Class: Writeexcel::Worksheet

Inherits:
BIFFWriter show all
Includes:
ConvertDateTime
Defined in:
lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb,
lib/writeexcel/outline.rb,
lib/writeexcel/comments.rb,
lib/writeexcel/col_info.rb,
lib/writeexcel/cell_range.rb,
lib/writeexcel/embedded_chart.rb,
lib/writeexcel/data_validations.rb

Overview

class Worksheet

A new worksheet is created by calling the add_worksheet() method from a workbook object:

Examples:

workbook   = WriteExcel.new('file.xls')
worksheet1 = workbook.add_worksheet
worksheet2 = workbook.add_worksheet

Direct Known Subclasses

Chart

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: CellDimension, CellRange, ColInfo, Collection, Comment, Comments, DataValidation, DataValidations, EmbeddedChart, FilterRange, ObjectIds, Outline, PrintRange, TitleRange

Constant Summary collapse

RowMax =

:nodoc:

65536
ColMax =

:nodoc:

256
StrMax =

:nodoc:

0
Buffer =

:nodoc:

4096

Constants inherited from BIFFWriter

BIFFWriter::BIFF_Version, BIFFWriter::BigEndian

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Attributes inherited from BIFFWriter

#data, #datasize

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from ConvertDateTime

#convert_date_time

Methods inherited from BIFFWriter

#add_continue, #add_mso_generic, #append, #clear_data_for_test, #get_data, #inspect, #not_using_tmpfile, #prepend, #print_caller_info, #set_byte_order, #store_bof, #store_eof, #unpack_record

Methods included from CallerInfo

#caller_info

Methods inherited from WriteFile

#append, #prepend

Constructor Details

#initialize(workbook, name, name_utf16be) ⇒ Worksheet

Constructor. Creates a new Worksheet object from a BIFFwriter object


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 68

def initialize(workbook, name, name_utf16be)    # :nodoc:
  super()

  @workbook            = workbook
  @name                = name
  @name_utf16be        = name_utf16be

  @type                = 0x0000
  @ext_sheets          = []
  @using_tmpfile       = true
  @fileclosed          = false
  @offset              = 0
  @dimension           = CellDimension.new(self)
  @colinfo             = []
  @selection           = [0, 0]
  @panes               = []
  @active_pane         = 3
  @frozen_no_split     = 1
  @tab_color           = 0

  @first_row           = 0
  @first_col           = 0
  @display_formulas    = 0
  @display_headers     = 1

  @paper_size          = 0x0
  @orientation         = 0x1
  @margin_header       = 0.50
  @margin_footer       = 0.50
  @margin_left         = 0.75
  @margin_right        = 0.75
  @margin_top          = 1.00
  @margin_bottom       = 1.00

  @title_range         = TitleRange.new(self)
  @print_range         = PrintRange.new(self)

  @print_gridlines     = 1
  @screen_gridlines    = 1

  @page_order          = 0
  @black_white         = 0
  @draft_quality       = 0
  @print_comments      = 0
  @page_start          = 1
  @custom_start        = 0

  @fit_page            = 0
  @fit_width           = 0
  @fit_height          = 0

  @hbreaks             = []
  @vbreaks             = []

  @password            = nil

  @col_sizes           = {}
  @row_sizes           = {}

  @col_formats         = {}
  @row_formats         = {}

  @zoom                = 100
  @print_scale         = 100
  @page_view           = 0

  @leading_zeros       = false

  @outline             = Outline.new

  @write_match         = []

  @images              = Collection.new
  @charts              = Collection.new
  @comments            = Comments.new

  @num_images          = 0
  @image_mso_size      = 0

  @filter_area         = FilterRange.new(self)
  @filter_on           = 0
  @filter_cols         = []

  @db_indices          = []

  @validations         = DataValidations.new

  @table               = []
  @row_data            = {}
end

Instance Attribute Details

#filter_areaObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute filter_area


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 64

def filter_area
  @filter_area
end

#object_idsObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute object_ids


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 64

def object_ids
  @object_ids
end

Returns the value of attribute print_range


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 64

def print_range
  @print_range
end

#title_rangeObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute title_range


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 64

def title_range
  @title_range
end

Instance Method Details

#activateObject

Set this worksheet as the active worksheet, i.e. the worksheet that is displayed when the workbook is opened. Also set it as selected.

The activate() method is used to specify which worksheet is initially visible in a multi-sheet workbook:

worksheet1 = workbook.add_worksheet('To')
worksheet2 = workbook.add_worksheet('the')
worksheet3 = workbook.add_worksheet('wind')

worksheet3.activate

This is similar to the Excel VBA activate method. More than one worksheet can be selected via the select() method, see below, however only one worksheet can be active.

The default active worksheet is the first worksheet.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 330

def activate
  @hidden   = false  # Active worksheet can't be hidden.
  @selected = true
  @workbook.worksheets.activesheet = self
end

#autofilter(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

autofilter(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col)
autofilter("A1:G10")

Set the autofilter area in the worksheet.

This method allows an autofilter to be added to a worksheet. An autofilter is a way of adding drop down lists to the headers of a 2D range of worksheet data. This is turn allow users to filter the data based on simple criteria so that some data is highlighted and some is hidden.

To add an autofilter to a worksheet:

worksheet.autofilter(0, 0, 10, 3)
worksheet.autofilter('A1:D11')    # Same as above in A1 notation.

Filter conditions can be applied using the filter_column() method.

See the autofilter.rb program in the examples directory of the distro for a more detailed example.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1094

def autofilter(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return if args.size != 4 # Require 4 parameters

  row_min, col_min, row_max, col_max = args

  # Reverse max and min values if necessary.
  row_min, row_max = row_max, row_min if row_max < row_min
  col_min, col_max = col_max, col_min if col_max < col_min

  # Store the Autofilter information
  @filter_area.row_min = row_min
  @filter_area.row_max = row_max
  @filter_area.col_min = col_min
  @filter_area.col_max = col_max
end

#autofilter_name_record_short(hidden = nil) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4358

def autofilter_name_record_short(hidden = nil)     #:nodoc:
  name_record_short(@filter_area, hidden) if @filter_area.count != 0
end

#boundsheetObject

Excel BIFF BOUNDSHEET record.

sheetname  # Worksheet name
offset     # Location of worksheet BOF
type       # Worksheet type
hidden     # Worksheet hidden flag
encoding   # Sheet name encoding

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4584

def boundsheet       #:nodoc:
  hidden    = self.hidden? ? 1 : 0
  encoding  = self.is_name_utf16be? ? 1 : 0

  record    = 0x0085                  # Record identifier
  length    = 0x08 + @name.bytesize   # Number of bytes to follow

  cch       = @name.bytesize          # Length of sheet name

  # Character length is num of chars not num of bytes
  cch /= 2 if is_name_utf16be?

  # Change the UTF-16 name from BE to LE
  sheetname = is_name_utf16be? ? @name.unpack('v*').pack('n*') : @name

  grbit     = @type | hidden

  header    = [record, length].pack("vv")
  data      = [@offset, grbit, cch, encoding].pack("VvCC")

  header + data + sheetname
end

#center_horizontallyObject

Center the worksheet data horizontally between the margins on the printed page.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1328

def center_horizontally
  @hcenter = 1
end

#center_verticallyObject

Center the worksheet data vertically between the margins on the printed page:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1335

def center_vertically
  @vcenter = 1
end

#charts_sizeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4342

def charts_size   #:nodoc:
  @charts.array.size
end

#cleanupObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 270

def cleanup  # :nodoc:
  super
end

#closeObject

Add data to the beginning of the workbook (note the reverse order) and to the end of the workbook.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 163

def close #:nodoc:
  ################################################
  # Prepend in reverse order!!
  #

  # Prepend the sheet dimensions
  store_dimensions

  # Prepend the autofilter filters.
  store_autofilters

  # Prepend the sheet autofilter info.
  store_autofilterinfo

  # Prepend the sheet filtermode record.
  store_filtermode

  # Prepend the COLINFO records if they exist
  @colinfo.reverse.each do |colinfo|
    store_colinfo(colinfo)
  end

  # Prepend the DEFCOLWIDTH record
  store_defcol

  # Prepend the sheet password
  store_password

  # Prepend the sheet protection
  store_protect
  store_obj_protect

  # Prepend the page setup
  store_setup

  # Prepend the bottom margin
  store_margin_bottom

  # Prepend the top margin
  store_margin_top

  # Prepend the right margin
  store_margin_right

  # Prepend the left margin
  store_margin_left

  # Prepend the page vertical centering
  store_vcenter

  # Prepend the page horizontal centering
  store_hcenter

  # Prepend the page footer
  store_footer

  # Prepend the page header
  store_header

  # Prepend the vertical page breaks
  store_vbreak

  # Prepend the horizontal page breaks
  store_hbreak

  # Prepend WSBOOL
  store_wsbool

  # Prepend the default row height.
  store_defrow

  # Prepend GUTS
  store_guts

  # Prepend GRIDSET
  store_gridset

  # Prepend PRINTGRIDLINES
  store_print_gridlines

  # Prepend PRINTHEADERS
  store_print_headers

  #
  # End of prepend. Read upwards from here.
  ################################################
  # Append
  store_table
  store_images
  store_charts
  store_filters
  store_comments
  store_window2
  store_page_view
  store_zoom
  store_panes(*@panes) if @panes && !@panes.empty?
  store_selection(*@selection)
  store_validation_count
  store_validations
  store_tab_color
  store_eof

  # Prepend the BOF and INDEX records
  store_index
  store_bof(0x0010)
end

#comments_sizeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4338

def comments_size   #:nodoc:
  @comments.array.size
end

#comments_visible?Boolean


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4571

def comments_visible?
  @comments.visible?
end

#data_validation(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

data_validation(row, col, params)
data_validation(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, params)

This method handles the interface to Excel data validation. Somewhat ironically the this requires a lot of validation code since the interface is flexible and covers a several types of data validation.

We allow data validation to be called on one cell or a range of cells. The hashref contains the validation parameters and must be the last param:

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range
-3 : incorrect parameter.

The data_validation() method is used to construct an Excel data validation or to limit the user input to a dropdown list of values.

worksheet.data_validation('B3',
    {
        :validate => 'integer',
        :criteria => '>',
        :value    => 100,
    })

worksheet.data_validation('B5:B9',
    {
        :validate => 'list',
        :value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
    })

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in a separate section “DATA VALIDATION IN EXCEL”.

See also the data_validate.rb program in the examples directory of the distro

The data_validation() method is used to construct an Excel data validation.

It can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. You can pass 3 parameters such as (row, col, …) or 5 parameters such as (first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, …). You can also use A1 style notation. For example:

worksheet.data_validation(0, 0,       {...})
worksheet.data_validation(0, 0, 4, 1, {...})

# Which are the same as:

$worksheet.data_validation('A1',       {...})
$worksheet.data_validation('A1:B5',    {...})

See also the note about “Cell notation” for more information.

The last parameter in data_validation() must be a hash ref containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the data validation. The allowable parameters are:

validate
criteria
value | minimum | source
maximum
ignore_blank
dropdown

input_title
input_message
show_input

error_title
error_message
error_type
show_error

These parameters are explained in the following sections. Most of the parameters are optional, however, you will generally require the three main options validate, criteria and value.

worksheet.data_validation('B3',
    {
        :validate => 'integer',
        :criteria => '>',
        :value    => 100
    })

The data_validation method returns:

 0 for success.
-1 for insufficient number of arguments.
-2 for row or column out of bounds.
-3 for incorrect parameter or value.

validate

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The validate parameter is used to set the type of data that you wish to validate. It is always required and it has no default value. Allowable values are:

any
integer
decimal
list
date
time
length
custom
  • any is used to specify that the type of data is unrestricted. This is the same as not applying a data validation. It is only provided for completeness and isn't used very often in the context of WriteExcel.

  • integer restricts the cell to integer values. Excel refers to this as 'whole number'.

    :validate => 'integer',
    :criteria => '>',
    :value    => 100,
    
  • decimal restricts the cell to decimal values.

    :validate => 'decimal',
    :criteria => '>',
    :value    => 38.6,
    
  • list restricts the cell to a set of user specified values. These can be passed in an array ref or as a cell range (named ranges aren't currently supported):

    :validate => 'list',
    :value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
    # Or like this:
    :value    => 'B1:B3',
    

Excel requires that range references are only to cells on the same worksheet.

  • date restricts the cell to date values. Dates in Excel are expressed as integer values but you can also pass an ISO860 style string as used in write_date_time(). See also “DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL” for more information about working with Excel's dates.

    :validate => 'date',
    :criteria => '>',
    :value    => 39653, # 24 July 2008
    # Or like this:
    :value    => '2008-07-24T',
    
  • time restricts the cell to time values. Times in Excel are expressed as decimal values but you can also pass an ISO860 style string as used in write_date_time(). See also “DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL” for more information about working with Excel's times.

    :validate => 'time',
    :criteria => '>',
    :value    => 0.5, # Noon
    # Or like this:
    :value    => 'T12:00:00',
    
  • length restricts the cell data based on an integer string length. Excel refers to this as 'Text length'.

    :validate => 'length',
    :criteria => '>',
    :value    => 10,
    
  • custom restricts the cell based on an external Excel formula that returns a TRUE/FALSE value.

