Class: Capybara::Session

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
SessionMatchers
Defined in:
lib/capybara/session.rb

Overview

The Session class represents a single user's interaction with the system. The Session can use any of the underlying drivers. A session can be initialized manually like this:

session = Capybara::Session.new(:culerity, MyRackApp)

The application given as the second argument is optional. When running Capybara against an external page, you might want to leave it out:

session = Capybara::Session.new(:culerity)
session.visit('http://www.google.com')

Session provides a number of methods for controlling the navigation of the page, such as visit, +current_path, and so on. It also delegate a number of methods to a Capybara::Document, representing the current HTML document. This allows interaction:

session.fill_in('q', :with => 'Capybara')
session.click_button('Search')
expect(session).to have_content('Capybara')

When using capybara/dsl, the Session is initialized automatically for you.

Constant Summary

NODE_METHODS =
[
  :all, :first, :attach_file, :text, :check, :choose,
  :click_link_or_button, :click_button, :click_link, :field_labeled,
  :fill_in, :find, :find_all, :find_button, :find_by_id, :find_field, :find_link,
  :has_content?, :has_text?, :has_css?, :has_no_content?, :has_no_text?,
  :has_no_css?, :has_no_xpath?, :resolve, :has_xpath?, :select, :uncheck,
  :has_link?, :has_no_link?, :has_button?, :has_no_button?, :has_field?,
  :has_no_field?, :has_checked_field?, :has_unchecked_field?,
  :has_no_table?, :has_table?, :unselect, :has_select?, :has_no_select?,
  :has_selector?, :has_no_selector?, :click_on, :has_no_checked_field?,
  :has_no_unchecked_field?, :query, :assert_selector, :assert_no_selector,
  :refute_selector, :assert_text, :assert_no_text
]
DOCUMENT_METHODS =

This constant is part of a private API. You should avoid using this constant if possible, as it may be removed or be changed in the future.

[
  :title, :assert_title, :assert_no_title, :has_title?, :has_no_title?
]
SESSION_METHODS =
[
  :body, :html, :source, :current_url, :current_host, :current_path,
  :execute_script, :evaluate_script, :visit, :go_back, :go_forward,
  :within, :within_fieldset, :within_table, :within_frame, :current_window,
  :windows, :open_new_window, :switch_to_window, :within_window, :window_opened_by,
  :save_page, :save_and_open_page, :save_screenshot,
  :save_and_open_screenshot, :reset_session!, :response_headers,
  :status_code, :current_scope,
  :assert_current_path, :assert_no_current_path, :has_current_path?, :has_no_current_path?
] + DOCUMENT_METHODS
[
  :accept_alert, :accept_confirm, :dismiss_confirm, :accept_prompt,
  :dismiss_prompt
]
DSL_METHODS =
NODE_METHODS + SESSION_METHODS + MODAL_METHODS

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from SessionMatchers

#assert_current_path, #assert_no_current_path, #has_current_path?, #has_no_current_path?

Constructor Details

#initialize(mode, app = nil) ⇒ Session



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 68

def initialize(mode, app=nil)
  @mode = mode
  @app = app
  if Capybara.run_server and @app and driver.needs_server?
    @server = Capybara::Server.new(@app).boot
  else
    @server = nil
  end
  @touched = false
end

Instance Attribute Details

#appObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute app



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 65

def app
  @app
end

#modeObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute mode



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 65

def mode
  @mode
end

#serverObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute server



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 65

def server
  @server
end

#synchronizedObject

Returns the value of attribute synchronized



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 66

def synchronized
  @synchronized
end

Instance Method Details

#accept_alert(text, options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String #accept_alert(options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String

Execute the block, accepting a alert.

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for the modal to appear after executing the block.

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 589

def accept_alert(text_or_options=nil, options={}, &blk)
  text_or_options, options = nil, text_or_options if text_or_options.is_a?(Hash)
  options[:text] ||= text_or_options unless text_or_options.nil?
  options[:wait] ||= Capybara.default_max_wait_time

  driver.accept_modal(:alert, options, &blk)
end

#accept_confirm(text, options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String #accept_confirm(options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String

Execute the block, accepting a confirm.

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for the modal to appear after executing the block.

