Exception: Exception

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
error.c

Overview

Descendants of class Exception are used to communicate between raise methods and rescue statements in begin/end blocks. Exception objects carry information about the exception---its type (the exception's class name), an optional descriptive string, and optional traceback information. Programs may subclass Exception, or more typically StandardError to provide custom classes and add additional information.

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#new(msg = nil) ⇒ Exception

Construct a new Exception object, optionally passing in

a message.


# File 'error.c'

/*
 * call-seq:
 *    Exception.new(msg = nil)   ->  exception
 *
 *  Construct a new Exception object, optionally passing in
 *  a message.
 */

static VALUE
exc_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE exc)
{
    VALUE arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &arg);
    rb_iv_set(exc, "mesg", arg);
    rb_iv_set(exc, "bt", Qnil);

    return exc;
}

Class Method Details

.exception(string) ⇒ Exception

With no argument, or if the argument is the same as the receiver, return the receiver. Otherwise, create a new exception object of the same class as the receiver, but with a message equal to string.to_str.

Instance Method Details

#==(obj) ⇒ Boolean

Equality---If obj is not an Exception, returns false. Otherwise, returns true if exc and obj share same class, messages, and backtrace.



# File 'error.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     exc == obj   -> true or false
 *
 *  Equality---If <i>obj</i> is not an <code>Exception</code>, returns
 *  <code>false</code>. Otherwise, returns <code>true</code> if <i>exc</i> and
 *  <i>obj</i> share same class, messages, and backtrace.
 */

static VALUE
exc_equal(VALUE exc, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE mesg, backtrace;
    ID id_mesg;

    if (exc == obj) return Qtrue;
    CONST_ID(id_mesg, "mesg");

    if (rb_obj_class(exc) != rb_obj_class(obj)) {
    ID id_message, id_backtrace;
    CONST_ID(id_message, "message");
    CONST_ID(id_backtrace, "backtrace");

    mesg = rb_check_funcall(obj, id_message, 0, 0);
    if (mesg == Qundef) return Qfalse;
    backtrace = rb_check_funcall(obj, id_backtrace, 0, 0);
    if (backtrace == Qundef) return Qfalse;
    }
    else {
    mesg = rb_attr_get(obj, id_mesg);
    backtrace = exc_backtrace(obj);
    }

    if (!rb_equal(rb_attr_get(exc, id_mesg), mesg))
    return Qfalse;
    if (!rb_equal(exc_backtrace(exc), backtrace))
    return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}

#backtraceArray

Returns any backtrace associated with the exception. The backtrace is an array of strings, each containing either "filename:lineNo: in `method''' or "filename:lineNo.''

def a
  raise "boom"
end

def b
  a()
end

begin
  b()
rescue => detail
  print detail.backtrace.join("\n")
end

produces:

prog.rb:2:in `a'
prog.rb:6:in `b'
prog.rb:10


# File 'error.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     exception.backtrace    -> array
 *
 *  Returns any backtrace associated with the exception. The backtrace
 *  is an array of strings, each containing either ``filename:lineNo: in
 *  `method''' or ``filename:lineNo.''
 *
 *     def a
 *       raise "boom"
 *     end
 *
 *     def b
 *       a()
 *     end
 *
 *     begin
 *       b()
 *     rescue => detail
 *       print detail.backtrace.join("\n")
 *     end
 *
 *  <em>produces:</em>
 *
 *     prog.rb:2:in `a'
 *     prog.rb:6:in `b'
 *     prog.rb:10
*/

static VALUE
exc_backtrace(VALUE exc)
{
    ID bt;

    CONST_ID(bt, "bt");
    return rb_attr_get(exc, bt);
}

#exception(string) ⇒ Exception

With no argument, or if the argument is the same as the receiver, return the receiver. Otherwise, create a new exception object of the same class as the receiver, but with a message equal to string.to_str.



# File 'error.c'

/*
 *  Document-method: exception
 *
 *  call-seq:
 *     exc.exception(string)  ->  an_exception or exc
 *
 *  With no argument, or if the argument is the same as the receiver,
 *  return the receiver. Otherwise, create a new
 *  exception object of the same class as the receiver, but with a
 *  message equal to <code>string.to_str</code>.
 *
 */

static VALUE
exc_exception(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE exc;

    if (argc == 0) return self;
    if (argc == 1 && self == argv[0]) return self;
    exc = rb_obj_clone(self);
    exc_initialize(argc, argv, exc);

    return exc;
}

#inspectString

Return this exception's class name an message



# File 'error.c'

/*
 * call-seq:
 *   exception.inspect   -> string
 *
 * Return this exception's class name an message
 */

static VALUE
exc_inspect(VALUE exc)
{
    VALUE str, klass;

    klass = CLASS_OF(exc);
    exc = rb_obj_as_string(exc);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(exc) == 0) {
    return rb_str_dup(rb_class_name(klass));
    }

    str = rb_str_buf_new2("#<");
    klass = rb_class_name(klass);
    rb_str_buf_append(str, klass);
    rb_str_buf_cat(str, ": ", 2);
    rb_str_buf_append(str, exc);
    rb_str_buf_cat(str, ">", 1);

    return str;
}

#messageString

Returns the result of invoking exception.to_s. Normally this returns the exception's message or name. By supplying a to_str method, exceptions are agreeing to be used where Strings are expected.



# File 'error.c'

/*
 * call-seq:
 *   exception.message   ->  string
 *
 * Returns the result of invoking <code>exception.to_s</code>.
 * Normally this returns the exception's message or name. By
 * supplying a to_str method, exceptions are agreeing to
 * be used where Strings are expected.
 */

static VALUE
exc_message(VALUE exc)
{
    return rb_funcall(exc, rb_intern("to_s"), 0, 0);
}

#set_backtrace(array) ⇒ Array

Sets the backtrace information associated with exc. The argument must be an array of String objects in the format described in Exception#backtrace.



# File 'error.c'

/*
 *  call-seq:
 *     exc.set_backtrace(array)   ->  array
 *
 *  Sets the backtrace information associated with <i>exc</i>. The
 *  argument must be an array of <code>String</code> objects in the
 *  format described in <code>Exception#backtrace</code>.
 *
 */

static VALUE
exc_set_backtrace(VALUE exc, VALUE bt)
{
    return rb_iv_set(exc, "bt", rb_check_backtrace(bt));
}

#to_sString

Returns exception's message (or the name of the exception if no message is set).



# File 'error.c'

/*
 * call-seq:
 *   exception.to_s   ->  string
 *
 * Returns exception's message (or the name of the exception if
 * no message is set).
 */

static VALUE
exc_to_s(VALUE exc)
{
    VALUE mesg = rb_attr_get(exc, rb_intern("mesg"));

    if (NIL_P(mesg)) return rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(exc));
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(exc)) OBJ_TAINT(mesg);
    return mesg;
}