Class: Net::FTP

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
MonitorMixin
Defined in:
lib/net/ftp.rb

Overview

This class implements the File Transfer Protocol. If you have used a command-line FTP program, and are familiar with the commands, you will be able to use this class easily. Some extra features are included to take advantage of Ruby's style and strengths.

Example

require 'net/ftp'

Example 1

ftp = Net::FTP.new('example.com')
ftp.
files = ftp.chdir('pub/lang/ruby/contrib')
files = ftp.list('n*')
ftp.getbinaryfile('nif.rb-0.91.gz', 'nif.gz', 1024)
ftp.close

Example 2

Net::FTP.open('example.com') do |ftp|
  ftp.
  files = ftp.chdir('pub/lang/ruby/contrib')
  files = ftp.list('n*')
  ftp.getbinaryfile('nif.rb-0.91.gz', 'nif.gz', 1024)
end

Major Methods

The following are the methods most likely to be useful to users:

  • FTP.open

  • #getbinaryfile

  • #gettextfile

  • #putbinaryfile

  • #puttextfile

  • #chdir

  • #nlst

  • #size

  • #rename

  • #delete

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: BufferedSocket, MLSxEntry, NullSocket

Constant Summary collapse

FTP_PORT =

:stopdoc:

21
CRLF =
"\r\n"
DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE =
BufferedIO::BUFSIZE
CASE_DEPENDENT_PARSER =
->(value) { value }
CASE_INDEPENDENT_PARSER =
->(value) { value.downcase }
DECIMAL_PARSER =
->(value) { value.to_i }
OCTAL_PARSER =
->(value) { value.to_i(8) }
TIME_PARSER =
->(value, local = false) {
  unless /\A(?<year>\d{4})(?<month>\d{2})(?<day>\d{2})
        (?<hour>\d{2})(?<min>\d{2})(?<sec>\d{2})
        (\.(?<fractions>\d+))?/x =~ value
    raise FTPProtoError, "invalid time-val: #{value}"
  end
  usec = fractions.to_i * 10 ** (6 - fractions.to_s.size)
  Time.send(local ? :local : :utc, year, month, day, hour, min, sec, usec)
}
FACT_PARSERS =
Hash.new(CASE_DEPENDENT_PARSER)
@@default_passive =
true

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Constructor Details

#initialize(host = nil, user = nil, passwd = nil, acct = nil) ⇒ FTP

Creates and returns a new FTP object. If a host is given, a connection is made. Additionally, if the user is given, the given user name, password, and (optionally) account are used to log in. See #login.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 164

def initialize(host = nil, user = nil, passwd = nil, acct = nil)
  super()
  @binary = true
  @passive = @@default_passive
  @debug_mode = false
  @resume = false
  @sock = NullSocket.new
  @logged_in = false
  @open_timeout = nil
  @read_timeout = 60
  if host
    connect(host)
    if user
      (user, passwd, acct)
    end
  end
end

Instance Attribute Details

#binaryObject

When true, transfers are performed in binary mode. Default: true.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 87

def binary
  @binary
end

#debug_modeObject

When true, all traffic to and from the server is written to $stdout. Default: false.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 94

def debug_mode
  @debug_mode
end

#last_responseObject (readonly)

The server's last response.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 126

def last_response
  @last_response
end

#last_response_codeObject (readonly) Also known as: lastresp

The server's last response code.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 122

def last_response_code
  @last_response_code
end

#open_timeoutObject

Number of seconds to wait for the connection to open. Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the FTP object cannot open a connection in this many seconds, it raises a Net::OpenTimeout exception. The default value is nil.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 104

def open_timeout
  @open_timeout
end

#passiveObject

When true, the connection is in passive mode. Default: true.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 90

def passive
  @passive
end

#read_timeoutObject

Number of seconds to wait for one block to be read (via one read(2) call). Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the FTP object cannot read data in this many seconds, it raises a Timeout::Error exception. The default value is 60 seconds.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 110

def read_timeout
  @read_timeout
end

#resumeObject

Sets or retrieves the resume status, which decides whether incomplete transfers are resumed or restarted. Default: false.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 98

def resume
  @resume
end

#welcomeObject (readonly)

The server's welcome message.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 119

def welcome
  @welcome
end

Class Method Details

.default_passiveObject

When true, connections are in passive mode per default. Default: true.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 136

def self.default_passive
  @@default_passive
end

.default_passive=(value) ⇒ Object

When true, connections are in passive mode per default. Default: true.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 130

def self.default_passive=(value)
  @@default_passive = value
end

.open(host, user = nil, passwd = nil, acct = nil) ⇒ Object

A synonym for FTP.new, but with a mandatory host parameter.