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 603

def accept_confirm(text_or_options=nil, options={}, &blk)
  text_or_options, options = nil, text_or_options if text_or_options.is_a?(Hash)
  options[:text] ||= text_or_options unless text_or_options.nil?
  options[:wait] ||= Capybara.default_max_wait_time

  driver.accept_modal(:confirm, options, &blk)
end

#accept_prompt(text, options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String #accept_prompt(options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String

Execute the block, accepting a prompt, optionally responding to the prompt.

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for the modal to appear after executing the block.

  • :with (String)

    Response to provide to the prompt

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 632

def accept_prompt(text_or_options=nil, options={}, &blk)
  text_or_options, options = nil, text_or_options if text_or_options.is_a?(Hash)
  options[:text] ||= text_or_options unless text_or_options.nil?
  options[:wait] ||= Capybara.default_max_wait_time

  driver.accept_modal(:prompt, options, &blk)
end

#current_hostString



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 178

def current_host
  uri = URI.parse(current_url)
  "#{uri.scheme}://#{uri.host}" if uri.host
end

#current_pathString



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 169

def current_path
  path = URI.parse(current_url).path
  path if path and not path.empty?
end

#current_scopeObject



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 749

def current_scope
  scopes.last || document
end

#current_urlString



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 187

def current_url
  driver.current_url
end

#current_windowCapybara::Window



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 379

def current_window
  Window.new(self, driver.current_window_handle)
end

#dismiss_confirm(text, options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String #dismiss_confirm(options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String

Execute the block, dismissing a confirm.

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for the modal to appear after executing the block.

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 617

def dismiss_confirm(text_or_options=nil, options={}, &blk)
  text_or_options, options = nil, text_or_options if text_or_options.is_a?(Hash)
  options[:text] ||= text_or_options unless text_or_options.nil?
  options[:wait] ||= Capybara.default_max_wait_time

  driver.dismiss_modal(:confirm, options, &blk)
end

#dismiss_prompt(text, options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String #dismiss_prompt(options = {}, &blk) ⇒ String

Execute the block, dismissing a prompt.

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    Maximum time to wait for the modal to appear after executing the block.

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 646

def dismiss_prompt(text_or_options=nil, options={}, &blk)
  text_or_options, options = nil, text_or_options if text_or_options.is_a?(Hash)
  options[:text] ||= text_or_options unless text_or_options.nil?
  options[:wait] ||= Capybara.default_max_wait_time

  driver.dismiss_modal(:prompt, options, &blk)
end

#documentObject



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 728

def document
  @document ||= Capybara::Node::Document.new(self, driver)
end

#driverObject



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 79

def driver
  @driver ||= begin
    unless Capybara.drivers.has_key?(mode)
      other_drivers = Capybara.drivers.keys.map { |key| key.inspect }
      raise Capybara::DriverNotFoundError, "no driver called #{mode.inspect} was found, available drivers: #{other_drivers.join(', ')}"
    end
    Capybara.drivers[mode].call(app)
  end
end

#evaluate_script(script) ⇒ Object

Evaluate the given JavaScript and return the result. Be careful when using this with scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. execute_script might be a better alternative.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 572

def evaluate_script(script)
  @touched = true
  driver.evaluate_script(script)
end

#execute_script(script) ⇒ Object

Execute the given script, not returning a result. This is useful for scripts that return complex objects, such as jQuery statements. execute_script should be used over evaluate_script whenever possible.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 558

def execute_script(script)
  @touched = true
  driver.execute_script(script)
end

#go_backObject

Move back a single entry in the browser's history.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 247

def go_back
  driver.go_back
end

#go_forwardObject

Move forward a single entry in the browser's history.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 255

def go_forward
  driver.go_forward
end

#htmlString Also known as: body, source



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 159

def html
  driver.html
end

#inspectObject



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 745

def inspect
  %(#<Capybara::Session>)
end

#open_new_windowCapybara::Window

Open new window. Current window doesn't change as the result of this call. It should be switched to explicitly.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 403

def open_new_window
  window_opened_by do
    driver.open_new_window
  end
end

#raise_server_error!Object

Raise errors encountered in the server



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 122

def raise_server_error!
  if Capybara.raise_server_errors and @server and @server.error
    # Force an explanation for the error being raised as the exception cause
    begin
      raise CapybaraError, "Your application server raised an error - It has been raised in your test code because Capybara.raise_server_errors == true"
    rescue CapybaraError
      raise @server.error
    end
  end
ensure
  @server.reset_error! if @server
end

#reset!Object Also known as: cleanup!, reset_session!