    :validate => 'custom',
    :value    => '=IF(A10>B10,TRUE,FALSE)',
    

criteria

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The criteria parameter is used to set the criteria by which the data in the cell is validated. It is almost always required except for the list and custom validate options. It has no default value. Allowable values are:

'between'
'not between'
'equal to'                  |  '=='  |  '='
'not equal to'              |  '!='  |  '<>'
'greater than'              |  '>'
'less than'                 |  '<'
'greater than or equal to'  |  '>='
'less than or equal to'     |  '<='

You can either use Excel's textual description strings, in the first column above, or the more common operator alternatives. The following are equivalent:

:validate => 'integer',
:criteria => 'greater than',
:value    => 100,

:validate => 'integer',
:criteria => '>',
:value    => 100,

The list and custom validate options don't require a criteria. If you specify one it will be ignored.

:validate => 'list',
:value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],

:validate => 'custom',
:value    => '=IF(A10>B10,TRUE,FALSE)',

value | minimum | source

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The value parameter is used to set the limiting value to which the criteria is applied. It is always required and it has no default value. You can also use the synonyms minimum or source to make the validation a little clearer and closer to Excel's description of the parameter:

# Use 'value'
:validate => 'integer',
:criteria => '>',
:value    => 100,

# Use 'minimum'
:validate => 'integer',
:criteria => 'between',
:minimum  => 1,
:maximum  => 100,

# Use 'source'
:validate => 'list',
:source   => 'B1:B3',

maximum

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The maximum parameter is used to set the upper limiting value when the criteria is either 'between' or 'not between':

:validate => 'integer',
:criteria => 'between',
:minimum  => 1,
:maximum  => 100,

ignore_blank

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The ignore_blank parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Ignore blank' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is on the data validation is not applied to blank data in the cell. It is on by default.

:ignore_blank => 0,  # Turn the option off

dropdown

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The dropdown parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'In-cell dropdown' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is on a dropdown list will be shown for list validations. It is on by default.

:dropdown => 0,      # Turn the option off

input_title

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The input_title parameter is used to set the title of the input message that is displayed when a cell is entered. It has no default value and is only displayed if the input message is displayed. See the input_message parameter below.

:input_title   => 'This is the input title',

The maximum title length is 32 characters. UTF8 strings are handled automatically.

input_message

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The input_message parameter is used to set the input message that is displayed when a cell is entered. It has no default value.

:validate      => 'integer',
:criteria      => 'between',
:minimum       => 1,
:maximum       => 100,
:input_title   => 'Enter the applied discount:',
:input_message => 'between 1 and 100',

The message can be split over several lines using newlines, “n” in double quoted strings.

:input_message => "This is\na test.",

The maximum message length is 255 characters. UTF8 strings are handled automatically.

show_input

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The show_input parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Show input message when cell is selected' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is off an input message is not displayed even if it has been set using input_message. It is on by default.

:show_input => 0,      # Turn the option off

error_title

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The error_title parameter is used to set the title of the error message that is displayed when the data validation criteria is not met. The default error title is 'Microsoft Excel'.

:error_title   => 'Input value is not valid',

The maximum title length is 32 characters. UTF8 strings are handled automatically.

error_message

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The error_message parameter is used to set the error message that is displayed when a cell is entered. The default error message is “The value you entered is not valid.nA user has restricted values that can be entered into the cell.”.

:validate      => 'integer',
:criteria      => 'between',
:minimum       => 1,
:maximum       => 100,
:error_title   => 'Input value is not valid',
:error_message => 'It should be an integer between 1 and 100',

The message can be split over several lines using newlines, “n” in double quoted strings.

:input_message => "This is\na test.",

The maximum message length is 255 characters. UTF8 strings are handled automatically.

error_type

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The error_type parameter is used to specify the type of error dialog that is displayed. There are 3 options:

'stop'
'warning'
'information'

The default is 'stop'.

show_error

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to data_validation().

The show_error parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Show error alert after invalid data is entered' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is off an error message is not displayed even if it has been set using error_message. It is on by default.

:show_error => 0,      # Turn the option off

Examples

Example 1. Limiting input to an integer greater than a fixed value.

worksheet.data_validation('A1',
    {
        :validate        => 'integer',
        :criteria        => '>',
        :value           => 0,
    })

Example 2. Limiting input to an integer greater than a fixed value where the value is referenced from a cell.

worksheet.data_validation('A2',
    {
        :validate        => 'integer',
        :criteria        => '>',
        :value           => '=E3',
    })

Example 3. Limiting input to a decimal in a fixed range.

worksheet.data_validation('A3',
    {
        :validate        => 'decimal',
        :criteria        => 'between',
        :minimum         => 0.1,
        :maximum         => 0.5,
    })

Example 4. Limiting input to a value in a dropdown list.

worksheet.data_validation('A4',
    {
        :validate        => 'list',
        :source          => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
    })

Example 5. Limiting input to a value in a dropdown list where the list is specified as a cell range.

worksheet.data_validation('A5',
    {
        :validate        => 'list',
        :source          => '=E4:G4',
    })

Example 6. Limiting input to a date in a fixed range.

worksheet.data_validation('A6',
    {
        :validate        => 'date',
        :criteria        => 'between',
        :minimum         => '2008-01-01T',
        :maximum         => '2008-12-12T',
    })

Example 7. Displaying a message when the cell is selected.

worksheet.data_validation('A7',
    {
        :validate      => 'integer',
        :criteria      => 'between',
        :minimum       => 1,
        :maximum       => 100,
        :input_title   => 'Enter an integer:',
        :input_message => 'between 1 and 100',
    })

See also the data_validate.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4256

def data_validation(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Make the last row/col the same as the first if not defined.
  row1, col1, row2, col2 = args
  return -2 if check_dimensions(row1, col1, 1, 1) != 0
  return -2 if !row2.kind_of?(Hash) && check_dimensions(row2, col2, 1, 1) != 0

  validation = DataValidation.factory(parser, date_1904?, *args)
  return validation if (-3..-1).include?(validation)

  # Store the validation information until we close the worksheet.
  @validations << validation
end

#filter_column(col, expression) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

filter_column(column, expression)

Set the column filter criteria.

The filter_column method can be used to filter columns in a autofilter range based on simple conditions.

NOTE: It isn't sufficient to just specify the filter condition. You must also hide any rows that don't match the filter condition. Rows are hidden using the set_row() visible parameter. WriteExcel cannot do this automatically since it isn't part of the file format. See the autofilter.rb program in the examples directory of the distro for an example.

The conditions for the filter are specified using simple expressions:

worksheet.filter_column('A', 'x > 2000')
worksheet.filter_column('B', 'x > 2000 and x < 5000')

The column parameter can either be a zero indexed column number or a string column name.

The following operators are available:

Operator        Synonyms
   ==           =   eq  =~
   !=           <>  ne  !=
   >
   <
   >=
   <=

   and          &&
   or           ||

The operator synonyms are just syntactic sugar to make you more comfortable using the expressions. It is important to remember that the expressions will be interpreted by Excel and not by ruby.

An expression can comprise a single statement or two statements separated by the and and or operators. For example:

'x <  2000'
'x >  2000'
'x == 2000'
'x >  2000 and x <  5000'
'x == 2000 or  x == 5000'

Filtering of blank or non-blank data can be achieved by using a value of Blanks or NonBlanks in the expression:

'x == Blanks'
'x == NonBlanks'

Top 10 style filters can be specified using a expression like the following:

Top|Bottom 1-500 Items|%

For example:

'Top    10 Items'
'Bottom  5 Items'
'Top    25 %'
'Bottom 50 %'

Excel also allows some simple string matching operations:

'x =~ b*'   # begins with b
'x !~ b*'   # doesn't begin with b
'x =~ *b'   # ends with b
'x !~ *b'   # doesn't end with b
'x =~ *b*'  # contains b
'x !~ *b*'  # doesn't contains b

You can also use * to match any character or number and ? to match any single character or number. No other regular expression quantifier is supported by Excel's filters. Excel's regular expression characters can be escaped using ~.

The placeholder variable x in the above examples can be replaced by any simple string. The actual placeholder name is ignored internally so the following are all equivalent:

'x     < 2000'
'col   < 2000'
'Price < 2000'

Also, note that a filter condition can only be applied to a column in a range specified by the autofilter() Worksheet method.

See the autofilter.rb program in the examples directory of the distro for a more detailed example.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1209

def filter_column(col, expression)
  raise "Must call autofilter() before filter_column()" if @filter_area.count == 0

  # Check for a column reference in A1 notation and substitute.
  # Convert col ref to a cell ref and then to a col number.
  dummy, col = substitute_cellref("#{col}1") if col =~ /^\D/

  # Reject column if it is outside filter range.
  unless @filter_area.inside?(col)
    raise "Column '#{col}' outside autofilter() column range " +
      "(#{@filter_area.col_min} .. #{@filter_area.col_max})"
  end

  tokens = extract_filter_tokens(expression)

  unless (tokens.size == 3 or tokens.size == 7)
    raise "Incorrect number of tokens in expression '#{expression}'"
  end

  @filter_cols[col] = parse_filter_expression(expression, tokens)
  @filter_on        = 1
end

#filter_countObject


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4473

def filter_count
  @filter_area.count
end

#fit_to_pages(width = 0, height = 0) ⇒ Object

Store the vertical and horizontal number of pages that will define the maximum area printed. – See also store_setup() and store_wsbool() below. ++

The fit_to_pages() method is used to fit the printed area to a specific number of pages both vertically and horizontally. If the printed area exceeds the specified number of pages it will be scaled down to fit. This guarantees that the printed area will always appear on the specified number of pages even if the page size or margins change.

worksheet1.fit_to_pages(1, 1)  # Fit to 1x1 pages
worksheet2.fit_to_pages(2, 1)  # Fit to 2x1 pages
worksheet3.fit_to_pages(1, 2)  # Fit to 1x2 pages

The print area can be defined using the print_area() method.

A common requirement is to fit the printed output to n pages wide but have the height be as long as necessary. To achieve this set the height to zero or leave it blank:

worksheet1.fit_to_pages(1, 0)  # 1 page wide and as long as necessary
worksheet2.fit_to_pages(1)     # The same

Note that although it is valid to use both fit_to_pages() and set_print _scale() on the same worksheet only one of these options can be active at a time. The last method call made will set the active option.

Note that fit_to_pages() will override any manual page breaks that are defined in the worksheet.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1789

def fit_to_pages(width = 0, height = 0)
  @fit_page      = 1
  @fit_width     = width
  @fit_height    = height
end

#freeze_panes(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

freeze_pane(row, col, top_row, left_col)

Set panes and mark them as frozen. – See also store_panes(). ++

This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes and to also “freeze” these panes so that the splitter bars are not visible. This is the same as the Window->Freeze Panes menu command in Excel

The parameters row and col are used to specify the location of the split. It should be noted that the split is specified at the top or left of a cell and that the method uses zero based indexing. Therefore to freeze the first row of a worksheet it is necessary to specify the split at row 2 (which is 1 as the zero-based index). This might lead you to think that you are using a 1 based index but this is not the case.

You can set one of the row and col parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split.

Examples:

worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 0)  # Freeze the first row
worksheet.freeze_panes('A2')  # Same using A1 notation
worksheet.freeze_panes(0, 1)  # Freeze the first column
worksheet.freeze_panes('B1')  # Same using A1 notation
worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 2)  # Freeze first row and first 2 columns
worksheet.freeze_panes('C2')  # Same using A1 notation

The parameters top_row and left_col are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the scrolling region of the panes. For example to freeze the first row and to have the scrolling region begin at row twenty:

worksheet.freeze_panes(1, 0, 20, 0)

You cannot use A1 notation for the top_row and left_col parameters.

See also the panes.rb program in the examples directory of the distribution.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 837

def freeze_panes(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Extra flag indicated a split and freeze.
  @frozen_no_split = 0 if args[4] && args[4] != 0

  @frozen = true
  @panes  = args
end

#hidden=(val) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4314

def hidden=(val)  # :nodoc:
  @hidden = val
end

#hidden?Boolean

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4310

def hidden?  # :nodoc:
  @hidden
end

#hideObject

Hide this worksheet.

The hide() method is used to hide a worksheet:

worksheet2.hide

You may wish to hide a worksheet in order to avoid confusing a user with intermediate data or calculations.

A hidden worksheet can not be activated or selected so this method is mutually exclusive with the activate() and select() methods. In addition, since the first worksheet will default to being the active worksheet, you cannot hide the first worksheet without activating another sheet:

worksheet2.activate
worksheet1.hide

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 355

def hide
  @hidden = true

  # A hidden worksheet shouldn't be active or selected.
  @selected  = false
  @workbook.worksheets.activesheet = @workbook.worksheets.first
  @workbook.worksheets.firstsheet  = @workbook.worksheets.first
end

#hide_gridlines(option = 1) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

hide_gridlines(option = 1)

Set the option to hide gridlines on the screen and the printed page. – There are two ways of doing this in the Excel BIFF format: The first is by setting the DspGrid field of the WINDOW2 record, this turns off the screen and subsequently the print gridline. The second method is to via the PRINTGRIDLINES and GRIDSET records, this turns off the printed gridlines only. The first method is probably sufficient for most cases. The second method is supported for backwards compatibility. Porters take note. ++

This method is used to hide the gridlines on the screen and printed page. Gridlines are the lines that divide the cells on a worksheet. Screen and printed gridlines are turned on by default in an Excel worksheet. If you have defined your own cell borders you may wish to hide the default gridlines.

worksheet.hide_gridlines

The following values of option are valid:

0 : Don't hide gridlines
1 : Hide printed gridlines only
2 : Hide screen and printed gridlines

If you don't supply an argument the default option is 1, i.e. only the printed gridlines are hidden.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1659

def hide_gridlines(option = 1)
  if option == 0
    @print_gridlines  = 1  # 1 = display, 0 = hide
    @screen_gridlines = 1
  elsif option == 1
    @print_gridlines  = 0
    @screen_gridlines = 1
  else
    @print_gridlines  = 0
    @screen_gridlines = 0
  end
end

#hide_zeroObject

Hide cell zero values.