If a block is given, it is passed the FTP object, which will be closed when the block finishes, or when an exception is raised.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 146

def FTP.open(host, user = nil, passwd = nil, acct = nil)
  if block_given?
    ftp = new(host, user, passwd, acct)
    begin
      yield ftp
    ensure
      ftp.close
    end
  else
    new(host, user, passwd, acct)
  end
end

Instance Method Details

#abortObject

Aborts the previous command (ABOR command).


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1094

def abort
  line = "ABOR" + CRLF
  print "put: ABOR\n" if @debug_mode
  @sock.send(line, Socket::MSG_OOB)
  resp = getmultiline
  unless ["426", "226", "225"].include?(resp[0, 3])
    raise FTPProtoError, resp
  end
  return resp
end

#acct(account) ⇒ Object

Sends the ACCT command.

This is a less common FTP command, to send account information if the destination host requires it.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 747

def acct()
  cmd = "ACCT " + 
  voidcmd(cmd)
end

#chdir(dirname) ⇒ Object

Changes the (remote) directory.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1015

def chdir(dirname)
  if dirname == ".."
    begin
      voidcmd("CDUP")
      return
    rescue FTPPermError => e
      if e.message[0, 3] != "500"
        raise e
      end
    end
  end
  cmd = "CWD #{dirname}"
  voidcmd(cmd)
end

#closeObject

Closes the connection. Further operations are impossible until you open a new connection with #connect.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1167

def close
  if @sock and not @sock.closed?
    begin
      @sock.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_WR) rescue nil
      orig, self.read_timeout = self.read_timeout, 3
      @sock.read rescue nil
    ensure
      @sock.close
      self.read_timeout = orig
    end
  end
end

#closed?Boolean

Returns true iff the connection is closed.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1183

def closed?
  @sock == nil or @sock.closed?
end

#connect(host, port = FTP_PORT) ⇒ Object

Establishes an FTP connection to host, optionally overriding the default port. If the environment variable SOCKS_SERVER is set, sets up the connection through a SOCKS proxy. Raises an exception (typically Errno::ECONNREFUSED) if the connection cannot be established.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 258

def connect(host, port = FTP_PORT)
  if @debug_mode
    print "connect: ", host, ", ", port, "\n"
  end
  synchronize do
    @sock = open_socket(host, port)
    voidresp
  end
end

#delete(filename) ⇒ Object

Deletes a file on the server.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1001

def delete(filename)
  resp = sendcmd("DELE #{filename}")
  if resp.start_with?("250")
    return
  elsif resp.start_with?("5")
    raise FTPPermError, resp
  else
    raise FTPReplyError, resp
  end
end

#get(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile), blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) ⇒ Object

Retrieves remotefile in whatever mode the session is set (text or binary). See #gettextfile and #getbinaryfile.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 676

def get(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile),
        blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) # :yield: data
  if @binary
    getbinaryfile(remotefile, localfile, blocksize, &block)
  else
    gettextfile(remotefile, localfile, &block)
  end
end

#getbinaryfile(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile), blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) ⇒ Object

Retrieves remotefile in binary mode, storing the result in localfile. If localfile is nil, returns retrieved data. If a block is supplied, it is passed the retrieved data in blocksize chunks.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 615

def getbinaryfile(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile),
                  blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) # :yield: data
  f = nil
  result = nil
  if localfile
    if @resume
      rest_offset = File.size?(localfile)
      f = open(localfile, "a")
    else
      rest_offset = nil
      f = open(localfile, "w")
    end
  elsif !block_given?
    result = String.new
  end
  begin
    f&.binmode
    retrbinary("RETR #{remotefile}", blocksize, rest_offset) do |data|
      f&.write(data)
      block&.(data)
      result&.concat(data)
    end
    return result
  ensure
    f&.close
  end
end

