Module: ActiveRecord::QueryMethods

Extended by:
ActiveSupport::Concern
Included in:
Relation
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: WhereChain

Constant Summary collapse

VALID_UNSCOPING_VALUES =
Set.new([:where, :select, :group, :order, :lock,
:limit, :offset, :joins, :includes, :from,
:readonly, :having])

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Concern

append_features, extended, included

Instance Method Details

#arelObject

Returns the Arel object associated with the relation.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 807

def arel
  @arel ||= build_arel
end

#bind(value) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 412

def bind(value)
  spawn.bind!(value)
end

#bind!(value) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 416

def bind!(value) # :nodoc:
  self.bind_values += [value]
  self
end

#build_arelObject

Like #arel, but ignores the default scope of the model.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 812

def build_arel
  arel = Arel::SelectManager.new(table.engine, table)

  build_joins(arel, joins_values.flatten) unless joins_values.empty?

  collapse_wheres(arel, (where_values - ['']).uniq)

  arel.having(*having_values.uniq.reject{|h| h.blank?}) unless having_values.empty?

  arel.take(connection.sanitize_limit(limit_value)) if limit_value
  arel.skip(offset_value.to_i) if offset_value

  arel.group(*group_values.uniq.reject{|g| g.blank?}) unless group_values.empty?

  build_order(arel)

  build_select(arel, select_values.uniq)

  arel.distinct(distinct_value)
  arel.from(build_from) if from_value
  arel.lock(lock_value) if lock_value

  arel
end

#create_with(value) ⇒ Object

Sets attributes to be used when creating new records from a relation object.

users = User.where(name: 'Oscar')
users.new.name # => 'Oscar'

users = users.create_with(name: 'DHH')
users.new.name # => 'DHH'

You can pass nil to create_with to reset attributes:

users = users.create_with(nil)
users.new.name # => 'Oscar'

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 688

def create_with(value)
  spawn.create_with!(value)
end

#create_with!(value) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 692

def create_with!(value) # :nodoc:
  self.create_with_value = value ? create_with_value.merge(value) : {}
  self
end

#create_with_valueObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 85

def create_with_value # :nodoc:
  @values[:create_with] || {}
end

#distinct(value = true) ⇒ Object Also known as: uniq

Specifies whether the records should be unique or not. For example:

User.select(:name)
# => Might return two records with the same name

User.select(:name).distinct
# => Returns 1 record per distinct name

User.select(:name).distinct.distinct(false)
# => You can also remove the uniqueness

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 729

def distinct(value = true)
  spawn.distinct!(value)
end

#distinct!(value = true) ⇒ Object Also known as: uniq!

Like #distinct, but modifies relation in place.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 735

def distinct!(value = true) # :nodoc:
  self.distinct_value = value
  self
end

#eager_load(*args) ⇒ Object

Forces eager loading by performing a LEFT OUTER JOIN on args:

User.eager_load(:posts)
=> SELECT "users"."id" AS t0_r0, "users"."name" AS t0_r1, ...
FROM "users" LEFT OUTER JOIN "posts" ON "posts"."user_id" =
"users"."id"

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 139

def eager_load(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("eager_load", args)
  spawn.eager_load!(*args)
end

#eager_load!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 144

def eager_load!(*args) # :nodoc:
  self.eager_load_values += args
  self
end

#extending(*modules, &block) ⇒ Object

Used to extend a scope with additional methods, either through a module or through a block provided.

The object returned is a relation, which can be further extended.

Using a module

module Pagination
  def page(number)
    # pagination code goes here
  end
end

scope = Model.all.extending(Pagination)
scope.page(params[:page])

You can also pass a list of modules:

scope = Model.all.extending(Pagination, SomethingElse)

Using a block

scope = Model.all.extending do
  def page(number)
    # pagination code goes here
  end
end
scope.page(params[:page])

You can also use a block and a module list:

scope = Model.all.extending(Pagination) do
  def per_page(number)
    # pagination code goes here
  end
end

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 777

def extending(*modules, &block)
  if modules.any? || block
    spawn.extending!(*modules, &block)
  else
    self
  end
end

#extending!(*modules, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 785

def extending!(*modules, &block) # :nodoc:
  modules << Module.new(&block) if block_given?