The hide_zero() method is used to hide any zero values that appear in cells.

worksheet.hide_zero

In Excel this option is found under Tools->Options->View.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1048

def hide_zero
  @hide_zeros = true
end

#image_mso_sizeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4326

def image_mso_size  # :nodoc:
  @image_mso_size
end

#image_mso_size=(val) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4330

def image_mso_size=(val)  # :nodoc:
  @image_mso_size = val
end

#images_arrayObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4290

def images_array  # :nodoc:
  @images.array
end

#images_sizeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4334

def images_size   #:nodoc:
  @images.array.size
end

#indexObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4282

def index  # :nodoc:
  @workbook.worksheets.index(self)
end

#insert_chart(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

insert_chart(row, col,   chart, x, y, scale_x, scale_y)

Insert a chart into a worksheet. The $chart argument should be a Chart object or else it is assumed to be a filename of an external binary file. The latter is for backwards compatibility.

This method can be used to insert a Chart object into a worksheet. The Chart must be created by the add_chart() Workbook method and it must have the embedded option set.

chart = workbook.add_chart(:type => 'Chart::Line', :embedded => true )

# Configure the chart.
...

# Insert the chart into the a worksheet.
worksheet.insert_chart('E2', chart)

See add_chart() for details on how to create the Chart object and WriteExcel::Chart for details on how to configure it. See also the chart_*.pl programs in the examples directory of the distro.

The x, y, scale_x and scale_y parameters are optional.

The parameters x and y can be used to specify an offset from the top left hand corner of the cell specified by row and col. The offset values are in pixels. See the insert_image method above for more information on sizes.

worksheet1.insert_chart('E2', chart, 3, 3)

The parameters scale_x and scale_y can be used to scale the inserted image horizontally and vertically:

Scale the width by 120% and the height by 150%

worksheet.insert_chart('E2', chart, 0, 0, 1.2, 1.5)

The easiest way to calculate the required scaling is to create a test chart worksheet with WriteExcel. Then open the file, select the chart and drag the corner to get the required size. While holding down the mouse the scale of the resized chart is shown to the left of the formula bar.

Note: you must call set_row() or set_column() before insert_chart() if you wish to change the default dimensions of any of the rows or columns that the chart occupies. The height of a row can also change if you use a font that is larger than the default. This in turn will affect the scaling of your chart. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using set_row() if it contains a font size that will change the row height.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3714

def insert_chart(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  chart       = args[2]

  if chart.respond_to?(:embedded)
    print "Not a embedded style Chart object in insert_chart()" unless chart.embedded
  else
    # Assume an external bin filename.
      print "Couldn't locate #{chart} in insert_chart()" unless FileTest.exist?(chart)
  end

  @charts << EmbeddedChart.new(self, *args)
end

#insert_image(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

insert_image(row, col,    filename, x, y, scale_x, scale_y)
insert_image(A1_notation, filename, x, y, scale_x, scale_y)

Insert an image into the worksheet.

This method can be used to insert a image into a worksheet. The image can be in PNG, JPEG or BMP format. The x, y, scale_x and scale_y parameters are optional.

worksheet1.insert_image('A1', 'ruby.bmp')
worksheet2.insert_image('A1', '../images/ruby.bmp')
worksheet3.insert_image('A1', 'c:\images\ruby.bmp')

The parameters x and y can be used to specify an offset from the top left hand corner of the cell specified by row and col. The offset values are in pixels.

worksheet1.insert_image('A1', 'ruby.bmp', 32, 10)

The default width of a cell is 63 pixels. The default height of a cell is 17 pixels. The pixels offsets can be calculated using the following relationships:

Wp = int(12We)   if We <  1
Wp = int(7We +5) if We >= 1
Hp = int(4/3He)

where:
We is the cell width in Excels units
Wp is width in pixels
He is the cell height in Excels units
Hp is height in pixels

The offsets can be greater than the width or height of the underlying cell. This can be occasionally useful if you wish to align two or more images relative to the same cell.

The parameters scale_x and scale_y can be used to scale the inserted image horizontally and vertically:

# Scale the inserted image: width x 2.0, height x 0.8
worksheet.insert_image('A1', 'ruby.bmp', 0, 0, 2, 0.8)

See also the images.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.

Note:

you must call set_row() or set_column() before insert_image() if you wish to change the default dimensions of any of the rows or columns that the image occupies. The height of a row can also change if you use a font that is larger than the default. This in turn will affect the scaling of your image. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using set_row() if it contains a font size that will change the row height.

BMP images must be 24 bit, true colour, bitmaps. In general it is best to avoid BMP images since they aren't compressed.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3789

def insert_image(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)
  # args = [row, col, filename, x_offset, y_offset, scale_x, scale_y]
  image = Image.new(self, *args)
  raise "Insufficient arguments in insert_image()" unless args.size >= 3
  raise "Couldn't locate #{image.filename}: $!"    unless test(?e, image.filename)

  @images << image
end

#is_name_utf16be?Boolean

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4272

def is_name_utf16be?  # :nodoc:
  if @name_utf16be == 0
    false
  elsif @name_utf16be == 1
    true
  else
    !!@name_utf16be
  end
end

#keep_leading_zeros(val = true) ⇒ Object

Causes the write() method to treat integers with a leading zero as a string. This ensures that any leading zeros such, as in zip codes, are maintained.

This method changes the default handling of integers with leading zeros when using the write() method.

The write() method uses regular expressions to determine what type of data to write to an Excel worksheet. If the data looks like a number it writes a number using write_number(). One problem with this approach is that occasionally data looks like a number but you don't want it treated as a number.

Zip codes and ID numbers, for example, often start with a leading zero. If you write this data as a number then the leading zero(s) will be stripped. This is the also the default behaviour when you enter data manually in Excel.

To get around this you can use one of three options. Write a formatted number, write the number as a string or use the keep_leading_zeros() method to change the default behaviour of write():

# Implicitly write a number, the leading zero is removed: 1209
worksheet.write('A1', '01209')

# Write a zero padded number using a format: 01209
format1 = workbook.add_format(:num_format => '00000')
worksheet.write('A2', '01209', format1)

# Write explicitly as a string: 01209
worksheet.write_string('A3', '01209')

# Write implicitly as a string: 01209
worksheet.keep_leading_zeros()
worksheet.write('A4', '01209')

The above code would generate a worksheet that looked like the following:

 -----------------------------------------------------------
|   |     A     |     B     |     C     |     D     | ...
 -----------------------------------------------------------
| 1 |      1209 |           |           |           | ...
| 2 |     01209 |           |           |           | ...
| 3 | 01209     |           |           |           | ...
| 4 | 01209     |           |           |           | ...

The examples are on different sides of the cells due to the fact that Excel displays strings with a left justification and numbers with a right justification by default. You can change this by using a format to justify the data, see “CELL FORMATTING”.

It should be noted that if the user edits the data in examples A3 and A4 the strings will revert back to numbers. Again this is Excel's default behaviour. To avoid this you can use the text format @:

# Format as a string (01209)
format2 = workbook.add_format(:num_format => '@')
worksheet.write_string('A5', '01209', format2)

The keep_leading_zeros() property is off by default. The keep _leading_zeros() method takes 0 or 1 as an argument. It defaults to 1 if an argument isn't specified:

worksheet.keep_leading_zeros()  # Set on
worksheet.keep_leading_zeros(1) # Set on
worksheet.keep_leading_zeros(0) # Set off

See also the add_write_handler() method.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1948

def keep_leading_zeros(val = true)
  @leading_zeros = val
end

#merge_range(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

merge_range(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, token, format, utf_16_be)

This is a wrapper to ensure correct use of the merge_cells method, i.e., write the first cell of the range, write the formatted blank cells in the range and then call the merge_cells record. Failing to do the steps in this order will cause Excel 97 to crash.

Merging cells can be achieved by setting the merge property of a Format object, see “CELL FORMATTING”. However, this only allows simple Excel5 style horizontal merging which Excel refers to as “center across selection”.

The merge_range() method allows you to do Excel97+ style formatting where the cells can contain other types of alignment in addition to the merging:

format = workbook.add_format(
                         :border  => 6,
                         :valign  => 'vcenter',
                         :align   => 'center'
                       )

worksheet.merge_range('B3:D4', 'Vertical and horizontal', format)

WARNING. The format object that is used with a merge_range() method call is marked internally as being associated with a merged range. It is a fatal error to use a merged format in a non-merged cell. Instead you should use separate formats for merged and non-merged cells. This restriction will be removed in a future release.

The utf_16_be parameter is optional, see below.

merge_range() writes its token argument using the worksheet write() method. Therefore it will handle numbers, strings, formulas or urls as required.

Setting the merge property of the format isn't required when you are using merge_range(). In fact using it will exclude the use of any other horizontal alignment option.

Your can specify UTF-16BE worksheet names using an additional optional parameter:

str = [0x263a].pack('n')
worksheet.merge_range('B3:D4', str, format, 1)   # Smiley

The full possibilities of this method are shown in the merge3.rb to merge65.rb programs in the examples directory of the distribution.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 947

def merge_range(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  raise "Incorrect number of arguments" if args.size != 6 and args.size != 7
  raise "Format argument is not a format object" unless args[5].respond_to?(:xf_index)

  rwFirst  = args[0]
  colFirst = args[1]
  rwLast   = args[2]
  colLast  = args[3]
  string   = args[4]
  format   = args[5]
  encoding = args[6] ? 1 : 0

  merge_range_core(rwFirst, colFirst, rwLast, colLast, string, format, encoding) do |rwFirst, colFirst, string, format, encoding|
    if encoding != 0
      write_utf16be_string(rwFirst, colFirst, string, format)
    else
      write(rwFirst, colFirst, string, format)
    end
  end
end

#merge_range_with_date_time(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

merge_range_with_date_time(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col, token, format)

Write to meged cells, a datetime string in ISO8601 “yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.ss” format as a number representing an Excel date. format is optional.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 978

def merge_range_with_date_time(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  raise "Incorrect number of arguments" if args.size != 6 and args.size != 7
  raise "Format argument is not a format object" unless args[5].respond_to?(:xf_index)

  rwFirst  = args[0]
  colFirst = args[1]
  rwLast   = args[2]
  colLast  = args[3]
  string   = args[4]
  format   = args[5]
  encoding = nil

  merge_range_core(rwFirst, colFirst, rwLast, colLast, string, format, encoding) do |rwFirst, colFirst, string, format, encoding|
    write_date_time(rwFirst, colFirst, string, format)
  end
end

#nameObject

The name() method is used to retrieve the name of a worksheet. For example:

workbook.sheets.each do |sheet|
    print sheet.name
end

For reasons related to the design of WriteExcel and to the internals of Excel there is no set_name() method. The only way to set the worksheet name is via the add_worksheet() method.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 285

def name
  @name
end

#name_record_short(cell_range, hidden = nil) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4350

def name_record_short(cell_range, hidden = nil)
  cell_range.name_record_short(@workbook.ext_refs["#{index}:#{index}"], hidden)
end

#num_imagesObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4318

def num_images  # :nodoc:
  @num_images
end

#num_images=(val) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4322

def num_images=(val)  # :nodoc:
  @num_images = val
end

#num_shapesObject


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4607

def num_shapes
  1 + num_images + comments_size + charts_size + filter_count
end

#offsetObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4294

def offset  # :nodoc:
  @offset
end

#offset=(val) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4298

def offset=(val)  # :nodoc:
  @offset = val
end

#outline_settings(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

outline_settings(visible, symbols_below, symbols_right, auto_style)

This method sets the properties for outlining and grouping. The defaults correspond to Excel's defaults.

The outline_settings() method is used to control the appearance of outlines in Excel. Outlines are described in “OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL”.

The visible parameter is used to control whether or not outlines are visible. Setting this parameter to false will cause all outlines on the worksheet to be hidden. They can be unhidden in Excel by means of the “Show Outline Symbols” command button. The default setting is true for visible outlines.

worksheet.outline_settings(false)

The _symbols__below parameter is used to control whether the row outline symbol will appear above or below the outline level bar. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear below the outline level bar.

The symbols_right parameter is used to control whether the column outline symbol will appear to the left or the right of the outline level bar. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear to the right of the outline level bar.

The auto_style parameter is used to control whether the automatic outline generator in Excel uses automatic styles when creating an outline. This has no effect on a file generated by WriteExcel but it does have an effect on how the worksheet behaves after it is created. The default setting is 0 for “Automatic Styles” to be turned off.

The default settings for all of these parameters correspond to Excel's default parameters.

The worksheet parameters controlled by outline_settings() are rarely used.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 783

def outline_settings(*args)
  @outline.visible = args[0] || 1
  @outline.below = args[1] || 1
  @outline.right = args[2] || 1
  @outline.style = args[3] || 0

  # Ensure this is a boolean value for Window2
  @outline.visible = true unless @outline.visible?
end

#position_object(col_start, row_start, x1, y1, width, height) ⇒ Object

Calculate the vertices that define the position of a graphical object within the worksheet.