#gettextfile(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile), &block) ⇒ Object

Retrieves remotefile in ASCII (text) mode, storing the result in localfile. If localfile is nil, returns retrieved data. If a block is supplied, it is passed the retrieved data one line at a time.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 650

def gettextfile(remotefile, localfile = File.basename(remotefile),
                &block) # :yield: line
  f = nil
  result = nil
  if localfile
    f = open(localfile, "w")
  elsif !block_given?
    result = String.new
  end
  begin
    retrlines("RETR #{remotefile}") do |line, newline|
      l = newline ? line + "\n" : line
      f&.print(l)
      block&.(line, newline)
      result&.concat(l)
    end
    return result
  ensure
    f&.close
  end
end

#help(arg = nil) ⇒ Object

Issues the HELP command.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1131

def help(arg = nil)
  cmd = "HELP"
  if arg
    cmd = cmd + " " + arg
  end
  sendcmd(cmd)
end

#list(*args, &block) ⇒ Object Also known as: ls, dir

Returns an array of file information in the directory (the output is like `ls -l`). If a block is given, it iterates through the listing.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 771

def list(*args, &block) # :yield: line
  cmd = "LIST"
  args.each do |arg|
    cmd = "#{cmd} #{arg}"
  end
  lines = []
  retrlines(cmd) do |line|
    lines << line
  end
  if block
    lines.each(&block)
  end
  return lines
end

#login(user = "anonymous", passwd = nil, acct = nil) ⇒ Object

Logs in to the remote host. The session must have been previously connected. If user is the string “anonymous” and the password is nil, “[email protected]” is used as a password. If the acct parameter is not nil, an FTP ACCT command is sent following the successful login. Raises an exception on error (typically Net::FTPPermError).


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 466

def (user = "anonymous", passwd = nil, acct = nil)
  if user == "anonymous" and passwd == nil
    passwd = "[email protected]"
  end

  resp = ""
  synchronize do
    resp = sendcmd('USER ' + user)
    if resp.start_with?("3")
      raise FTPReplyError, resp if passwd.nil?
      resp = sendcmd('PASS ' + passwd)
    end
    if resp.start_with?("3")
      raise FTPReplyError, resp if acct.nil?
      resp = sendcmd('ACCT ' + acct)
    end
  end
  if !resp.start_with?("2")
    raise FTPReplyError, resp
  end
  @welcome = resp
  send_type_command
  @logged_in = true
end

#mdtm(filename) ⇒ Object

Returns the raw last modification time of the (remote) file in the format “YYYYMMDDhhmmss” (MDTM command).

Use mtime if you want a parsed Time instance.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1121

def mdtm(filename)
  resp = sendcmd("MDTM #{filename}")
  if resp.start_with?("213")
    return get_body(resp)
  end
end

#mkdir(dirname) ⇒ Object

Creates a remote directory.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1059

def mkdir(dirname)
  resp = sendcmd("MKD #{dirname}")
  return parse257(resp)
end

#mlsd(pathname = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

Returns an array of the entries of the directory specified by pathname. Each entry has the facts (e.g., size, last modification time, etc.) and the pathname. If a block is given, it iterates through the listing. If pathname is omitted, the current directory is assumed.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 975

def mlsd(pathname = nil, &block) # :yield: entry
  cmd = pathname ? "MLSD #{pathname}" : "MLSD"
  entries = []
  retrlines(cmd) do |line|
    entries << parse_mlsx_entry(line)
  end
  if block
    entries.each(&block)
  end
  return entries
end

#mlst(pathname = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns data (e.g., size, last modification time, entry type, etc.) about the file or directory specified by pathname. If pathname is omitted, the current directory is assumed.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 953

def mlst(pathname = nil)
  cmd = pathname ? "MLST #{pathname}" : "MLST"
  resp = sendcmd(cmd)
  if !resp.start_with?("250")
    raise FTPReplyError, resp
  end
  line = resp.lines[1]
  unless line
    raise FTPProtoError, resp
  end
  entry = line.sub(/\A(250-| *)/, "")
  return parse_mlsx_entry(entry)
end

#mtime(filename, local = false) ⇒ Object

Returns the last modification time of the (remote) file. If local is true, it is returned as a local time, otherwise it's a UTC time.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1052

def mtime(filename, local = false)
  return TIME_PARSER.(mdtm(filename), local)
end

#nlst(dir = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns an array of filenames in the remote directory.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 755

def nlst(dir = nil)
  cmd = "NLST"
  if dir
    cmd = "#{cmd} #{dir}"
  end
  files = []
  retrlines(cmd) do |line|
    files.push(line)
  end
  return files
end

#noopObject

Issues a NOOP command.