  self.extending_values += modules.flatten
  extend(*extending_values) if extending_values.any?

  self
end

#from(value, subquery_name = nil) ⇒ Object

Specifies table from which the records will be fetched. For example:

Topic.select('title').from('posts')
#=> SELECT title FROM posts

Can accept other relation objects. For example:

Topic.select('title').from(Topic.approved)
# => SELECT title FROM (SELECT * FROM topics WHERE approved = 't') subquery

Topic.select('a.title').from(Topic.approved, :a)
# => SELECT a.title FROM (SELECT * FROM topics WHERE approved = 't') a

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 710

def from(value, subquery_name = nil)
  spawn.from!(value, subquery_name)
end

#from!(value, subquery_name = nil) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 714

def from!(value, subquery_name = nil) # :nodoc:
  self.from_value = [value, subquery_name]
  self
end

#group(*args) ⇒ Object

Allows to specify a group attribute:

User.group(:name)
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" GROUP BY name

Returns an array with distinct records based on the group attribute:

User.select([:id, :name])
=> [#<User id: 1, name: "Oscar">, #<User id: 2, name: "Oscar">, #<User id: 3, name: "Foo">

User.group(:name)
=> [#<User id: 3, name: "Foo", ...>, #<User id: 2, name: "Oscar", ...>]

User.group('name AS grouped_name, age')
=> [#<User id: 3, name: "Foo", age: 21, ...>, #<User id: 2, name: "Oscar", age: 21, ...>, #<User id: 5, name: "Foo", age: 23, ...>]

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 251

def group(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("group", args)
  spawn.group!(*args)
end

#group!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 256

def group!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.flatten!

  self.group_values += args
  self
end

#having(opts, *rest) ⇒ Object

Allows to specify a HAVING clause. Note that you can't use HAVING without also specifying a GROUP clause.

Order.having('SUM(price) > 30').group('user_id')

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 565

def having(opts, *rest)
  opts.blank? ? self : spawn.having!(opts, *rest)
end

#having!(opts, *rest) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 569

def having!(opts, *rest) # :nodoc:
  references!(PredicateBuilder.references(opts)) if Hash === opts

  self.having_values += build_where(opts, rest)
  self
end

#includes(*args) ⇒ Object

Specify relationships to be included in the result set. For example:

users = User.includes(:address)
users.each do |user|
  user.address.city
end

allows you to access the address attribute of the User model without firing an additional query. This will often result in a performance improvement over a simple join.

You can also specify multiple relationships, like this:

users = User.includes(:address, :friends)

Loading nested relationships is possible using a Hash:

users = User.includes(:address, friends: [:address, :followers])

conditions

If you want to add conditions to your included models you'll have to explicitly reference them. For example:

User.includes(:posts).where('posts.name = ?', 'example')

Will throw an error, but this will work:

User.includes(:posts).where('posts.name = ?', 'example').references(:posts)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 121

def includes(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("includes", args)
  spawn.includes!(*args)
end

#includes!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 126

def includes!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.reject! {|a| a.blank? }

  self.includes_values = (includes_values + args).flatten.uniq
  self
end

#joins(*args) ⇒ Object

Performs a joins on args:

User.joins(:posts)
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" INNER JOIN "posts" ON "posts"."user_id" = "users"."id"

You can use strings in order to customize your joins:

User.joins("LEFT JOIN bookmarks ON bookmarks.bookmarkable_type = 'Post' AND bookmarks.user_id = users.id")
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" LEFT JOIN bookmarks ON bookmarks.bookmarkable_type = 'Post' AND bookmarks.user_id = users.id

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 402

def joins(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("joins", args)
  spawn.joins!(*args.compact.flatten)
end

#joins!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 407

def joins!(*args) # :nodoc:
  self.joins_values += args
  self
end

#limit(value) ⇒ Object

Specifies a limit for the number of records to retrieve.