      +------------+------------+
      |     A      |      B     |
+-----+------------+------------+
|     |(x1,y1)     |            |
|  1  |(A1)._______|______      |
|     |    |              |     |
|     |    |              |     |
+-----+----|    BITMAP    |-----+
|     |    |              |     |
|  2  |    |______________.     |
|     |            |        (B2)|
|     |            |     (x2,y2)|
+---- +------------+------------+

Example of a bitmap that covers some of the area from cell A1 to cell B2.

Based on the width and height of the bitmap we need to calculate 8 vars:

$col_start, $row_start, $col_end, $row_end, $x1, $y1, $x2, $y2.

The width and height of the cells are also variable and have to be taken into account. The values of $col_start and $row_start are passed in from the calling function. The values of $col_end and $row_end are calculated by subtracting the width and height of the bitmap from the width and height of the underlying cells. The vertices are expressed as a percentage of the underlying cell width as follows (rhs values are in pixels):

x1 = X / W *1024
y1 = Y / H *256
x2 = (X-1) / W *1024
y2 = (Y-1) / H *256

Where:  X is distance from the left side of the underlying cell
        Y is distance from the top of the underlying cell
        W is the width of the cell
        H is the height of the cell

Note: the SDK incorrectly states that the height should be expressed as a percentage of 1024.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4410

def position_object(col_start, row_start, x1, y1, width, height)   #:nodoc:
  # col_start;  # Col containing upper left corner of object
  # x1;         # Distance to left side of object

  # row_start;  # Row containing top left corner of object
  # y1;         # Distance to top of object

  # col_end;    # Col containing lower right corner of object
  # x2;         # Distance to right side of object

  # row_end;    # Row containing bottom right corner of object
  # y2;         # Distance to bottom of object

  # width;      # Width of image frame
  # height;     # Height of image frame

  # Adjust start column for offsets that are greater than the col width
  x1, col_start = adjust_col_position(x1, col_start)

  # Adjust start row for offsets that are greater than the row height
  y1, row_start = adjust_row_position(y1, row_start)

  # Initialise end cell to the same as the start cell
  col_end    = col_start
  row_end    = row_start

  width     += x1
  height    += y1

  # Subtract the underlying cell widths to find the end cell of the image
  width, col_end = adjust_col_position(width, col_end)

  # Subtract the underlying cell heights to find the end cell of the image
  height, row_end = adjust_row_position(height, row_end)

  # Bitmap isn't allowed to start or finish in a hidden cell, i.e. a cell
  # with zero eight or width.
  #
  return if size_col(col_start) == 0
  return if size_col(col_end)   == 0
  return if size_row(row_start) == 0
  return if size_row(row_end)   == 0

  # Convert the pixel values to the percentage value expected by Excel
  x1 = 1024.0 * x1     / size_col(col_start)
  y1 =  256.0 * y1     / size_row(row_start)
  x2 = 1024.0 * width  / size_col(col_end)
  y2 =  256.0 * height / size_row(row_end)

  # Simulate ceil() without calling POSIX::ceil().
  x1 = (x1 +0.5).to_i
  y1 = (y1 +0.5).to_i
  x2 = (x2 +0.5).to_i
  y2 = (y2 +0.5).to_i

  [
    col_start, x1,
    row_start, y1,
    col_end,   x2,
    row_end,   y2
  ]
end

Set the order in which pages are printed.

The print_across method is used to change the default print direction. This is referred to by Excel as the sheet “page order”.

worksheet.print_across

The default page order is shown below for a worksheet that extends over 4 pages. The order is called “down then across”:

[1] [3]
[2] [4]

However, by using the print_across method the print order will be changed to “across then down”:

[1] [2]
[3] [4]

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1752

def print_across
  @page_order = 1
end

:call-seq:

print_area(first_row, first_col, last_row, last_col)
print_area(A1_notation)

Set the area of each worksheet that will be printed. – See also the_store_names() methods in Workbook.rb. ++

This method is used to specify the area of the worksheet that will be printed. All four parameters must be specified. You can also use A1 notation, see the note about “Cell notation”.

worksheet1.print_area('A1:H20')     # Cells A1 to H20
worksheet2.print_area(0, 0, 19, 7)  # The same
worksheet2.print_area('A:H')        # Columns A to H if rows have data

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1723

def print_area(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return if args.size != 4 # Require 4 parameters

  @print_range.row_min, @print_range.col_min, @print_range.row_max, @print_range.col_max = args
end

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4362

def print_area_name_record_short(hidden = nil)     #:nodoc:
  name_record_short(@print_range, hidden) if @print_range.row_min
end

Set the option to print the row and column headers on the printed page. See also the store_print_headers() method.

An Excel worksheet looks something like the following;

 ------------------------------------------
|   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |  ...
 ------------------------------------------
| 1 |       |       |       |       |  ...
| 2 |       |       |       |       |  ...
| 3 |       |       |       |       |  ...
| 4 |       |       |       |       |  ...
|...|  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...

The headers are the letters and numbers at the top and the left of the worksheet. Since these headers serve mainly as a indication of position on the worksheet they generally do not appear on the printed page. If you wish to have them printed you can use the print_row_col_headers() method :

worksheet.print_row_col_headers

Do not confuse these headers with page headers as described in the set_header() section.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1697

def print_row_col_headers(option = nil)
  unless option
    @print_headers = 1
  else
    @print_headers = option
  end
end

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4346

def print_title_name_record_long     #:nodoc:
  @title_range.name_record_long(@workbook.ext_refs["#{index}:#{index}"])
end

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4354

def print_title_name_record_short(hidden = nil)     #:nodoc:
  name_record_short(@title_range, hidden)
end

#protect(password = nil) ⇒ Object

Set the worksheet protection flag to prevent accidental modification and to hide formulas if the locked and hidden format properties have been set.

The protect() method is used to protect a worksheet from modification:

worksheet.protect

It can be turned off in Excel via the Tools->Protection->Unprotect Sheet menu command.

The protect() method also has the effect of enabling a cell's locked and hidden properties if they have been set. A “locked” cell cannot be edited. A “hidden” cell will display the results of a formula but not the formula itself. In Excel a cell's locked property is on by default.

# Set some format properties
unlocked  = workbook.add_format(:locked => 0)
hidden    = workbook.add_format(:hidden => 1)

# Enable worksheet protection
worksheet.protect

# This cell cannot be edited, it is locked by default
worksheet.write('A1', '=1+2')

# This cell can be edited
worksheet.write('A2', '=1+2', unlocked)

# The formula in this cell isn't visible
worksheet.write('A3', '=1+2', hidden)

See also the set_locked and set_hidden format methods in “CELL FORMATTING”.

You can optionally add a password to the worksheet protection:

worksheet.protect('drowssap')

Note,

the worksheet level password in Excel provides very weak protection. It

does not encrypt your data in any way and it is very easy to deactivate. Therefore, do not use the above method if you wish to protect sensitive data or calculations. However, before you get worried, Excel's own workbook level password protection does provide strong encryption in Excel 97+. For technical reasons this will never be supported by WriteExcel.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 439

def protect(password = nil)
  @protect   = true
  @password  = encode_password(password) if password
end

#push_cluster(num_shapes, drawings_saved, clusters) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4634

def push_cluster(num_shapes, drawings_saved, clusters)
  i = num_shapes
  while i > 0
    size = i > 1024 ? 1024 : i
    clusters << [drawings_saved, size]
    i -= 1024
  end
end

#push_object_ids(mso_size, drawings_saved, max_spid, start_spid, clusters) ⇒ Object


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4611

def push_object_ids(mso_size, drawings_saved, max_spid, start_spid, clusters)
  mso_size     += image_mso_size

  # Add a drawing object for each sheet with comments.
  drawings_saved += 1

  # For each sheet start the spids at the next 1024 interval.
  max_spid   = 1024 * (1 + Integer((max_spid -1)/1024.0))
  start_spid = max_spid

  # Max spid for each sheet and eventually for the workbook.
  max_spid  += num_shapes

  # Store the cluster ids
  mso_size += 8 * (num_shapes / 1024 + 1)
  push_cluster(num_shapes, drawings_saved, clusters)

  # Pass calculated values back to the worksheet
  @object_ids = ObjectIds.new(start_spid, drawings_saved, num_shapes, max_spid -1)

  [mso_size, drawings_saved, max_spid, start_spid]
end

#repeat_columns(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

repeat_columns(firstcol[, lastcol])
repeat_columns(A1_notation)

Set the columns to repeat at the left hand side of each printed page. – See also the store_names() methods in Workbook.pm. ++

For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first column or columns of the worksheet print out at the left hand side of each page. This can be achieved by using the repeat_columns() method. The parameters firstcolumn and lastcolumn are zero based. The last_column parameter is optional if you only wish to specify one column. You can also specify the columns using A1 column notation, see the note about “Cell notation”.

worksheet1.repeat_columns(0)      # Repeat the first column
worksheet2.repeat_columns(0, 1)   # Repeat the first two columns
worksheet3.repeat_columns('A:A')  # Repeat the first column
worksheet4.repeat_columns('A:B')  # Repeat the first two columns

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1616

def repeat_columns(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  if args[0] =~ /^\D/
    row1, firstcol, row2, lastcol = substitute_cellref(*args)
  else
    firstcol, lastcol = args
  end

  @title_range.col_min  = firstcol
  @title_range.col_max  = lastcol || firstcol # Second col is optional
end

#repeat_formula(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

repeat_formula(row, col,    formula, format, pat, rep, (pat2, rep2,, ...) -> Fixnum
repeat_formula(A1_notation, formula, format, pat, rep, (pat2, rep2,, ...) -> Fixnum

Write a formula to the specified row and column (zero indexed) by substituting pattern replacement pairs in the formula created via store_formula(). This allows the user to repetitively rewrite a formula without the significant overhead of parsing.

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range

The repeat_formula() method is used in conjunction with store_formula() to speed up the generation of repeated formulas. See “Improving performance when working with formulas” in “FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL”.

In many respects repeat_formula() behaves like write_formula() except that it is significantly faster.

The repeat_formula() method creates a new formula based on the pre-parsed tokens returned by store_formula(). The new formula is generated by substituting pattern, replace pairs in the stored formula:

formula = worksheet.store_formula('=A1 * 3 + 50')

(0...100).each do |row|
  worksheet.repeat_formula(row, 1, formula, format, 'A1', "A#{row + 1}")
end

It should be noted that repeat_formula() doesn't modify the tokens. In the above example the substitution is always made against the original token, A1, which doesn't change.

As usual, you can use undef if you don't wish to specify a format:

worksheet.repeat_formula('B2', formula, format, 'A1', 'A2')
worksheet.repeat_formula('B3', formula, nil,    'A1', 'A3')

The substitutions are made from left to right and you can use as many pattern, replace pairs as you need. However, each substitution is made only once:

formula = worksheet.store_formula('=A1 + A1')

# Gives '=B1 + A1'
worksheet.repeat_formula('B1', formula, undef, 'A1', 'B1')

# Gives '=B1 + B1'
worksheet.repeat_formula('B2', formula, undef, 'A1', 'B1', 'A1', 'B1')

Since the pattern is interpolated each time that it is used it is worth using the %q operator to quote the pattern. The qr operator is explained in the perlop man page.

worksheet.repeat_formula('B1', formula, format, %q!A1!, 'A2')

Care should be taken with the values that are substituted. The formula returned by repeat_formula() contains several other tokens in addition to those in the formula and these might also match the pattern that you are trying to replace. In particular you should avoid substituting a single 0, 1, 2 or 3.

You should also be careful to avoid false matches. For example the following snippet is meant to change the stored formula in steps from =A1 + SIN(A1) to =A10 + SIN(A10).

formula = worksheet.store_formula('=A1 + SIN(A1)')

(1..10).each do |row|
  worksheet.repeat_formula(row -1, 1, formula, nil,
                                'A1', "A#{row}",   #! Bad.
                                'A1', "A#{row}"    #! Bad.
                          )
end

However it contains a bug. In the last iteration of the loop when row is 10 the following substitutions will occur:

sub('A1', 'A10')    changes    =A1 + SIN(A1)     to    =A10 + SIN(A1)
sub('A1', 'A10')    changes    =A10 + SIN(A1)    to    =A100 + SIN(A1) # !!

The solution in this case is to use a more explicit match such as /(?!A1d+)A1/:

worksheet.repeat_formula(row -1, 1, formula, nil,
                            'A1', 'A' . row,
                            /(?!A1\d+)A1/, 'A' . row
                          )

See also the repeat.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2986

def repeat_formula(*args)       #:nodoc:
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 2   # Check the number of args

  row, col, formula, format, *pairs = args

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  # Enforce an even number of arguments in the pattern/replacement list
  raise "Odd number of elements in pattern/replacement list" unless pairs.size % 2 == 0

  # Check that formula is an array ref
  raise "Not a valid formula" unless formula.respond_to?(:to_ary)

  tokens  = formula.join("\t").split("\t")

  # Ensure that there are tokens to substitute
  raise "No tokens in formula" if tokens.empty?

  # As a temporary and undocumented measure we allow the user to specify the
  # result of the formula by appending a result => value pair to the end
  # of the arguments.
  value = nil
  if pairs[-2] == 'result'
    value = pairs.pop
    pairs.pop
  end

  while !pairs.empty?
    pattern = pairs.shift
    replace = pairs.shift

    tokens.each do |token|
      break if token.sub!(pattern, replace)
    end
  end

  # Change the parameters in the formula cached by the Formula.pm object
  formula  = parser.parse_tokens(tokens)

  raise "Unrecognised token in formula" unless formula

  xf = xf_record_index(row, col, format) # The cell format

  store_formula_common(row, col, xf, value, formula)
  0
end

#repeat_rows(first_row, last_row = nil) ⇒ Object

Set the rows to repeat at the top of each printed page. – See also the store_name_xxxx() methods in Workbook.rb. ++

Set the number of rows to repeat at the top of each printed page.