Does nothing except return a response.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1151

def noop
  voidcmd("NOOP")
end

#put(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile), blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) ⇒ Object

Transfers localfile to the server in whatever mode the session is set (text or binary). See #puttextfile and #putbinaryfile.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 732

def put(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile),
        blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block)
  if @binary
    putbinaryfile(localfile, remotefile, blocksize, &block)
  else
    puttextfile(localfile, remotefile, &block)
  end
end

#putbinaryfile(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile), blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) ⇒ Object

Transfers localfile to the server in binary mode, storing the result in remotefile. If a block is supplied, calls it, passing in the transmitted data in blocksize chunks.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 690

def putbinaryfile(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile),
                  blocksize = DEFAULT_BLOCKSIZE, &block) # :yield: data
  if @resume
    begin
      rest_offset = size(remotefile)
    rescue Net::FTPPermError
      rest_offset = nil
    end
  else
    rest_offset = nil
  end
  f = open(localfile)
  begin
    f.binmode
    if rest_offset
      storbinary("APPE #{remotefile}", f, blocksize, rest_offset, &block)
    else
      storbinary("STOR #{remotefile}", f, blocksize, rest_offset, &block)
    end
  ensure
    f.close
  end
end

#puttextfile(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile), &block) ⇒ Object

Transfers localfile to the server in ASCII (text) mode, storing the result in remotefile. If callback or an associated block is supplied, calls it, passing in the transmitted data one line at a time.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 719

def puttextfile(localfile, remotefile = File.basename(localfile), &block) # :yield: line
  f = open(localfile)
  begin
    storlines("STOR #{remotefile}", f, &block)
  ensure
    f.close
  end
end

#pwdObject Also known as: getdir

Returns the current remote directory.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1074

def pwd
  resp = sendcmd("PWD")
  return parse257(resp)
end

#quitObject

Exits the FTP session.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1142

def quit
  voidcmd("QUIT")
end

#rename(fromname, toname) ⇒ Object

Renames a file on the server.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 990

def rename(fromname, toname)
  resp = sendcmd("RNFR #{fromname}")
  if !resp.start_with?("3")
    raise FTPReplyError, resp
  end
  voidcmd("RNTO #{toname}")
end

#retrbinary(cmd, blocksize, rest_offset = nil) ⇒ Object

Puts the connection into binary (image) mode, issues the given command, and fetches the data returned, passing it to the associated block in chunks of blocksize characters. Note that cmd is a server command (such as “RETR myfile”).


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 497

def retrbinary(cmd, blocksize, rest_offset = nil) # :yield: data
  synchronize do
    with_binary(true) do
      begin
        conn = transfercmd(cmd, rest_offset)
        loop do
          data = conn.read(blocksize)
          break if data == nil
          yield(data)
        end
        conn.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_WR)
        conn.read_timeout = 1
        conn.read
      ensure
        conn.close if conn
      end
      voidresp
    end
  end
end

#retrlines(cmd) ⇒ Object

Puts the connection into ASCII (text) mode, issues the given command, and passes the resulting data, one line at a time, to the associated block. If no block is given, prints the lines. Note that cmd is a server command (such as “RETR myfile”).


