_SCOUNT =
11172
HANGUL_SLAST =
HANGUL_SBASE + HANGUL_SCOUNT
HANGUL_JAMO_FIRST =
0x1100
HANGUL_JAMO_LAST =
0x11FF
WHITESPACE =

All the unicode whitespace

[
  (0x0009..0x000D).to_a, # White_Space # Cc   [5] <control-0009>..<control-000D>
  0x0020,                # White_Space # Zs       SPACE
  0x0085,                # White_Space # Cc       <control-0085>
  0x00A0,                # White_Space # Zs       NO-BREAK SPACE
  0x1680,                # White_Space # Zs       OGHAM SPACE MARK
  0x180E,                # White_Space # Zs       MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR
  (0x2000..0x200A).to_a, # White_Space # Zs  [11] EN QUAD..HAIR SPACE
  0x2028,                # White_Space # Zl       LINE SEPARATOR
  0x2029,                # White_Space # Zp       PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR
  0x202F,                # White_Space # Zs       NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE
  0x205F,                # White_Space # Zs       MEDIUM MATHEMATICAL SPACE
  0x3000,                # White_Space # Zs       IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE
].flatten.freeze
LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS =

BOM (byte order mark) can also be seen as whitespace, it's a non-rendering character used to distinguish between little and big endian. This is not an issue in utf-8, so it must be ignored.

WHITESPACE + [65279]
TRAILERS_PAT =
/(#{codepoints_to_pattern(LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS)})+\Z/u
LEADERS_PAT =
/\A(#{codepoints_to_pattern(LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS)})+/u

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Attribute Details

#default_normalization_formObject

The default normalization used for operations that require normalization. It can be set to any of the normalizations in NORMALIZATION_FORMS.

ActiveSupport::Multibyte::Unicode.default_normalization_form = :c

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 21

def default_normalization_form
  @default_normalization_form
end

Class Method Details

.codepoints_to_pattern(array_of_codepoints) ⇒ Object

Returns a regular expression pattern that matches the passed Unicode codepoints.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 61

def self.codepoints_to_pattern(array_of_codepoints) #:nodoc:
  array_of_codepoints.collect{ |e| [e].pack 'U*' }.join('|')
end

Instance Method Details

#compose(codepoints) ⇒ Object

Compose decomposed characters to the composed form.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 157

def compose(codepoints)
  pos = 0
  eoa = codepoints.length - 1
  starter_pos = 0
  starter_char = codepoints[0]
  previous_combining_class = -1
  while pos < eoa
    pos += 1
    lindex = starter_char - HANGUL_LBASE
    # -- Hangul
    if 0 <= lindex and lindex < HANGUL_LCOUNT
      vindex = codepoints[starter_pos+1] - HANGUL_VBASE rescue vindex = -1
      if 0 <= vindex and vindex < HANGUL_VCOUNT
        tindex = codepoints[starter_pos+2] - HANGUL_TBASE rescue tindex = -1
        if 0 <= tindex and tindex < HANGUL_TCOUNT
          j = starter_pos + 2
          eoa -= 2
        else
          tindex = 0
          j = starter_pos + 1
          eoa -= 1
        end
        codepoints[starter_pos..j] = (lindex * HANGUL_VCOUNT + vindex) * HANGUL_TCOUNT + tindex + HANGUL_SBASE
      end
      starter_pos += 1
      starter_char = codepoints[starter_pos]
    # -- Other characters
    else
      current_char = codepoints[pos]
      current = database.codepoints[current_char]
      if current.combining_class > previous_combining_class
        if ref = database.composition_map[starter_char]
          composition = ref[current_char]
        else
          composition = nil
        end
        unless composition.nil?
          codepoints[starter_pos] = composition
          starter_char = composition
          codepoints.delete_at pos
          eoa -= 1
          pos -= 1
          previous_combining_class = -1
        else
          previous_combining_class = current.combining_class
        end
      else
        previous_combining_class = current.combining_class
      end
      if current.combining_class == 0
        starter_pos = pos
        starter_char = codepoints[pos]
      end
    end
  end
  codepoints
end

#decompose(type, codepoints) ⇒ Object

Decompose composed characters to the decomposed form.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 136

def decompose(type, codepoints)
  codepoints.inject([]) do |decomposed, cp|
    # if it's a hangul syllable starter character
    if HANGUL_SBASE <= cp and cp < HANGUL_SLAST
      sindex = cp - HANGUL_SBASE
      ncp = [] # new codepoints
      ncp << HANGUL_LBASE + sindex / HANGUL_NCOUNT
      ncp << HANGUL_VBASE + (sindex % HANGUL_NCOUNT) / HANGUL_TCOUNT
      tindex = sindex % HANGUL_TCOUNT
      ncp << (HANGUL_TBASE + tindex) unless tindex == 0
      decomposed.concat ncp
    # if the codepoint is decomposable in with the current decomposition type
    elsif (ncp = database.codepoints[cp].decomp_mapping) and (!database.codepoints[cp].decomp_type || type == :compatibility)
      decomposed.concat decompose(type, ncp.dup)
    else
      decomposed << cp
    end
  end
end

#downcase(string) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 274

def downcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :lowercase_mapping
end

#in_char_class?(codepoint, classes) ⇒ Boolean

Detect whether the codepoint is in a certain character class. Returns true when it's in the specified character class and false otherwise. Valid character classes are: :cr, :lf, :l, :v, :lv, :lvt and :t.