User.limit(10) # generated SQL has 'LIMIT 10'

User.limit(10).limit(20) # generated SQL has 'LIMIT 20'

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 581

def limit(value)
  spawn.limit!(value)
end

#limit!(value) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 585

def limit!(value) # :nodoc:
  self.limit_value = value
  self
end

#lock(locks = true) ⇒ Object

Specifies locking settings (default to true). For more information on locking, please see ActiveRecord::Locking.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 608

def lock(locks = true)
  spawn.lock!(locks)
end

#lock!(locks = true) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 612

def lock!(locks = true) # :nodoc:
  case locks
  when String, TrueClass, NilClass
    self.lock_value = locks || true
  else
    self.lock_value = false
  end

  self
end

#noneObject

Returns a chainable relation with zero records, specifically an instance of the ActiveRecord::NullRelation class.

The returned ActiveRecord::NullRelation inherits from Relation and implements the Null Object pattern. It is an object with defined null behavior and always returns an empty array of records without querying the database.

Any subsequent condition chained to the returned relation will continue generating an empty relation and will not fire any query to the database.

Used in cases where a method or scope could return zero records but the result needs to be chainable.

For example:

@posts = current_user.visible_posts.where(name: params[:name])
# => the visible_posts method is expected to return a chainable Relation

def visible_posts
  case role
  when 'Country Manager'
    Post.where(country: country)
  when 'Reviewer'
    Post.published
  when 'Bad User'
    Post.none # => returning [] instead breaks the previous code
  end
end

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 652

def none
  extending(NullRelation)
end

#none!Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 656

def none! # :nodoc:
  extending!(NullRelation)
end

#offset(value) ⇒ Object

Specifies the number of rows to skip before returning rows.

User.offset(10) # generated SQL has "OFFSET 10"

Should be used with order.

User.offset(10).order("name ASC")

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 597

def offset(value)
  spawn.offset!(value)
end

#offset!(value) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 601

def offset!(value) # :nodoc:
  self.offset_value = value
  self
end

#order(*args) ⇒ Object

Allows to specify an order attribute:

User.order('name')
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY name

User.order('name DESC')
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY name DESC

User.order('name DESC, email')
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY name DESC, email

User.order(:name)
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."name" ASC

User.order(email: :desc)
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."email" DESC

User.order(:name, email: :desc)
=> SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."name" ASC, "users"."email" DESC

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 282

def order(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("order", args)
  spawn.order!(*args)
end

#order!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 287

def order!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.flatten!
  validate_order_args args

  references = args.grep(String)
  references.map! { |arg| arg =~ /^([a-zA-Z]\w*)\.(\w+)/ && $1 }.compact!
  references!(references) if references.any?

  # if a symbol is given we prepend the quoted table name
  args.map! { |arg|
    arg.is_a?(Symbol) ?
      Arel::Nodes::Ascending.new(klass.arel_table[arg]) :
      arg
  }

  self.order_values = args.concat self.order_values
  self
end

#preload(*args) ⇒ Object

Allows preloading of args, in the same way that includes does:

User.preload(:posts)
=> SELECT "posts".* FROM "posts" WHERE "posts"."user_id" IN (1, 2, 3)

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 153

def preload(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("preload", args)
  spawn.preload!(*args)
end

#preload!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 158

def preload!(*args) # :nodoc:
  self.preload_values += args
  self
end

#readonly(value = true) ⇒ Object

Sets readonly attributes for the returned relation. If value is true (default), attempting to update a record will result in an error.

users = User.readonly
users.first.save
=> ActiveRecord::ReadOnlyRecord: ActiveRecord::ReadOnlyRecord

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 666

def readonly(value = true)
  spawn.readonly!(value)
end

#readonly!(value = true) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 670

def readonly!(value = true) # :nodoc:
  self.readonly_value = value
  self
end

#references(*args) ⇒ Object

Used to indicate that an association is referenced by an SQL string, and should therefore be JOINed in any query rather than loaded separately.

User.includes(:posts).where("posts.name = 'foo'")
# => Doesn't JOIN the posts table, resulting in an error.

User.includes(:posts).where("posts.name = 'foo'").references(:posts)
# => Query now knows the string references posts, so adds a JOIN

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 171

def references(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("references", args)
  spawn.references!(*args)
end

#references!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 176

def references!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.flatten!

  self.references_values = (references_values + args.map!(&:to_s)).uniq
  self
end

#reorder(*args) ⇒ Object

Replaces any existing order defined on the relation with the specified order.