For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first row or rows of the worksheet print out at the top of each page. This can be achieved by using the repeat_rows() method. The parameters first_row and last_row are zero based. The last_row parameter is optional if you only wish to specify one row:

worksheet1.repeat_rows(0)     # Repeat the first row
worksheet2.repeat_rows(0, 1)  # Repeat the first two rows

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1588

def repeat_rows(first_row, last_row = nil)
  @title_range.row_min = first_row
  @title_range.row_max = last_row || first_row # Second row is optional
end

#right_to_leftObject

Display the worksheet right to left for some eastern versions of Excel.

The right_to_left() method is used to change the default direction of the worksheet from left-to-right, with the A1 cell in the top left, to right-to-left, with the he A1 cell in the top right.

worksheet.right_to_left

This is useful when creating Arabic, Hebrew or other near or far eastern worksheets that use right-to-left as the default direction.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1034

def right_to_left
  @display_arabic = 1
end

#selectObject

Set this worksheet as a selected worksheet, i.e. the worksheet has its tab highlighted.

The select() method is used to indicate that a worksheet is selected in a multi-sheet workbook:

worksheet1.activate
worksheet2.select
worksheet3.select

A selected worksheet has its tab highlighted. Selecting worksheets is a way of grouping them together so that, for example, several worksheets could be printed in one go. A worksheet that has been activated via the activate() method will also appear as selected.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 305

def select
  @hidden   = false  # Selected worksheet can't be hidden.
  @selected = true
end

#selected=(val) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4306

def selected=(val)  # :nodoc:
  @selected = val
end

#selected?Boolean

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4302

def selected?  # :nodoc:
  @selected
end

#set_column(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

set_column(first_col, last_col, width, format, hidden, level, collapsed)
set_column(A1_notation,         width, format, hidden, level, collapsed)

Set the width of a single column or a range of columns. – See also: store_colinfo ++

This method can be used to change the default properties of a single column or a range of columns. All parameters apart from first_col and last_col are optional.

If set_column() is applied to a single column the value of first_col and last_col should be the same. In the case where last_col is zero it is set to the same value as first_col.

It is also possible, and generally clearer, to specify a column range using the form of A1 notation used for columns. See the note about “Cell notation”.

Examples:

worksheet.set_column(0, 0,  20) # Column  A   width set to 20
worksheet.set_column(1, 3,  30) # Columns B-D width set to 30
worksheet.set_column('E:E', 20) # Column  E   width set to 20
worksheet.set_column('F:H', 30) # Columns F-H width set to 30

The width corresponds to the column width value that is specified in Excel. It is approximately equal to the length of a string in the default font of Arial 10. Unfortunately, there is no way to specify “AutoFit” for a column in the Excel file format. This feature is only available at runtime from within Excel.

As usual the format parameter is optional, for additional information, see “CELL FORMATTING”. If you wish to set the format without changing the width you can pass undef as the width parameter:

worksheet.set_column(0, 0, nil, format)

The format parameter will be applied to any cells in the column that don't have a format. For example

worksheet.set_column('A:A', nil, format1)   # Set format for col 1
worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')              # Defaults to format1
worksheet.write('A2', 'Hello', format2)     # Keeps format2

If you wish to define a column format in this way you should call the method before any calls to write(). If you call it afterwards it won't have any effect.

A default row format takes precedence over a default column format

worksheet.set_row(0, nil,        format1)   # Set format for row 1
worksheet.set_column('A:A', nil, format2)   # Set format for col 1
worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')              # Defaults to format1
worksheet.write('A2', 'Hello')              # Defaults to format2

The hidden parameter should be set to true if you wish to hide a column. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

worksheet.set_column('D:D', 20,  format, true)
worksheet.set_column('E:E', nil, nil,    true)

The level parameter is used to set the outline level of the column. Outlines are described in “OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL”. Adjacent columns with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for columns B to G:

worksheet.set_column('B:G', nil, nil, true, 1)

The hidden parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined columns when used in conjunction with the level parameter.

worksheet.set_column('B:G', nil, nil, true, 1)

For collapsed outlines you should also indicate which row has the collapsed + symbol using the optional collapsed parameter.

worksheet.set_column('H:H', nil, nil, true, 0, true)

For a more complete example see the outline.pl and outline_collapsed.rb programs in the examples directory of the distro.

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. Therefore the level parameter should be in the range 0 <= level <= 7.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 673

def set_column(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  if args[0] =~ /^\D/
    row1, firstcol, row2, lastcol, *data = substitute_cellref(*args)
  else
    firstcol, lastcol, *data = args
  end

  # Ensure at least firstcol, lastcol and width
  return unless firstcol && lastcol && !data.empty?

  # Assume second column is the same as first if 0. Avoids KB918419 bug.
  lastcol = firstcol if lastcol == 0

  # Ensure 2nd col is larger than first. Also for KB918419 bug.
  firstcol, lastcol = lastcol, firstcol if firstcol > lastcol

  # Limit columns to Excel max of 255.
  firstcol = ColMax - 1 if firstcol > ColMax - 1
  lastcol  = ColMax - 1 if lastcol  > ColMax - 1

  @colinfo << ColInfo.new(firstcol, lastcol, *data)

  # Store the col sizes for use when calculating image vertices taking
  # hidden columns into account. Also store the column formats.
  #
  width, format, hidden = data

  width  ||= 0                    # Ensure width isn't undef.
  width = 0 if hidden && hidden != 0  # Set width to zero if col is hidden

  (firstcol .. lastcol).each do |col|
    @col_sizes[col]   = width
    @col_formats[col] = format if format
  end
end

#set_first_row_column(row = 0, col = 0) ⇒ Object

Set the topmost and leftmost visible row and column. TODO: Document this when tested fully for interaction with panes.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1990

def set_first_row_column(row = 0, col = 0)
  row = RowMax - 1  if row > RowMax - 1
  col = ColMax - 1  if col > ColMax - 1

  @first_row = row
  @first_col = col
end

#set_first_sheetObject

Set this worksheet as the first visible sheet. This is necessary when there are a large number of worksheets and the activated worksheet is not visible on the screen.

The activate() method determines which worksheet is initially selected. However, if there are a large number of worksheets the selected worksheet may not appear on the screen. To avoid this you can select which is the leftmost visible worksheet using set_first_sheet

20.times { workbook.add_worksheet }

worksheet21 = workbook.add_worksheet
worksheet22 = workbook.add_worksheet

worksheet21.set_first_sheet
worksheet22.activate

This method is not required very often. The default value is the first worksheet.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 386

def set_first_sheet
  @hidden = false        # Active worksheet can't be hidden.
  @workbook.worksheets.firstsheet = self
end

Set the page footer caption and optional margin.

The syntax of the set_footer() method is the same as set_header(), see there.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1567

def set_footer(string = '', margin = 0.50, encoding = 0)
  set_header_footer_common(:footer, string, margin, encoding)
end

#set_h_pagebreaks(breaks) ⇒ Object

Store the horizontal page breaks on a worksheet. breaks is Fixnum or Array of Fixnum.

Add horizontal page breaks to a worksheet. A page break causes all the data that follows it to be printed on the next page. Horizontal page breaks act between rows. To create a page break between rows 20 and 21 you must specify the break at row 21. However in zero index notation this is actually row 20. So you can pretend for a small while that you are using 1 index notation:

worksheet1.set_h_pagebreaks(20)  # Break between row 20 and 21

The set_h_pagebreaks() method will accept a array of page breaks and you can call it more than once:

worksheet2.set_h_pagebreaks([ 20,  40,  60,  80, 100])  # Add breaks
worksheet2.set_h_pagebreaks([120, 140, 160, 180, 200])  # Add some more

Note: If you specify the “fit to page” option via the fit_to_pages() method it will override all manual page breaks.

There is a silent limitation of about 1000 horizontal page breaks per worksheet in line with an Excel internal limitation.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1849

def set_h_pagebreaks(breaks)
  @hbreaks += breaks.respond_to?(:to_ary) ? breaks : [breaks]
end

#set_header(string = '', margin = 0.50, encoding = 0) ⇒ Object

Set the page header caption and optional margin.

Headers and footers are generated using a string which is a combination of plain text and control characters. The margin parameter is optional.

The available control character are:

Control             Category            Description
=======             ========            ===========
&L                  Justification       Left
&C                                      Center
&R                                      Right

&P                  Information         Page number
&N                                      Total number of pages
&D                                      Date
&T                                      Time
&F                                      File name
&A                                      Worksheet name
&Z                                      Workbook path

&fontsize           Font                Font size
&"font,style"                           Font name and style
&U                                      Single underline
&E                                      Double underline
&S                                      Strikethrough
&X                                      Superscript
&Y                                      Subscript

&&                  Miscellaneous       Literal ampersand &

Text in headers and footers can be justified (aligned) to the left, center and right by prefixing the text with the control characters &L, &C and &R.

For example (with ASCII art representation of the results):

worksheet.set_header('&LHello')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
| Hello                                                         |
|                                                               |

worksheet.set_header('&CHello')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
|                          Hello                                |
|                                                               |

worksheet.set_header('&RHello')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
|                                                         Hello |
|                                                               |

For simple text, if you do not specify any justification the text will be centred. However, you must prefix the text with &C if you specify a font name or any other formatting:

worksheet.set_header('Hello')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
|                          Hello                                |
|                                                               |

You can have text in each of the justification regions:

worksheet.set_header('&LCiao&CBello&RCielo')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
| Ciao                     Bello                          Cielo |
|                                                               |

The information control characters act as variables that Excel will update as the workbook or worksheet changes. Times and dates are in the users default format:

worksheet.set_header('&CPage &P of &N')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
|                        Page 1 of 6                            |
|                                                               |

worksheet.set_header('&CUpdated at &T')

 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                                                               |
|                    Updated at 12:30 PM                        |
|                                                               |

You can specify the font size of a section of the text by prefixing it with the control character &n where n is the font size:

worksheet1.set_header('&C&30Hello Big'  )
worksheet2.set_header('&C&10Hello Small')

You can specify the font of a section of the text by prefixing it with the control sequence &“font,style” where fontname is a font name such as “Courier New” or “Times New Roman” and style is one of the standard Windows font descriptions: “Regular”, “Italic”, “Bold” or “Bold Italic”:

worksheet1.set_header('&C&"Courier New,Italic"Hello')
worksheet2.set_header('&C&"Courier New,Bold Italic"Hello')
worksheet3.set_header('&C&"Times New Roman,Regular"Hello')

It is possible to combine all of these features together to create sophisticated headers and footers. As an aid to setting up complicated headers and footers you can record a page set-up as a macro in Excel and look at the format strings that VBA produces. Remember however that VBA uses two double quotes “” to indicate a single double quote. For the last example above the equivalent VBA code looks like this:

.LeftHeader   = ""
.CenterHeader = "&""Times New Roman,Regular""Hello"
.RightHeader  = ""

To include a single literal ampersand & in a header or footer you should use a double ampersand &&:

worksheet1.set_header('&CCuriouser && Curiouser - Attorneys at Law')

As stated above the margin parameter is optional. As with the other margins the value should be in inches. The default header and footer margin is 0.50 inch. The header and footer margin size can be set as follows:

worksheet.set_header('&CHello', 0.75)

The header and footer margins are independent of the top and bottom margins.

Note, the header or footer string must be less than 255 characters. Strings longer than this will not be written and a warning will be generated.

worksheet.set_header("&C\x{263a}")

See, also the headers.rb program in the examples directory of the distribution.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1557

def set_header(string = '', margin = 0.50, encoding = 0)
  set_header_footer_common(:header, string, margin, encoding)
end

#set_landscapeObject

Set the page orientation as landscape.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1247

def set_landscape
  @orientation = 0
end

#set_margin_bottom(margin = 1.00) ⇒ Object

Set the bottom margin in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1407

def set_margin_bottom(margin = 1.00)
  @margin_bottom = margin
end

#set_margin_left(margin = 0.75) ⇒ Object

Set the left margin in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1385

def set_margin_left(margin = 0.75)
  @margin_left = margin
end

#set_margin_right(margin = 0.75) ⇒ Object

Set the right margin in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1393

def set_margin_right(margin = 0.75)
  @margin_right = margin
end

#set_margin_top(margin = 1.00) ⇒ Object

Set the top margin in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1400

def set_margin_top(margin = 1.00)
  @margin_top = margin
end

#set_margins(margin) ⇒ Object

Set all the page margins to the same value in inches.

There are several methods available for setting the worksheet margins on the printed page:

set_margins()        # Set all margins to the same value
set_margins_LR()     # Set left and right margins to the same value
set_margins_TB()     # Set top and bottom margins to the same value
set_margin_left();   # Set left margin
set_margin_right();  # Set right margin
set_margin_top();    # Set top margin
set_margin_bottom(); # Set bottom margin

All of these methods take a distance in inches as a parameter.