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 524

def retrlines(cmd) # :yield: line
  synchronize do
    with_binary(false) do
      begin
        conn = transfercmd(cmd)
        loop do
          line = conn.gets
          break if line == nil
          yield(line.sub(/\r?\n\z/, ""), !line.match(/\n\z/).nil?)
        end
        conn.shutdown(Socket::SHUT_WR)
        conn.read_timeout = 1
        conn.read
      ensure
        conn.close if conn
      end
      voidresp
    end
  end
end

#return_codeObject

Obsolete


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 222

def return_code # :nodoc:
  $stderr.puts("warning: Net::FTP#return_code is obsolete and do nothing")
  return "\n"
end

#return_code=(s) ⇒ Object

Obsolete


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 228

def return_code=(s) # :nodoc:
  $stderr.puts("warning: Net::FTP#return_code= is obsolete and do nothing")
end

#rmdir(dirname) ⇒ Object

Removes a remote directory.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1067

def rmdir(dirname)
  voidcmd("RMD #{dirname}")
end

#sendcmd(cmd) ⇒ Object

Sends a command and returns the response.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 364

def sendcmd(cmd)
  synchronize do
    putline(cmd)
    return getresp
  end
end

#set_socket(sock, get_greeting = true) ⇒ Object

Set the socket used to connect to the FTP server.

May raise FTPReplyError if get_greeting is false.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 272

def set_socket(sock, get_greeting = true)
  synchronize do
    @sock = sock
    if get_greeting
      voidresp
    end
  end
end

#site(arg) ⇒ Object

Issues a SITE command.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1158

def site(arg)
  cmd = "SITE " + arg
  voidcmd(cmd)
end

#size(filename) ⇒ Object

Returns the size of the given (remote) filename.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1038

def size(filename)
  with_binary(true) do
    resp = sendcmd("SIZE #{filename}")
    if !resp.start_with?("213")
      raise FTPReplyError, resp
    end
    return get_body(resp).to_i
  end
end

#statusObject

Returns the status (STAT command).


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1108

def status
  line = "STAT" + CRLF
  print "put: STAT\n" if @debug_mode
  @sock.send(line, Socket::MSG_OOB)
  return getresp
end

#storbinary(cmd, file, blocksize, rest_offset = nil) ⇒ Object

Puts the connection into binary (image) mode, issues the given server-side command (such as “STOR myfile”), and sends the contents of the file named file to the server. If the optional block is given, it also passes it the data, in chunks of blocksize characters.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 551

def storbinary(cmd, file, blocksize, rest_offset = nil) # :yield: data
  if rest_offset
    file.seek(rest_offset, IO::SEEK_SET)
  end
  synchronize do
    with_binary(true) do
      conn = transfercmd(cmd)
      loop do
        buf = file.read(blocksize)
        break if buf == nil
        conn.write(buf)
        yield(buf) if block_given?
      end
      conn.close
      voidresp
    end
  end
rescue Errno::EPIPE
  # EPIPE, in this case, means that the data connection was unexpectedly
  # terminated.  Rather than just raising EPIPE to the caller, check the
  # response on the control connection.  If getresp doesn't raise a more
  # appropriate exception, re-raise the original exception.
  getresp
  raise
end

#storlines(cmd, file) ⇒ Object

Puts the connection into ASCII (text) mode, issues the given server-side command (such as “STOR myfile”), and sends the contents of the file named file to the server, one line at a time. If the optional block is given, it also passes it the lines.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 583

def storlines(cmd, file) # :yield: line
  synchronize do
    with_binary(false) do
      conn = transfercmd(cmd)
      loop do
        buf = file.gets
        break if buf == nil
        if buf[-2, 2] != CRLF
          buf = buf.chomp + CRLF
        end
        conn.write(buf)
        yield(buf) if block_given?
      end
      conn.close
      voidresp
    end
  end
rescue Errno::EPIPE
  # EPIPE, in this case, means that the data connection was unexpectedly
  # terminated.  Rather than just raising EPIPE to the caller, check the
  # response on the control connection.  If getresp doesn't raise a more
  # appropriate exception, re-raise the original exception.
  getresp
  raise
end

#systemObject

Returns system information.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 1083

def system
  resp = sendcmd("SYST")
  if !resp.start_with?("215")
    raise FTPReplyError, resp
  end
  return get_body(resp)
end

#voidcmd(cmd) ⇒ Object

Sends a command and expect a response beginning with '2'.


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# File 'lib/net/ftp.rb', line 374

def voidcmd(cmd)
  synchronize do
    putline(cmd)
    voidresp
  end
end