Reset the session (i.e. remove cookies and navigate to blank page)

This method does not:

* accept modal dialogs if they are present (Selenium driver now does, others may not)
* clear browser cache/HTML 5 local storage/IndexedDB/Web SQL database/etc.
* modify state of the driver/underlying browser in any other way

as doing so will result in performance downsides and it's not needed to do everything from the list above for most apps.

If you want to do anything from the list above on a general basis you can:

* write RSpec/Cucumber/etc. after hook
* monkeypatch this method
* use Ruby's `prepend` method


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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 107

def reset!
  if @touched
    driver.reset!
    @touched = false
  end
  @server.wait_for_pending_requests if @server
  raise_server_error!
end

#response_headersHash{String => String}

Returns a hash of response headers. Not supported by all drivers (e.g. Selenium)



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 141

def response_headers
  driver.response_headers
end

#save_and_open_page(path = nil) ⇒ Object

Save a snapshot of the page and open it in a browser for inspection.

If invoked without arguments it will save file to `Capybara.save_path`

and file will be given randomly generated filename. If invoked with a relative path
the path will be relative to `Capybara.save_path`, which is different from
the previous behavior with `Capybara.save_and_open_page_path` where the relative path was
relative to Dir.pwd


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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 686

def save_and_open_page(path = nil)
  path = save_page(path)
  open_file(path)
end

#save_and_open_screenshot(path = nil, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Save a screenshot of the page and open it for inspection.

If invoked without arguments it will save file to `Capybara.save_path`

and file will be given randomly generated filename. If invoked with a relative path
the path will be relative to `Capybara.save_path`, which is different from
the previous behavior with `Capybara.save_and_open_page_path` where the relative path was
relative to Dir.pwd


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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 723

def save_and_open_screenshot(path = nil, options = {})
  path = save_screenshot(path, options)
  open_file(path)
end

#save_page(path = nil) ⇒ String

Save a snapshot of the page. If `Capybara.asset_host` is set it will inject `base` tag

pointing to `asset_host`.

If invoked without arguments it will save file to `Capybara.save_path`

and file will be given randomly generated filename. If invoked with a relative path
the path will be relative to `Capybara.save_path`, which is different from
the previous behavior with `Capybara.save_and_open_page_path` where the relative path was
relative to Dir.pwd


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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 668

def save_page(path = nil)
  path = prepare_path(path, 'html')
  File.write(path, Capybara::Helpers.inject_asset_host(body), mode: 'wb')
  path
end

#save_screenshot(path = nil, options = {}) ⇒ String

Save a screenshot of page.

If invoked without arguments it will save file to `Capybara.save_path`

and file will be given randomly generated filename. If invoked with a relative path
the path will be relative to `Capybara.save_path`, which is different from
the previous behavior with `Capybara.save_and_open_page_path` where the relative path was
relative to Dir.pwd


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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 704

def save_screenshot(path = nil, options = {})
  path = prepare_path(path, 'png')
  driver.save_screenshot(path, options)
  path
end

#status_codeInteger

Returns the current HTTP status code as an Integer. Not supported by all drivers (e.g. Selenium)



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 151

def status_code
  driver.status_code
end

#switch_to_window(&block) ⇒ Capybara::Window #switch_to_window(window) ⇒ Capybara::Window

Returns window that has been switched to

Overloads:

  • #switch_to_window(&block) ⇒ Capybara::Window

    Switches to the first window for which given block returns a value other than false or nil. If window that matches block can't be found, the window will be switched back and `WindowError` will be raised.

