Class: BasicObject

Inherits:
Qnil show all
Defined in:
object.c,
class.c,
object.c

Overview

BasicObject is the parent class of all classes in Ruby. It's an explicit blank class.

BasicObject can be used for creating object hierarchies independent of Ruby's object hierarchy, proxy objects like the Delegator class, or other uses where namespace pollution from Ruby's methods and classes must be avoided.

To avoid polluting BasicObject for other users an appropriately named subclass of BasicObject should be created instead of directly modifying BasicObject:

class MyObjectSystem < BasicObject
end

BasicObject does not include Kernel (for methods like puts) and BasicObject is outside of the namespace of the standard library so common classes will not be found without using a full class path.

A variety of strategies can be used to provide useful portions of the standard library to subclasses of BasicObject. A subclass could include Kernel to obtain puts, exit, etc. A custom Kernel-like module could be created and included or delegation can be used via #method_missing:

class MyObjectSystem < BasicObject
  DELEGATE = [:puts, :p]

  def method_missing(name, *args, &block)
    super unless DELEGATE.include? name
    ::Kernel.send(name, *args, &block)
  end

  def respond_to_missing?(name, include_private = false)
    DELEGATE.include?(name) or super
  end
end

Access to classes and modules from the Ruby standard library can be obtained in a BasicObject subclass by referencing the desired constant from the root like ::File or ::Enumerator. Like #method_missing, #const_missing can be used to delegate constant lookup to Object:

class MyObjectSystem < BasicObject
  def self.const_missing(name)
    ::Object.const_get(name)
  end
end

Direct Known Subclasses

Object

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initializeObject (private)

Not documented



924
925
926
927
928
# File 'object.c', line 924

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy(void)
{
    return Qnil;
}

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method

#method_missing(symbol[, *args]) ⇒ Object (private)

Invoked by Ruby when obj is sent a message it cannot handle. symbol is the symbol for the method called, and args are any arguments that were passed to it. By default, the interpreter raises an error when this method is called. However, it is possible to override the method to provide more dynamic behavior. If it is decided that a particular method should not be handled, then super should be called, so that ancestors can pick up the missing method. The example below creates a class Roman, which responds to methods with names consisting of roman numerals, returning the corresponding integer values.

class Roman
  def roman_to_int(str)
    # ...
  end
  def method_missing(methId)
    str = methId.id2name
    roman_to_int(str)
  end
end

r = Roman.new
r.iv      #=> 4
r.xxiii   #=> 23
r.mm      #=> 2000


676
677
678
679
680
681
682
# File 'vm_eval.c', line 676

static VALUE
rb_method_missing(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    raise_method_missing(th, argc, argv, obj, th->method_missing_reason);
    UNREACHABLE;
}

Instance Method Details

#!Boolean

Boolean negate.



186
187
188
189
190
# File 'object.c', line 186

VALUE
rb_obj_not(VALUE obj)
{
    return RTEST(obj) ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
}

#!=(other) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if two objects are not-equal, otherwise false.



199
200
201
202
203
204
# File 'object.c', line 199

VALUE
rb_obj_not_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    VALUE result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_eq, 1, obj2);
    return RTEST(result) ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
}

#==(other) ⇒ Boolean #equal?(other) ⇒ Boolean #eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Equality — At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendant classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses as it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) if and only if a is the same object as b):

obj = "a"
other = obj.dup

obj == other      #=> true
obj.equal? other  #=> false
obj.equal? obj    #=> true

The eql? method returns true if obj and other refer to the same hash key. This is used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition by aliasing eql? to their overridden == method, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false


138
139
140
141
142
143
# File 'object.c', line 138

VALUE
rb_obj_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#__id__Object

call-seq:

obj.__id__       -> integer
obj.object_id    -> integer

Returns an integer identifier for obj.

The same number will be returned on all calls to object_id for a given object, and no two active objects will share an id.

Note: that some objects of builtin classes are reused for optimization. This is the case for immediate values and frozen string literals.

Immediate values are not passed by reference but are passed by value: nil, true, false, Fixnums, Symbols, and some Floats.

Object.new.object_id  == Object.new.object_id  # => false
(21 * 2).object_id    == (21 * 2).object_id    # => true
"hello".object_id     == "hello".object_id     # => false
"hi".freeze.object_id == "hi".freeze.object_id # => true