User.order('email DESC').reorder('id ASC') # generated SQL has 'ORDER BY id ASC'

Subsequent calls to order on the same relation will be appended. For example:

User.order('email DESC').reorder('id ASC').order('name ASC')

generates a query with 'ORDER BY name ASC, id ASC'.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 315

def reorder(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("reorder", args)
  spawn.reorder!(*args)
end

#reorder!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 320

def reorder!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.flatten!
  validate_order_args args

  self.reordering_value = true
  self.order_values = args
  self
end

#reverse_orderObject

Reverse the existing order clause on the relation.

User.order('name ASC').reverse_order # generated SQL has 'ORDER BY name DESC'

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 797

def reverse_order
  spawn.reverse_order!
end

#reverse_order!Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 801

def reverse_order! # :nodoc:
  self.reverse_order_value = !reverse_order_value
  self
end

#select(*fields) ⇒ Object

Works in two unique ways.

First: takes a block so it can be used just like Array#select.

Model.all.select { |m| m.field == value }

This will build an array of objects from the database for the scope, converting them into an array and iterating through them using Array#select.

Second: Modifies the SELECT statement for the query so that only certain fields are retrieved:

Model.select(:field)
# => [#<Model field:value>]

Although in the above example it looks as though this method returns an array, it actually returns a relation object and can have other query methods appended to it, such as the other methods in ActiveRecord::QueryMethods.

The argument to the method can also be an array of fields.

Model.select(:field, :other_field, :and_one_more)
# => [#<Model field: "value", other_field: "value", and_one_more: "value">]

You can also use one or more strings, which will be used unchanged as SELECT fields.

Model.select('field AS field_one', 'other_field AS field_two')
# => [#<Model field: "value", other_field: "value">]

If an alias was specified, it will be accessible from the resulting objects:

Model.select('field AS field_one').first.field_one
# => "value"

Accessing attributes of an object that do not have fields retrieved by a select will throw ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError:

Model.select(:field).first.other_field
# => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing attribute: other_field

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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 222

def select(*fields)
  if block_given?
    to_a.select { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) }
  else
    raise ArgumentError, 'Call this with at least one field' if fields.empty?
    spawn.select!(*fields)
  end
end

#select!(*fields) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 231

def select!(*fields) # :nodoc:
  self.select_values += fields.flatten
  self
end

#unscope(*args) ⇒ Object

Removes an unwanted relation that is already defined on a chain of relations. This is useful when passing around chains of relations and would like to modify the relations without reconstructing the entire chain.

User.order('email DESC').unscope(:order) == User.all

The method arguments are symbols which correspond to the names of the methods which should be unscoped. The valid arguments are given in VALID_UNSCOPING_VALUES. The method can also be called with multiple arguments. For example:

User.order('email DESC').select('id').where(name: "John")
    .unscope(:order, :select, :where) == User.all

One can additionally pass a hash as an argument to unscope specific :where values. This is done by passing a hash with a single key-value pair. The key should be :where and the value should be the where value to unscope. For example:

User.where(name: "John", active: true).unscope(where: :name)
    == User.where(active: true)

This method is applied before the default_scope is applied. So the conditions specified in default_scope will not be removed.

Note that this method is more generalized than ActiveRecord::SpawnMethods#except because #except will only affect a particular relation's values. It won't wipe the order, grouping, etc. when that relation is merged. For example:

Post.comments.except(:order)

will still have an order if it comes from the default_scope on Comment.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 363

def unscope(*args)
  check_if_method_has_arguments!("unscope", args)
  spawn.unscope!(*args)
end

#unscope!(*args) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 368

def unscope!(*args) # :nodoc:
  args.flatten!

  args.each do |scope|
    case scope
    when Symbol
      symbol_unscoping(scope)
    when Hash
      scope.each do |key, target_value|
        if key != :where
          raise ArgumentError, "Hash arguments in .unscope(*args) must have :where as the key."
        end

        Array(target_value).each do |val|
          where_unscoping(val)
        end
      end
    else
      raise ArgumentError, "Unrecognized scoping: #{args.inspect}. Use .unscope(where: :attribute_name) or .unscope(:order), for example."
    end
  end

  self
end

#where(opts = :chain, *rest) ⇒ Object

Returns a new relation, which is the result of filtering the current relation according to the conditions in the arguments.