Primarily used by the grapheme cluster support.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 73

def in_char_class?(codepoint, classes)
  classes.detect { |c| database.boundary[c] === codepoint } ? true : false
end

#normalize(string, form = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns the KC normalization of the string by default. NFKC is considered the best normalization form for passing strings to databases and validations.

  • string - The string to perform normalization on.

  • form - The form you want to normalize in. Should be one of the following: :c, :kc, :d, or :kd. Default is ActiveSupport::Multibyte.default_normalization_form.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 256

def normalize(string, form=nil)
  form ||= @default_normalization_form
  # See http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15, Table 1
  codepoints = string.codepoints.to_a
  case form
    when :d
      reorder_characters(decompose(:canonical, codepoints))
    when :c
      compose(reorder_characters(decompose(:canonical, codepoints)))
    when :kd
      reorder_characters(decompose(:compatibility, codepoints))
    when :kc
      compose(reorder_characters(decompose(:compatibility, codepoints)))
    else
      raise ArgumentError, "#{form} is not a valid normalization variant", caller
  end.pack('U*')
end

#pack_graphemes(unpacked) ⇒ Object

Reverse operation of unpack_graphemes.

Unicode.pack_graphemes(Unicode.unpack_graphemes('क्षि')) # => 'क्षि'

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 115

def pack_graphemes(unpacked)
  unpacked.flatten.pack('U*')
end

#reorder_characters(codepoints) ⇒ Object

Re-order codepoints so the string becomes canonical.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 120

def reorder_characters(codepoints)
  length = codepoints.length- 1
  pos = 0
  while pos < length do
    cp1, cp2 = database.codepoints[codepoints[pos]], database.codepoints[codepoints[pos+1]]
    if (cp1.combining_class > cp2.combining_class) && (cp2.combining_class > 0)
      codepoints[pos..pos+1] = cp2.code, cp1.code
      pos += (pos > 0 ? -1 : 1)
    else
      pos += 1
    end
  end
  codepoints
end

#swapcase(string) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 282

def swapcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :swapcase_mapping
end

#tidy_bytes(string, force = false) ⇒ Object

Replaces all ISO-8859-1 or CP1252 characters by their UTF-8 equivalent resulting in a valid UTF-8 string.

Passing true will forcibly tidy all bytes, assuming that the string's encoding is entirely CP1252 or ISO-8859-1.


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 220

def tidy_bytes(string, force = false)
  return string if string.empty?

  if force
    return string.encode(Encoding::UTF_8, Encoding::Windows_1252, invalid: :replace, undef: :replace)
  end

  # We can't transcode to the same format, so we choose a nearly-identical encoding.
  # We're going to 'transcode' bytes from UTF-8 when possible, then fall back to
  # CP1252 when we get errors. The final string will be 'converted' back to UTF-8
  # before returning.
  reader = Encoding::Converter.new(Encoding::UTF_8, Encoding::UTF_8_MAC)

  source = string.dup
  out = ''.force_encoding(Encoding::UTF_8_MAC)

  loop do
    reader.primitive_convert(source, out)
    _, _, _, error_bytes, _ = reader.primitive_errinfo
    break if error_bytes.nil?
    out << error_bytes.encode(Encoding::UTF_8_MAC, Encoding::Windows_1252, invalid: :replace, undef: :replace)
  end

  reader.finish

  out.encode!(Encoding::UTF_8)
end

#unpack_graphemes(string) ⇒ Object

Unpack the string at grapheme boundaries. Returns a list of character lists.

Unicode.unpack_graphemes('क्षि') # => [[2325, 2381], [2359], [2367]]
Unicode.unpack_graphemes('Café') # => [[67], [97], [102], [233]]

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 82

def unpack_graphemes(string)
  codepoints = string.codepoints.to_a
  unpacked = []
  pos = 0
  marker = 0
  eoc = codepoints.length
  while(pos < eoc)
    pos += 1
    previous = codepoints[pos-1]
    current = codepoints[pos]
    if (
        # CR X LF
        ( previous == database.boundary[:cr] and current == database.boundary[:lf] ) or
        # L X (L|V|LV|LVT)
        ( database.boundary[:l] === previous and in_char_class?(current, [:l,:v,:lv,:lvt]) ) or
        # (LV|V) X (V|T)
        ( in_char_class?(previous, [:lv,:v]) and in_char_class?(current, [:v,:t]) ) or
        # (LVT|T) X (T)
        ( in_char_class?(previous, [:lvt,:t]) and database.boundary[:t] === current ) or
        # X Extend
        (database.boundary[:extend] === current)
      )
    else
      unpacked << codepoints[marker..pos-1]
      marker = pos
    end
  end
  unpacked
end

#upcase(string) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb', line 278

def upcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :uppercase_mapping
end