Note: 1 inch = 25.4mm. ;-) The default left and right margin is 0.75 inch. The default top and bottom margin is 1.00 inch.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1358

def set_margins(margin)
  set_margin_left(margin)
  set_margin_right(margin)
  set_margin_top(margin)
  set_margin_bottom(margin)
end

#set_margins_LR(margin) ⇒ Object

Set the left and right margins to the same value in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1368

def set_margins_LR(margin)
  set_margin_left(margin)
  set_margin_right(margin)
end

#set_margins_TB(margin) ⇒ Object

Set the top and bottom margins to the same value in inches.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1376

def set_margins_TB(margin)
  set_margin_top(margin)
  set_margin_bottom(margin)
end

#set_page_viewObject

This method is used to display the worksheet in “Page View” mode. This is currently only supported by Mac Excel, where it is the default.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1255

def set_page_view
  @page_view = 1
end

#set_paper(paper_size = 0) ⇒ Object

Set the paper type. Ex. 1 = US Letter, 9 = A4

This method is used to set the paper format for the printed output of a worksheet. The following paper styles are available:

Index   Paper format            Paper size
=====   ============            ==========
  0     Printer default         -
  1     Letter                  8 1/2 x 11 in
  2     Letter Small            8 1/2 x 11 in
  3     Tabloid                 11 x 17 in
  4     Ledger                  17 x 11 in
  5     Legal                   8 1/2 x 14 in
  6     Statement               5 1/2 x 8 1/2 in
  7     Executive               7 1/4 x 10 1/2 in
  8     A3                      297 x 420 mm
  9     A4                      210 x 297 mm
 10     A4 Small                210 x 297 mm
 11     A5                      148 x 210 mm
 12     B4                      250 x 354 mm
 13     B5                      182 x 257 mm
 14     Folio                   8 1/2 x 13 in
 15     Quarto                  215 x 275 mm
 16     -                       10x14 in
 17     -                       11x17 in
 18     Note                    8 1/2 x 11 in
 19     Envelope  9             3 7/8 x 8 7/8
 20     Envelope 10             4 1/8 x 9 1/2
 21     Envelope 11             4 1/2 x 10 3/8
 22     Envelope 12             4 3/4 x 11
 23     Envelope 14             5 x 11 1/2
 24     C size sheet            -
 25     D size sheet            -
 26     E size sheet            -
 27     Envelope DL             110 x 220 mm
 28     Envelope C3             324 x 458 mm
 29     Envelope C4             229 x 324 mm
 30     Envelope C5             162 x 229 mm
 31     Envelope C6             114 x 162 mm
 32     Envelope C65            114 x 229 mm
 33     Envelope B4             250 x 353 mm
 34     Envelope B5             176 x 250 mm
 35     Envelope B6             176 x 125 mm
 36     Envelope                110 x 230 mm
 37     Monarch                 3.875 x 7.5 in
 38     Envelope                3 5/8 x 6 1/2 in
 39     Fanfold                 14 7/8 x 11 in
 40     German Std Fanfold      8 1/2 x 12 in
 41     German Legal Fanfold    8 1/2 x 13 in

Note, it is likely that not all of these paper types will be available to the end user since it will depend on the paper formats that the user's printer supports. Therefore, it is best to stick to standard paper types.

worksheet.set_paper(1)  # US Letter
worksheet.set_paper(9)  # A4

If you do not specify a paper type the worksheet will print using the printer's default paper.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1321

def set_paper(paper_size = 0)
  @paper_size = paper_size
end

#set_portraitObject

Set the page orientation as portrait.

This method is used to set the orientation of a worksheet's printed page to portrait. The default worksheet orientation is portrait, so you won't generally need to call this method.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1239

def set_portrait
  @orientation = 1
end

#set_print_scale(scale = 100) ⇒ Object

Set the scale factor of the printed page. Scale factors in the range 10 <= scale <= 400 are valid:

worksheet1.set_print_scale(50)
worksheet2.set_print_scale(75)
worksheet3.set_print_scale(300)
worksheet4.set_print_scale(400)

The default scale factor is 100. Note, set_print_scale() does not affect the scale of the visible page in Excel. For that you should use set_zoom().

Note also that although it is valid to use both fit_to_pages() and set_print_scale() on the same worksheet only one of these options can be active at a time. The last method call made will set the active option.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1811

def set_print_scale(scale = 100)
  # Confine the scale to Excel's range
  if scale < 10 or scale > 400
    #           carp "Print scale scale outside range: 10 <= zoom <= 400";
    scale = 100
  end

  # Turn off "fit to page" option
  @fit_page    = 0

  @print_scale = scale.to_i
end

#set_row(row, height = nil, format = nil, hidden = false, level = 0, collapsed = false) ⇒ Object

row : Row Number

height    : Format object
format    : Format object
hidden    : Hidden boolean flag
level     : Outline level
collapsed : Collapsed row

This method is used to set the height and XF format for a row. Writes the BIFF record ROW.

This method can be used to change the default properties of a row. All parameters apart from row are optional.

The most common use for this method is to change the height of a row:

worksheet.set_row(0, 20) # Row 1 height set to 20

If you wish to set the format without changing the height you can pass nil as the height parameter:

worksheet.set_row(0, nil, format)

The format parameter will be applied to any cells in the row that don't have a format. For example

worksheet.set_row(0, nil, format1)      # Set the format for row 1
worksheet.write('A1', 'Hello')          # Defaults to format1
worksheet.write('B1', 'Hello', format2) # Keeps format2

If you wish to define a row format in this way you should call the method before any calls to write(). Calling it afterwards will overwrite any format that was previously specified.

The hidden parameter should be set to true if you wish to hide a row. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

worksheet.set_row(0, 20,  format, true)
worksheet.set_row(1, nil, nil,    true)

The level parameter is used to set the outline level of the row. Outlines are described in “OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL”. Adjacent rows with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for rows 1 and 2 (zero-indexed):

worksheet.set_row(1, nil, nil, false, 1)
worksheet.set_row(2, nil, nil, false, 1)

The hidden parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined rows when used in conjunction with the level parameter.

worksheet.set_row(1, nil, nil, true, 1)
worksheet.set_row(2, nil, nil, true, 1)

For collapsed outlines you should also indicate which row has the collapsed + symbol using the optional collapsed parameter.

worksheet.set_row(3, nil, nil, false, 0, true)

For a more complete example see the outline.pl and outline_collapsed.rb programs in the examples directory of the distro.

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. Therefore the level parameter should be in the range 0 <= level <= 7.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 511

def set_row(row, height = nil, format = nil, hidden = false, level = 0, collapsed = false)
  record      = 0x0208               # Record identifier
  length      = 0x0010               # Number of bytes to follow

  colMic      = 0x0000               # First defined column
  colMac      = 0x0000               # Last defined column
  # miyRw;                           # Row height
  irwMac      = 0x0000               # Used by Excel to optimise loading
  reserved    = 0x0000               # Reserved
  grbit       = 0x0000               # Option flags
  # ixfe;                            # XF index

  return unless row

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 if check_dimensions(row, 0, 0, 1) != 0

  # Check for a format object
  if format.respond_to?(:xf_index)
    ixfe = format.xf_index
  else
    ixfe = 0x0F
  end

  # Set the row height in units of 1/20 of a point. Note, some heights may
  # not be obtained exactly due to rounding in Excel.
  #
  if height
    miyRw = height *20
  else
    miyRw = 0xff # The default row height
    height = 0
  end

  # Set the limits for the outline levels (0 <= x <= 7).
  level = 0 if level < 0
  level = 7 if level > 7

  @outline.row_level = level if level > @outline.row_level

  # Set the options flags.
  # 0x10: The fCollapsed flag indicates that the row contains the "+"
  #       when an outline group is collapsed.
  # 0x20: The fDyZero height flag indicates a collapsed or hidden row.
  # 0x40: The fUnsynced flag is used to show that the font and row heights
  #       are not compatible. This is usually the case for WriteExcel.
  # 0x80: The fGhostDirty flag indicates that the row has been formatted.
  #
  grbit |= level
  grbit |= 0x0010 if collapsed && collapsed != 0
  grbit |= 0x0020 if hidden && hidden != 0
  grbit |= 0x0040
  grbit |= 0x0080 if format
  grbit |= 0x0100

  header = [record, length].pack("vv")
  data   = [row, colMic, colMac, miyRw, irwMac, reserved, grbit, ixfe].pack("vvvvvvvv")

  # Store the data or write immediately depending on the compatibility mode.
  if compatibility?
    @row_data[row] = header + data
  else
    append(header, data)
  end

  # Store the row sizes for use when calculating image vertices.
  # Also store the column formats.
  @row_sizes[row]   = height
  @row_formats[row] = format if format
end

#set_selection(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

set_selection(first_row, first_col[, last_row, last_col])
set_selection('B3')
set_selection('B3:C8')

Set which cell or cells are selected in a worksheet: see also the sub store_selection

This method can be used to specify which cell or cells are selected in a worksheet. The most common requirement is to select a single cell, in which case last_row and last_col can be omitted. The active cell within a selected range is determined by the order in which first and last are specified. It is also possible to specify a cell or a range using A1 notation. See the note about “Cell notation”.

Examples:

worksheet1.set_selection(3, 3)       # 1. Cell D4.
worksheet2.set_selection(3, 3, 6, 6) # 2. Cells D4 to G7.
worksheet3.set_selection(6, 6, 3, 3) # 3. Cells G7 to D4.
worksheet4.set_selection('D4')       # Same as 1.
worksheet5.set_selection('D4:G7')    # Same as 2.
worksheet6.set_selection('G7:D4')    # Same as 3.

The default cell selections is (0, 0), 'A1'.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 737

def set_selection(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  @selection = args
end

#set_start_page(start_page = 1) ⇒ Object

Set the start page number.

The set_start_page() method is used to set the number of the starting page when the worksheet is printed out. The default value is 1.

worksheet.set_start_page(2)

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1981

def set_start_page(start_page = 1)
  @page_start    = start_page
  @custom_start  = 1
end

#set_tab_color(color) ⇒ Object

Set the colour of the worksheet colour.

The set_tab_color() method is used to change the colour of the worksheet tab. This feature is only available in Excel 2002 and later. You can use one of the standard colour names provided by the Format object or a colour index. See “COLOURS IN EXCEL” and the set_custom_color() method.

worksheet1.set_tab_color('red')
worksheet2.set_tab_color(0x0C)

See the tab_colors.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1065

def set_tab_color(color)
  color = Colors.new.get_color(color)
  color = 0 if color == 0x7FFF # Default color.
  @tab_color = color
end

#set_v_pagebreaks(breaks) ⇒ Object

Store the vertical page breaks on a worksheet. breaks is Fixnum or Array of Fixnum.

Add vertical page breaks to a worksheet. A page break causes all the data that follows it to be printed on the next page. Vertical page breaks act between columns. To create a page break between columns 20 and 21 you must specify the break at column 21. However in zero index notation this is actually column 20. So you can pretend for a small while that you are using 1 index notation:

worksheet1.set_v_pagebreaks(20) # Break between column 20 and 21

The set_v_pagebreaks() method will accept a list of page breaks and you can call it more than once:

worksheet2.set_v_pagebreaks([ 20,  40,  60,  80, 100]) # Add breaks
worksheet2.set_v_pagebreaks([120, 140, 160, 180, 200]) # Add some more

Note: If you specify the “fit to page” option via the fit_to_pages() method it will override all manual page breaks.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1875

def set_v_pagebreaks(breaks)
  @vbreaks += breaks.respond_to?(:to_ary) ? breaks : [breaks]
end

#set_zoom(scale = 100) ⇒ Object

Set the worksheet zoom factor in the range 10 <= scale <= 400:

worksheet1.set_zoom(50)
worksheet2.set_zoom(75)
worksheet3.set_zoom(300)
worksheet4.set_zoom(400)

The default zoom factor is 100. You cannot zoom to “Selection” because it is calculated by Excel at run-time.

Note, set_zoom() does not affect the scale of the printed page. For that you should use set_print_scale().


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1012

def set_zoom(scale = 100)
  # Confine the scale to Excel's range
  if scale < 10 or scale > 400
    #           carp "Zoom factor scale outside range: 10 <= zoom <= 400";
    scale = 100
  end

  @zoom = scale.to_i
end

#show_comments(val = true) ⇒ Object

Make any comments in the worksheet visible.

This method is used to make all cell comments visible when a worksheet is opened.

Individual comments can be made visible using the visible parameter of the write_comment method (see above):

worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :visible => 1)

If all of the cell comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments as follows:

worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :visible => 0)

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 1969

def show_comments(val = true)
  @comments.visible = val ? true : false
end

#split_panes(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

split_panes(y, x, top_row, left_col)

Set panes and mark them as split. – See also store_panes(). ++

This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes. This method is different from the freeze_panes() method in that the splits between the panes will be visible to the user and each pane will have its own scroll bars.

The parameters y and x are used to specify the vertical and horizontal position of the split. The units for y and x are the same as those used by Excel to specify row height and column width. However, the vertical and horizontal units are different from each other. Therefore you must specify the y and x parameters in terms of the row heights and column widths that you have set or the default values which are 12.75 for a row and 8.43 for a column.

You can set one of the y and x parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split. The parameters top_row and left_col are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the bottom-right pane.

Example:

worksheet.split_panes(12.75, 0,    1, 0)  # First row
worksheet.split_panes(0,     8.43, 0, 1)  # First column
worksheet.split_panes(12.75, 8.43, 1, 1)  # First row and column

You cannot use A1 notation with this method.

See also the freeze_panes() method and the panes.pl program in the examples directory of the distribution.

Note:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 888

def split_panes(*args)
  @frozen            = false
  @frozen_no_split   = 0
  @panes             = args
end

#store_formula(formula) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

store_formula(formula)  # formula : text string of formula

Pre-parse a formula. This is used in conjunction with repeat_formula() to repetitively rewrite a formula without re-parsing it.

The store_formula() method is used in conjunction with repeat_formula()

to speed up the generation of repeated formulas. See

“Improving performance when working with formulas” in “FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL”.