    Examples:

    window = switch_to_window { title == 'Page title' }
    

    Raises:

  • #switch_to_window(window) ⇒ Capybara::Window

    Raises:

Raises:

  • (Capybara::ScopeError)

    if this method is invoked inside `within`, `within_frame` or `within_window` methods

  • (ArgumentError)

    if both or neither arguments were provided



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 425

def switch_to_window(window = nil, options= {})
  options, window = window, nil if window.is_a? Hash

  block_given = block_given?
  if window && block_given
    raise ArgumentError, "`switch_to_window` can take either a block or a window, not both"
  elsif !window && !block_given
    raise ArgumentError, "`switch_to_window`: either window or block should be provided"
  elsif scopes.size > 1
    raise Capybara::ScopeError, "`switch_to_window` is not supposed to be invoked from "\
                                "`within`'s, `within_frame`'s' or `within_window`'s' block."
  end

  if window
    driver.switch_to_window(window.handle)
    window
  else
    wait_time = Capybara::Queries::BaseQuery.wait(options)
    document.synchronize(wait_time, errors: [Capybara::WindowError]) do
      original_window_handle = driver.current_window_handle
      begin
        driver.window_handles.each do |handle|
          driver.switch_to_window handle
          if yield
            return Window.new(self, handle)
          end
        end
      rescue => e
        driver.switch_to_window(original_window_handle)
        raise e
      else
        driver.switch_to_window(original_window_handle)
        raise Capybara::WindowError, "Could not find a window matching block/lambda"
      end
    end
  end
end

#visit(visit_uri) ⇒ Object

Navigate to the given URL. The URL can either be a relative URL or an absolute URL The behaviour of either depends on the driver.

session.visit('/foo')
session.visit('http://google.com')

For drivers which can run against an external application, such as the selenium driver giving an absolute URL will navigate to that page. This allows testing applications running on remote servers. For these drivers, setting Capybara.app_host will make the remote server the default. For example:

Capybara.app_host = 'http://google.com'
session.visit('/') # visits the google homepage

If Capybara.always_include_port is set to true and this session is running against a rack application, then the port that the rack application is running on will automatically be inserted into the URL. Supposing the app is running on port `4567`, doing something like:

visit("http://google.com/test")

Will actually navigate to `google.com:4567/test`.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 217

def visit(visit_uri)
  raise_server_error!
  @touched = true

  visit_uri = URI.parse(visit_uri.to_s)

  uri_base = if @server
    visit_uri.port = @server.port if Capybara.always_include_port && (visit_uri.port == visit_uri.default_port)
    URI.parse(Capybara.app_host || "http://#{@server.host}:#{@server.port}")
  else
    Capybara.app_host && URI.parse(Capybara.app_host)
  end

  # TODO - this is only for compatability with previous 2.x behavior that concatenated
  # Capybara.app_host and a "relative" path - Consider removing in 3.0
  # @abotalov brought up a good point about this behavior potentially being useful to people
  # deploying to a subdirectory and/or single page apps where only the url fragment changes
  if visit_uri.scheme.nil? && uri_base
    visit_uri.path = uri_base.path + visit_uri.path
  end

  visit_uri = uri_base.merge(visit_uri) unless uri_base.nil?

  driver.visit(visit_uri.to_s)
end

#window_opened_by(options = {}, &block) ⇒ Capybara::Window

Get the window that has been opened by the passed block. It will wait for it to be opened (in the same way as other Capybara methods wait). It's better to use this method than `windows.last` as order of windows isn't defined in some drivers

Options Hash (options):

  • :wait (Numeric) — default: Capybara.default_max_wait_time

    maximum wait time

Raises:

  • (Capybara::WindowError)

    if block passed to window hasn't opened window or opened more than one window



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 535

def window_opened_by(options = {}, &block)
  old_handles = driver.window_handles
  block.call

  wait_time = Capybara::Queries::BaseQuery.wait(options)
  document.synchronize(wait_time, errors: [Capybara::WindowError]) do
    opened_handles = (driver.window_handles - old_handles)
    if opened_handles.size != 1
      raise Capybara::WindowError, "block passed to #window_opened_by "\
                                   "opened #{opened_handles.size} windows instead of 1"
    end
    Window.new(self, opened_handles.first)
  end
end

#windowsArray<Capybara::Window>

Get all opened windows. The order of windows in returned array is not defined. The driver may sort windows by their creation time but it's not required.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 390

def windows
  driver.window_handles.map do |handle|
    Window.new(self, handle)
  end
end

#within(*find_args) ⇒ Object #within(a_node) ⇒ Object

Executes the given block within the context of a node. `within` takes the same options as `find`, as well as a block. For the duration of the block, any command to Capybara will be handled as though it were scoped to the given element.

within(:xpath, '//div[@id="delivery-address"]') do
  fill_in('Street', :with => '12 Main Street')
end

Just as with `find`, if multiple elements match the selector given to `within`, an error will be raised, and just as with `find`, this behaviour can be controlled through the `:match` and `:exact` options.