3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
# File 'gc.c', line 3007

VALUE
rb_obj_id(VALUE obj)
{
    /*
     *                32-bit VALUE space
     *          MSB ------------------------ LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol  ssssssssssssssssssssssss00001110
     *  object  oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo00        = 0 (mod sizeof(RVALUE))
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1
     *
     *                    object_id space
     *                                       LSB
     *  false   00000000000000000000000000000000
     *  true    00000000000000000000000000000010
     *  nil     00000000000000000000000000000100
     *  undef   00000000000000000000000000000110
     *  symbol   000SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS0        S...S % A = 4 (S...S = s...s * A + 4)
     *  object   oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo0        o...o % A = 0
     *  fixnum  fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1        bignum if required
     *
     *  where A = sizeof(RVALUE)/4
     *
     *  sizeof(RVALUE) is
     *  20 if 32-bit, double is 4-byte aligned
     *  24 if 32-bit, double is 8-byte aligned
     *  40 if 64-bit
     */
    if (STATIC_SYM_P(obj)) {
        return (SYM2ID(obj) * sizeof(RVALUE) + (4 << 2)) | FIXNUM_FLAG;
    }
    else if (FLONUM_P(obj)) {
#if SIZEOF_LONG == SIZEOF_VOIDP
	return LONG2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
#else
	return LL2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
#endif
    }
    else if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
	return LONG2NUM((SIGNED_VALUE)obj);
    }
    return nonspecial_obj_id(obj);
}

#send(symbol[, args...]) ⇒ Object #__send__(symbol[, args...]) ⇒ Object #send(string[, args...]) ⇒ Object #__send__(string[, args...]) ⇒ Object

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any

arguments specified. You can use <code>__send__</code> if the name
+send+ clashes with an existing method in _obj_.
When the method is identified by a string, the string is converted
to a symbol.

   class Klass
     def hello(*args)
       "Hello " + args.join(' ')
     end
   end
   k = Klass.new
   k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"


979
980
981
982
983
# File 'vm_eval.c', line 979

VALUE
rb_f_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal(argc, argv, recv, CALL_FCALL);
}

#==(other) ⇒ Boolean #equal?(other) ⇒ Boolean #eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Equality — At the Object level, == returns true only if obj and other are the same object. Typically, this method is overridden in descendant classes to provide class-specific meaning.

Unlike ==, the equal? method should never be overridden by subclasses as it is used to determine object identity (that is, a.equal?(b) if and only if a is the same object as b):

obj = "a"
other = obj.dup

obj == other      #=> true
obj.equal? other  #=> false
obj.equal? obj    #=> true

The eql? method returns true if obj and other refer to the same hash key. This is used by Hash to test members for equality. For objects of class Object, eql? is synonymous with ==. Subclasses normally continue this tradition by aliasing eql? to their overridden == method, but there are exceptions. Numeric types, for example, perform type conversion across ==, but not across eql?, so:

1 == 1.0     #=> true
1.eql? 1.0   #=> false


138
139
140
141
142
143
# File 'object.c', line 138

VALUE
rb_obj_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#instance_eval(string[, filename [, lineno]]) ⇒ Object #instance_eval {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object

Evaluates a string containing Ruby source code, or the given block, within the context of the receiver (obj). In order to set the context, the variable self is set to obj while the code is executing, giving the code access to obj's instance variables and private methods.

When instance_eval is given a block, obj is also passed in as the block's only argument.

When instance_eval is given a String, the optional second and third parameters supply a filename and starting line number that are used when reporting compilation errors.

class KlassWithSecret
  def initialize
    @secret = 99
  end
  private
  def the_secret
    "Ssssh! The secret is #{@secret}."
  end
end
k = KlassWithSecret.new
k.instance_eval { @secret }          #=> 99
k.instance_eval { the_secret }       #=> "Ssssh! The secret is 99."
k.instance_eval {|obj| obj == self } #=> true

Overloads:

  • #instance_eval {|obj| ... } ⇒ Object

    Yields:

    • (obj)


1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
# File 'vm_eval.c', line 1705

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_eval(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass = singleton_class_for_eval(self);
    return specific_eval(argc, argv, klass, self);
}

#instance_exec(arg...) {|var...| ... } ⇒ Object

Executes the given block within the context of the receiver (obj). In order to set the context, the variable self is set to obj while the code is executing, giving the code access to obj's instance variables. Arguments are passed as block parameters.

class KlassWithSecret
  def initialize
    @secret = 99
  end
end
k = KlassWithSecret.new
k.instance_exec(5) {|x| @secret+x }   #=> 104

Yields:

  • (var...)


1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
# File 'vm_eval.c', line 1730

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_exec(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass = singleton_class_for_eval(self);
    return yield_under(klass, self, rb_ary_new4(argc, argv));
}

#singleton_method_addedObject (private)

Not documented



924
925
926
927
928
# File 'object.c', line 924

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy(void)
{
    return Qnil;
}

#singleton_method_removedObject (private)

Not documented



924
925
926
927
928
# File 'object.c', line 924

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy(void)
{
    return Qnil;
}

#singleton_method_undefinedObject (private)

Not documented



924
925
926
927
928
# File 'object.c', line 924

static VALUE
rb_obj_dummy(void)
{
    return Qnil;
}