The store_formula() method pre-parses a textual representation of a formula and stores it for use at a later stage by the repeat_formula() method.

store_formula() carries the same speed penalty as write_formula(). However, in practice it will be used less frequently.

The return value of this method is a scalar that can be thought of as a reference to a formula.

sin = worksheet.store_formula('=SIN(A1)')
cos = worksheet.store_formula('=COS(A1)')

worksheet.repeat_formula('B1', sin, format, 'A1', 'A2')
worksheet.repeat_formula('C1', cos, format, 'A1', 'A2')

Although store_formula() is a worksheet method the return value can be used in any worksheet:

now = worksheet.store_formula('=NOW()')

worksheet1.repeat_formula('B1', now)
worksheet2.repeat_formula('B1', now)
worksheet3.repeat_formula('B1', now)

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2878

def store_formula(formula)       #:nodoc:
  # In order to raise formula errors from the point of view of the calling
  # program we use an eval block and re-raise the error from here.
  #
  tokens = parser.parse_formula(formula.sub(/^=/, ''))

  #       if ([email protected]) {
  #           [email protected] =~ s/\n$//  # Strip the \n used in the Formula.pm die()
  #           croak [email protected]       # Re-raise the error
  #       }

  # Return the parsed tokens in an anonymous array
  [*tokens]
end

#store_mso_client_anchor(flag, col_start, x1, row_start, y1, col_end, x2, row_end, y2) ⇒ Object

Write the Escher ClientAnchor record that is part of MSODRAWING.

flag
col_start     # Col containing upper left corner of object
x1            # Distance to left side of object

row_start     # Row containing top left corner of object
y1            # Distance to top of object

col_end       # Col containing lower right corner of object
x2            # Distance to right side of object

row_end       # Row containing bottom right corner of object
y2            # Distance to bottom of object

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4546

def store_mso_client_anchor(flag, col_start, x1, row_start, y1, col_end, x2, row_end, y2)   #:nodoc:
  type        = 0xF010
  version     = 0
  instance    = 0
  data        = ''
  length      = 18

  data = [flag, col_start, x1, row_start, y1, col_end, x2, row_end, y2].pack('v9')

  add_mso_generic(type, version, instance, data, length)
end

#store_mso_client_dataObject

Write the Escher ClientData record that is part of MSODRAWING.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4561

def store_mso_client_data   #:nodoc:
  type        = 0xF011
  version     = 0
  instance    = 0
  data        = ''
  length      = 0

  add_mso_generic(type, version, instance, data, length)
end

#store_mso_opt_image(spid) ⇒ Object

Write the Escher Opt record that is part of MSODRAWING.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4514

def store_mso_opt_image(spid)   #:nodoc:
  type        = 0xF00B
  version     = 3
  instance    = 3
  data        = ''
  length      = nil

  data = [0x4104].pack('v') +
  [spid].pack('V')        +
  [0x01BF].pack('v')      +
  [0x00010000].pack('V')  +
  [0x03BF].pack( 'v')     +
  [0x00080000].pack( 'V')

  add_mso_generic(type, version, instance, data, length)
end

#store_mso_sp(instance, spid, options) ⇒ Object

Write the Escher Sp record that is part of MSODRAWING.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4501

def store_mso_sp(instance, spid, options)   #:nodoc:
  type        = 0xF00A
  version     = 2
  data        = ''
  length      = 8
  data        = [spid, options].pack('VV')

  add_mso_generic(type, version, instance, data, length)
end

#store_mso_sp_container(length) ⇒ Object

Write the Escher SpContainer record that is part of MSODRAWING.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4489

def store_mso_sp_container(length)   #:nodoc:
  type        = 0xF004
  version     = 15
  instance    = 0
  data        = ''

  add_mso_generic(type, version, instance, data, length)
end

#store_parent_mso_record(dg_length, spgr_length, spid) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4477

def store_parent_mso_record(dg_length, spgr_length, spid)  # :nodoc:
  store_mso_dg_container(dg_length)      +
  store_mso_dg                           +
  store_mso_spgr_container(spgr_length)  +
  store_mso_sp_container(40)             +
  store_mso_spgr()                       +
  store_mso_sp(0x0, spid, 0x0005)
end

#typeObject

:nodoc:


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 4286

def type  # :nodoc:
  @type
end

#write(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write(row, col,    token, format)
write(A1_notation, token, format)

Parse token and call appropriate write method. row and column are zero indexed. format is optional.

The write_url() methods have a flag to prevent recursion when writing a string that looks like a url.

Returns: return value of called subroutine

Excel makes a distinction between data types such as strings, numbers, blanks, formulas and hyperlinks. To simplify the process of writing data the write() method acts as a general alias for several more specific methods:

write_string()
write_number()
write_blank()
write_formula()
write_url()
write_row()
write_col()

The general rule is that if the data looks like a something then a something is written. Here are some examples in both row-column and A1 notation:

                                                     # Same as:
worksheet.write(0, 0, 'Hello'                     )  # write_string()
worksheet.write(1, 0, 'One'                       )  # write_string()
worksheet.write(2, 0,  2                          )  # write_number()
worksheet.write(3, 0,  3.00001                    )  # write_number()
worksheet.write(4, 0,  ""                         )  # write_blank()
worksheet.write(5, 0,  ''                         )  # write_blank()
worksheet.write(6, 0,  nil                        )  # write_blank()
worksheet.write(7, 0                              )  # write_blank()
worksheet.write(8, 0,  'http://www.ruby-lang.org/')  # write_url()
worksheet.write('A9',  'ftp://ftp.ruby-lang.org/' )  # write_url()
worksheet.write('A10', 'internal:Sheet1!A1'       )  # write_url()
worksheet.write('A11', 'external:c:\foo.xls'      )  # write_url()
worksheet.write('A12', '=A3 + 3*A4'               )  # write_formula()
worksheet.write('A13', '=SIN(PI()/4)'             )  # write_formula()
worksheet.write('A14', ['name', 'company']        )  # write_row()
worksheet.write('A15', [ ['name', 'company'] ]    )  # write_col()

And if the keep_leading_zeros property is set:

$worksheet.write('A16,  2                     ); # write_number()
  $worksheet.write('A17,  02                    ); # write_string()
  $worksheet.write('A18,  00002                 ); # write_string()

The “looks like” rule is defined by regular expressions:

  • write_number() if token is a number based on the following regex: token =~ /^([+-]?)(?=d|.d)d*(.d*)?(([+-]?d+))?$/.

  • write_string() if keep_leading_zeros() is set and token is an integer with leading zeros based on the following regex: token =~ /^0d+$/.

  • write_blank() if token is undef or a blank string: undef, “” or ''.

  • write_url() if token is a http, https, ftp or mailto URL based on the following regexes: token =~ m|^tt?ps?://| or $token =~ m|^mailto:|.

  • write_url() if token is an internal or external sheet reference based on the following regex: token =~ m.

  • write_formula() if the first character of token is “=”.

  • write_row() if token is an array.

  • write_col() if _token+ is an array of array.

  • write_string() if none of the previous conditions apply.

The format parameter is optional. It should be a valid Format object, see “CELL FORMATTING”:

format = workbook.add_format
format.set_bold
format.set_color('red')
format.set_align('center')

worksheet.write(4, 0, 'Hello', format)   # Formatted string

The write() method will ignore empty strings or undef tokens unless a format is also supplied. As such you needn't worry about special handling for empty or undef values in your data. See also the write_blank() method.

One problem with the write() method is that occasionally data looks like a number but you don't want it treated as a number. For example, zip codes or ID numbers often start with a leading zero. If you write this data as a number then the leading zero(s) will be stripped. You can change this default behaviour by using the keep_leading_zeros() method. While this property is in place any integers with leading zeros will be treated as strings and the zeros will be preserved. See the keep_leading_zeros() section for a full discussion of this issue.

You can also add your own data handlers to the write() method using add_write_handler().

The write methods return:

 0 for success.
-1 for insufficient number of arguments.
-2 for row or column out of bounds.
-3 for string too long.

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2208

def write(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  token = args[2]

  # Handle undefs as blanks
  token ||= ''

  # First try user defined matches.
  @write_match.each do |aref|
    re  = aref[0]
    sub = aref[1]

    if token =~ Regexp.new(re)
      match = eval("#{sub} self, args")
      return match if match
    end
  end

  # Match an array ref.
  if token.respond_to?(:to_ary)
    write_row(*args)
  elsif token.respond_to?(:coerce)  # Numeric
    write_number(*args)
    # Match http, https or ftp URL
  elsif token =~ %r|^[fh]tt?ps?://|
    write_url(*args)
    # Match mailto:
  elsif token =~ %r|^mailto:|
    write_url(*args)
    # Match internal or external sheet link
  elsif token =~ %r!^(?:in|ex)ternal:!
    write_url(*args)
    # Match formula
  elsif token =~ /^=/
    write_formula(*args)
    # Match blank
  elsif token == ''
    args.delete_at(2)     # remove the empty string from the parameter list
    write_blank(*args)
  else
    write_string(*args)
  end
end

#write_blank(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_blank(row, col   , format)  -> Fixnum
write_blank(A1_notation, format)  -> Fixnum

Write a blank cell to the specified row and column (zero indexed). A blank cell is used to specify formatting without adding a string or a number.

A blank cell without a format serves no purpose. Therefore, we don't write a BLANK record unless a format is specified. This is mainly an optimisation for the write_row() and write_col() methods.

Returns 0 : normal termination (including no format)

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range

This method is used to add formatting to a cell which doesn't contain a string or number value.

Excel differentiates between an “Empty” cell and a “Blank” cell. An “Empty” cell is a cell which doesn't contain data whilst a “Blank” cell is a cell which doesn't contain data but does contain formatting. Excel stores “Blank” cells but ignores “Empty” cells.

As such, if you write an empty cell without formatting it is ignored:

worksheet.write('A1',  nil, format)  # write_blank()
worksheet.write('A2',  nil        )  # Ignored

This seemingly uninteresting fact means that you can write arrays of data without special treatment for undef or empty string values.

See the note about “Cell notation”.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2510

def write_blank(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Check the number of args
  return -1 if args.size < 2

  # Don't write a blank cell unless it has a format
  return 0 unless args[2]

  row, col, format = args

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  xf = xf_record_index(row, col, format)   # The cell format

  record  = 0x0201                         # Record identifier
  length  = 0x0006                         # Number of bytes to follow
  header    = [record, length].pack('vv')
  data      = [row, col, xf].pack('vvv')

  # Store the data or write immediately depending    on the compatibility mode.
  store_with_compatibility(row, col, header + data)

  0
end

#write_col(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_column(row, col   , array[, format])
write_column(A1_notation, array[, format])

Write a column of data starting from (row, col). Call write_row() if any of the elements of the array are in turn array. This allows the writing of 1D or 2D arrays of data in one go.

Returns: the first encountered error value or zero for no errors

The write_col() method can be used to write a 1D or 2D array of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. The write() method is then called for each element of the data. For example:

array      = ['awk', 'gawk', 'mawk']

worksheet.write_col(0, 0, array)

# The above example is equivalent to:
worksheet.write(0, 0, array[0])
worksheet.write(1, 0, array[1])
worksheet.write(2, 0, array[2])

As with all of the write methods the format parameter is optional. If a format is specified it is applied to all the elements of the data array.

Array within the data will be treated as rows. This allows you to write 2D arrays of data in one go. For example:

eec =  [
            ['maggie', 'milly', 'molly', 'may'  ],
            [13,       14,      15,      16     ],
            ['shell',  'star',  'crab',  'stone']
        ]

worksheet.write_col('A1', eec)

Would produce a worksheet as follows:

 -----------------------------------------------------------
|   |    A    |    B    |    C    |    D    |    E    | ...
 -----------------------------------------------------------
| 1 | maggie  | milly   | molly   | may     |  ...    | ...
| 2 | 13      | 14      | 15      | 16      |  ...    | ...
| 3 | shell   | star    | crab    | stone   |  ...    | ...
| 4 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 5 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 6 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...

To write the data in a column-row order refer to the write_row() method above.

Any nil values in the data will be ignored unless a format is applied to the data, in which case a formatted blank cell will be written. In either case the appropriate row or column value will still be incremented.

As noted above the write() method can be used as a synonym for write_row() and write_row() handles nested array as columns. Therefore, the following two method calls are equivalent although the more explicit call to write_col() would be preferable for maintainability:

worksheet.write_col('A1', array)     # Write a column of data
worksheet.write(    'A1', [ array ]) # Same thing

The write_col() method returns the first error encountered when writing the elements of the data or zero if no errors were encountered. See the return values described for the write() method above.

See also the write_arrays.pl program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3211

def write_col(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Catch non array refs passed by user.
  raise "Not an array ref in call to write_row()" unless args[2].respond_to?(:to_ary)

  row, col, tokens, options = args
  error   = false
  if tokens
    tokens.each do |token|
      # write() will deal with any nested arrays
      ret = write(row, col, token, options)

      # Return only the first error encountered, if any.
      error ||= ret
      row += 1
    end
  end
  error || 0
end

#write_comment(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_comment(row, col,    comment[, optionhash(es)])  -> Fixnum
write_comment(A1_notation, comment[, optionhash(es)])  -> Fixnum

Write a comment to the specified row and column (zero indexed).

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range

The write_comment() method is used to add a comment to a cell. A cell comment is indicated in Excel by a small red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of the cell. Moving the cursor over the red triangle will reveal the comment.