It is possible to omit the first parameter, in that case, the selector is assumed to be of the type set in Capybara.default_selector.

within('div#delivery-address') do
  fill_in('Street', :with => '12 Main Street')
end

Note that a lot of uses of `within` can be replaced more succinctly with chaining:

find('div#delivery-address').fill_in('Street', :with => '12 Main Street')

Raises:



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 294

def within(*args)
  new_scope = if args.first.is_a?(Capybara::Node::Base) then args.first else find(*args) end
  begin
    scopes.push(new_scope)
    yield
  ensure
    scopes.pop
  end
end

#within_fieldset(locator) ⇒ Object

Execute the given block within the a specific fieldset given the id or legend of that fieldset.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 310

def within_fieldset(locator)
  within :fieldset, locator do
    yield
  end
end

#within_frame(element) ⇒ Object #within_frame(name) ⇒ Object #within_frame(index) ⇒ Object

Execute the given block within the given iframe using given frame, frame name/id or index. May not be supported by all drivers.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 340

def within_frame(locator)
  scopes.push(nil)

  #support older driver frame api for now
  frame = case locator
  when Capybara::Node::Element
    locator
  when String
    find(:frame, locator)
  when Integer
    all(:frame, minimum: locator+1)[locator]
  else
    raise ArgumentError
  end

  begin
    driver.switch_to_frame(frame)
    begin
      yield
    ensure
      driver.switch_to_frame(:parent)
    end
  rescue Capybara::NotSupportedByDriverError
    # Support older driver frame API for now
    if driver.respond_to?(:within_frame)
      driver.within_frame(frame) do
        yield
      end
    else
      raise
    end
  end
ensure
  scopes.pop
end

#within_table(locator) ⇒ Object

Execute the given block within the a specific table given the id or caption of that table.



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 322

def within_table(locator)
  within :table, locator do
    yield
  end
end

#within_window(window) ⇒ Object #within_window(proc_or_lambda) ⇒ Object #within_window(string) ⇒ Object

This method does the following:

  1. Switches to the given window (it can be located by window instance/lambda/string).

  2. Executes the given block (within window located at previous step).

  3. Switches back (this step will be invoked even if exception will happen at second step)

Overloads:

  • #within_window(window) ⇒ Object

    Raises:

    • (driver#no_such_window_error)

      if unexistent (e.g. closed) window was passed

  • #within_window(proc_or_lambda) ⇒ Object

    Examples:

    within_window(->{ page.title == 'Page title' }) { click_button 'Submit' }
    

    Raises:

  • #within_window(string) ⇒ Object
    Deprecated.

    Pass window or lambda instead

Raises:

  • (Capybara::ScopeError)

    if this method is invoked inside `within`, `within_frame` or `within_window` methods



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# File 'lib/capybara/session.rb', line 488

def within_window(window_or_handle)
  if window_or_handle.instance_of?(Capybara::Window)
    original = current_window
    switch_to_window(window_or_handle) unless original == window_or_handle
    scopes << nil
    begin
      yield
    ensure
      @scopes.pop
      switch_to_window(original) unless original == window_or_handle
    end
  elsif window_or_handle.is_a?(Proc)
    original = current_window
    switch_to_window { window_or_handle.call }
    scopes << nil
    begin
      yield
    ensure
      @scopes.pop
      switch_to_window(original)
    end
  else
    offending_line = caller.first
    file_line = offending_line.match(/^(.+?):(\d+)/)[0]
    warn "DEPRECATION WARNING: Passing string argument to #within_window is deprecated. "\
         "Pass window object or lambda. (called from #{file_line})"
    begin
      scopes << nil
      driver.within_window(window_or_handle) { yield }
    ensure
      @scopes.pop
    end
  end
end