#where accepts conditions in one of several formats. In the examples below, the resulting SQL is given as an illustration; the actual query generated may be different depending on the database adapter.

string

A single string, without additional arguments, is passed to the query constructor as a SQL fragment, and used in the where clause of the query.

Client.where("orders_count = '2'")
# SELECT * from clients where orders_count = '2';

Note that building your own string from user input may expose your application to injection attacks if not done properly. As an alternative, it is recommended to use one of the following methods.

array

If an array is passed, then the first element of the array is treated as a template, and the remaining elements are inserted into the template to generate the condition. Active Record takes care of building the query to avoid injection attacks, and will convert from the ruby type to the database type where needed. Elements are inserted into the string in the order in which they appear.

User.where(["name = ? and email = ?", "Joe", "[email protected]"])
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'Joe' AND email = '[email protected]';

Alternatively, you can use named placeholders in the template, and pass a hash as the second element of the array. The names in the template are replaced with the corresponding values from the hash.

User.where(["name = :name and email = :email", { name: "Joe", email: "[email protected]" }])
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'Joe' AND email = '[email protected]';

This can make for more readable code in complex queries.

Lastly, you can use sprintf-style % escapes in the template. This works slightly differently than the previous methods; you are responsible for ensuring that the values in the template are properly quoted. The values are passed to the connector for quoting, but the caller is responsible for ensuring they are enclosed in quotes in the resulting SQL. After quoting, the values are inserted using the same escapes as the Ruby core method Kernel::sprintf.

User.where(["name = '%s' and email = '%s'", "Joe", "[email protected]"])
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'Joe' AND email = '[email protected]';

If #where is called with multiple arguments, these are treated as if they were passed as the elements of a single array.

User.where("name = :name and email = :email", { name: "Joe", email: "[email protected]" })
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'Joe' AND email = '[email protected]';

When using strings to specify conditions, you can use any operator available from the database. While this provides the most flexibility, you can also unintentionally introduce dependencies on the underlying database. If your code is intended for general consumption, test with multiple database backends.

hash

#where will also accept a hash condition, in which the keys are fields and the values are values to be searched for.

Fields can be symbols or strings. Values can be single values, arrays, or ranges.

User.where({ name: "Joe", email: "[email protected]" })
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'Joe' AND email = '[email protected]'

User.where({ name: ["Alice", "Bob"]})
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name IN ('Alice', 'Bob')

User.where({ created_at: (Time.now.midnight - 1.day)..Time.now.midnight })
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE (created_at BETWEEN '2012-06-09 07:00:00.000000' AND '2012-06-10 07:00:00.000000')

In the case of a belongs_to relationship, an association key can be used to specify the model if an ActiveRecord object is used as the value.

author = Author.find(1)

# The following queries will be equivalent:
Post.where(author: author)
Post.where(author_id: author)

This also works with polymorphic belongs_to relationships:

treasure = Treasure.create(name: 'gold coins')
treasure.price_estimates << PriceEstimate.create(price: 125)

# The following queries will be equivalent:
PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of: treasure)
PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of_type: 'Treasure', estimate_of_id: treasure)

Joins

If the relation is the result of a join, you may create a condition which uses any of the tables in the join. For string and array conditions, use the table name in the condition.

User.joins(:posts).where("posts.created_at < ?", Time.now)

For hash conditions, you can either use the table name in the key, or use a sub-hash.

User.joins(:posts).where({ "posts.published" => true })
User.joins(:posts).where({ posts: { published: true } })

no argument

If no argument is passed, #where returns a new instance of WhereChain, that can be chained with #not to return a new relation that negates the where clause.

User.where.not(name: "Jon")
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name != 'Jon'

See WhereChain for more details on #not.

blank condition

If the condition is any blank-ish object, then #where is a no-op and returns the current relation.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 540

def where(opts = :chain, *rest)
  if opts == :chain
    WhereChain.new(spawn)
  elsif opts.blank?
    self
  else
    spawn.where!(opts, *rest)
  end
end

#where!(opts = :chain, *rest) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb', line 550

def where!(opts = :chain, *rest) # :nodoc:
  if opts == :chain
    WhereChain.new(self)
  else
    references!(PredicateBuilder.references(opts)) if Hash === opts

    self.where_values += build_where(opts, rest)
    self
  end
end