The following example shows how to add a comment to a cell:

worksheet.write        (2, 2, 'Hello')
worksheet.write_comment(2, 2, 'This is a comment.')

As usual you can replace the row and column parameters with an A1 cell reference. See the note about “Cell notation”.

worksheet.write        ('C3', 'Hello')
worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'This is a comment.')

On systems with perl 5.8 and later the write_comment() method will also handle strings in UTF-8 format.

worksheet.write_comment('C3', "\x{263a}")       # Smiley
worksheet.write_comment('C4', 'Comment ca va?')

In addition to the basic 3 argument form of write_comment() you can pass in several optional key/value pairs to control the format of the comment. For example:

worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :visible => 1, :author => 'Ruby')

Most of these options are quite specific and in general the default comment behaviour will be all that you need. However, should you need greater control over the format of the cell comment the following options are available:

:encoding
:author
:author_encoding
:visible
:x_scale
:width
:y_scale
:height
:color
:start_cell
:start_row
:start_col
:x_offset
:y_offset

Option: :encoding

This option is used to indicate that the comment string is encoded as
UTF-16BE.

  comment = [0x263a].pack('n')     # UTF-16BE Smiley symbol

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', comment, :encoding => 1)

Option: :author

This option is used to indicate who the author of the comment is. Excel
displays the author of the comment in the status bar at the bottom of
the worksheet. This is usually of interest in corporate environments
where several people might review and provide comments to a workbook.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Atonement', :author => 'Ian McEwan')

Option: :author_encoding

This option is used to indicate that the author string is encoded as UTF-16BE.

Option: :visible

This option is used to make a cell comment visible when the worksheet
is opened. The default behaviour in Excel is that comments are initially
hidden. However, it is also possible in Excel to make individual or all
comments visible. In WriteExcel individual comments can be made visible
as follows:

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :visible => 1)

It is possible to make all comments in a worksheet visible using the show
comments() worksheet method (see below). Alternatively, if all of the cell
comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments:

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :visible => 0)

Option: :x_scale

This option is used to set the width of the cell comment box as a factor
of the default width.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :x_scale => 2)
  worksheet.write_comment('C4', 'Hello', :x_scale => 4.2)

Option: :width

This option is used to set the width of the cell comment box
explicitly in pixels.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :width => 200)

Option: :y_scale

This option is used to set the height of the cell comment box as a
factor of the default height.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :y_scale => 2)
  worksheet.write_comment('C4', 'Hello', :y_scale => 4.2)

Option: :height

This option is used to set the height of the cell comment box
explicitly in pixels.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :height => 200)

Option: :color

This option is used to set the background colour of cell comment box.
You can use one of the named colours recognised by WriteExcel or a colour
index. See "COLOURS IN EXCEL".

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :color => 'green')
  worksheet.write_comment('C4', 'Hello', :color => 0x35)    # Orange

Option: :start_cell

This option is used to set the cell in which the comment will appear.
By default Excel displays comments one cell to the right and one cell
above the cell to which the comment relates. However, you can change
this behaviour if you wish. In the following example the comment which
would appear by default in cell D2 is moved to E2.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :start_cell => 'E2')

Option: :start_row

This option is used to set the row in which the comment will appear.
See the start_cell option above. The row is zero indexed.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :start_row => 0)

Option: :start_col

This option is used to set the column in which the comment will appear.
See the start_cell option above. The column is zero indexed.

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', 'Hello', :start_col => 4)

Option: :x_offset

This option is used to change the x offset, in pixels, of a comment
within a cell:

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', comment, :x_offset => 30)

Option: :y_offset

This option is used to change the y offset, in pixels, of a comment
within a cell:

  worksheet.write_comment('C3', comment, :x_offset => 30)

You can apply as many of these options as you require.

Note about row height and comments.

If you specify the height of a row that contains a comment then WriteExcel will adjust the height of the comment to maintain the default or user specified dimensions. However, the height of a row can also be adjusted automatically by Excel if the text wrap property is set or large fonts are used in the cell. This means that the height of the row is unknown to WriteExcel at run time and thus the comment box is stretched with the row. Use the set_row() method to specify the row height explicitly and avoid this problem.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3492

def write_comment(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 3   # Check the number of args

  row, col, comment, params = args

  # Check for pairs of optional arguments, i.e. an odd number of args.
  # raise "Uneven number of additional arguments" if args.size % 2 == 0

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  if params && params[:start_cell]
    params[:start_row], params[:start_col] = substitute_cellref(params[:start_cell])
  end

  # We have to avoid duplicate comments in cells or else Excel will complain.
  @comments << Comment.new(self, *args)
end

#write_date_time(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_date_time(row, col   , date_string[, format])
write_date_time(A1_notation, date_string[, format])

Write a datetime string in ISO8601 “yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.ss” format as a number representing an Excel date. format is optional.

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range
-3 : Invalid date_time, written as string

The write_date_time() method can be used to write a date or time to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_date_time('A1', '2004-05-13T23:20', date_format)

The date_string should be in the following format:

yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss

This conforms to an ISO8601 date but it should be noted that the full range of ISO8601 formats are not supported.

The following variations on the date_string parameter are permitted:

yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss         # Standard format
yyyy-mm-ddT                     # No time
          Thh:mm:ss.sss         # No date
yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ        # Additional Z (but not time zones)
yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss             # No fractional seconds
yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm                # No seconds

Note that the T is required in all cases.

A date should always have a format, otherwise it will appear as a number, see “DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL” and “CELL FORMATTING”. Here is a typical example:

date_format = workbook.add_format(:num_format => 'mm/dd/yy')
worksheet.write_date_time('A1', '2004-05-13T23:20', date_format)

Valid dates should be in the range 1900-01-01 to 9999-12-31, for the 1900 epoch and 1904-01-01 to 9999-12-31, for the 1904 epoch. As with Excel, dates outside these ranges will be written as a string.

See also the date_time.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3282

def write_date_time(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 3                    # Check the number of args

  row, col, str, format = args

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  date_time = convert_date_time(str, date_1904?)

  if date_time
    error = write_number(row, col, date_time, args[3])
  else
    # The date isn't valid so write it as a string.
    write_string(row, col, str, format)
    error = -3
  end
  error
end

#write_formula(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_formula(row, col   , formula[, format, value])  -> Fixnum
write_formula(A1_notation, formula[, format, value])  -> Fixnum

Write a formula to the specified row and column (zero indexed).

format is optional. value is an optional result of the formula that can be supplied by the user.

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range

Write a formula or function to the cell specified by row and column:

worksheet.write_formula(0, 0, '=$B$3 + B4'  )
worksheet.write_formula(1, 0, '=SIN(PI()/4)')
worksheet.write_formula(2, 0, '=SUM(B1:B5)' )
worksheet.write_formula('A4', '=IF(A3>1,"Yes", "No")'   )
worksheet.write_formula('A5', '=AVERAGE(1, 2, 3, 4)'    )
worksheet.write_formula('A6', '=DATEVALUE("1-Jan-2001")')

See the note about “Cell notation”. For more information about writing Excel formulas see “FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL”

See also the section “Improving performance when working with formulas” and the store_formula() and repeat_formula() methods.

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated value of the formula. This is occasionally necessary when working with non-Excel applications that don't calculated the value of the formula. The calculated value is added at the end of the argument list:

worksheet.write('A1', '=2+2', format, 4);

However, this probably isn't something that will ever need to do. If you do use this feature then do so with care.

FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL

Caveats

The first thing to note is that there are still some outstanding issues with the implementation of formulas and functions:

1. Writing a formula is much slower than writing the equivalent string.
2. You cannot use array constants, i.e. {1;2;3}, in functions.
3. Unary minus isn't supported.
4. Whitespace is not preserved around operators.
5. Named ranges are not supported.
6. Array formulas are not supported.

However, these constraints will be removed in future versions. They are here because of a trade-off between features and time. Also, it is possible to work around issue 1 using the store_formula() and repeat_formula() methods as described later in this section.

Introduction

The following is a brief introduction to formulas and functions in Excel and WriteExcel.

A formula is a string that begins with an equals sign:

'=A1+B1'
'=AVERAGE(1, 2, 3)'

The formula can contain numbers, strings, boolean values, cell references, cell ranges and functions. Named ranges are not supported. Formulas should be written as they appear in Excel, that is cells and functions must be in uppercase.

Cells in Excel are referenced using the A1 notation system where the column is designated by a letter and the row by a number. Columns range from A to IV i.e. 0 to 255, rows range from 1 to 65536.

The Excel $ notation in cell references is also supported. This allows you to specify whether a row or column is relative or absolute. This only has an effect if the cell is copied. The following examples show relative and absolute values.

'=A1'   # Column and row are relative
'=$A1'  # Column is absolute and row is relative
'=A$1'  # Column is relative and row is absolute
'=$A$1' # Column and row are absolute

Formulas can also refer to cells in other worksheets of the current workbook. For example:

'=Sheet2!A1'
'=Sheet2!A1:A5'
'=Sheet2:Sheet3!A1'
'=Sheet2:Sheet3!A1:A5'
%q{='Test Data'!A1}
%q{='Test Data1:Test Data2'!A1}

The sheet reference and the cell reference are separated by ! the exclamation mark symbol. If worksheet names contain spaces, commas o parentheses then Excel requires that the name is enclosed in single quotes as shown in the last two examples above. In order to avoid using a lot of escape characters you can use the quote operator %q{} to protect the quotes. See perlop in the main Perl documentation. Only valid sheet names that have been added using the add_worksheet() method can be used in formulas. You cannot reference external workbooks.

The following table lists the operators that are available in Excel's formulas. The majority of the operators are the same as Perl's, differences are indicated:

Arithmetic operators:
=====================
Operator  Meaning                   Example
   +      Addition                  1+2
   -      Subtraction               2-1
   *      Multiplication            2*3
   /      Division                  1/4
   ^      Exponentiation            2^3      # Equivalent to **
   -      Unary minus               -(1+2)   # Not yet supported
   %      Percent (Not modulus)     13%      # Not supported, [1]

Comparison operators:
=====================
Operator  Meaning                   Example
    =     Equal to                  A1 =  B1 # Equivalent to ==
    <>    Not equal to              A1 <> B1 # Equivalent to !=
    >     Greater than              A1 >  B1
    <     Less than                 A1 <  B1
    >=    Greater than or equal to  A1 >= B1
    <=    Less than or equal to     A1 <= B1

String operator:
================
Operator  Meaning                   Example
    &     Concatenation             "Hello " & "World!" # [2]

Reference operators:
====================
Operator  Meaning                   Example
    :     Range operator            A1:A4               # [3]
    ,     Union operator            SUM(1, 2+2, B3)     # [4]

Notes:
[1]: You can get a percentage with formatting and modulus with MOD().
[2]: Equivalent to ("Hello " . "World!") in Perl.
[3]: This range is equivalent to cells A1, A2, A3 and A4.
[4]: The comma behaves like the list separator in Perl.

The range and comma operators can have different symbols in non-English versions of Excel. These will be supported in a later version of WriteExcel. European users of Excel take note:

worksheet.write('A1', '=SUM(1; 2; 3)')  # Wrong!!
worksheet.write('A1', '=SUM(1, 2, 3)')  # Okay

The following table lists all of the core functions supported by Excel 5 and WriteExcel. Any additional functions that are available through the “Analysis ToolPak” or other add-ins are not supported. These functions have all been tested to verify that they work.

ABS           DB            INDIRECT      NORMINV       SLN
ACOS          DCOUNT        INFO          NORMSDIST     SLOPE
ACOSH         DCOUNTA       INT           NORMSINV      SMALL
ADDRESS       DDB           INTERCEPT     NOT           SQRT
AND           DEGREES       IPMT          NOW           STANDARDIZE
AREAS         DEVSQ         IRR           NPER          STDEV
ASIN          DGET          ISBLANK       NPV           STDEVP
ASINH         DMAX          ISERR         ODD           STEYX
ATAN          DMIN          ISERROR       OFFSET        SUBSTITUTE
ATAN2         DOLLAR        ISLOGICAL     OR            SUBTOTAL
ATANH         DPRODUCT      ISNA          PEARSON       SUM
AVEDEV        DSTDEV        ISNONTEXT     PERCENTILE    SUMIF
AVERAGE       DSTDEVP       ISNUMBER      PERCENTRANK   SUMPRODUCT
BETADIST      DSUM          ISREF         PERMUT        SUMSQ
BETAINV       DVAR          ISTEXT        PI            SUMX2MY2
BINOMDIST     DVARP         KURT          PMT           SUMX2PY2
CALL          ERROR.TYPE    LARGE         POISSON       SUMXMY2
CEILING       EVEN          LEFT          POWER         SYD
CELL          EXACT         LEN           PPMT          T
CHAR          EXP           LINEST        PROB          TAN
CHIDIST       EXPONDIST     LN            PRODUCT       TANH
CHIINV        FACT          LOG           PROPER        TDIST
CHITEST       FALSE         LOG10         PV            TEXT
CHOOSE        FDIST         LOGEST        QUARTILE      TIME
CLEAN         FIND          LOGINV        RADIANS       TIMEVALUE
CODE          FINV          LOGNORMDIST   RAND          TINV
COLUMN        FISHER        LOOKUP        RANK          TODAY
COLUMNS       FISHERINV     LOWER         RATE          TRANSPOSE
COMBIN        FIXED         MATCH         REGISTER.ID   TREND
CONCATENATE   FLOOR         MAX           REPLACE       TRIM
CONFIDENCE    FORECAST      MDETERM       REPT          TRIMMEAN
CORREL        FREQUENCY     MEDIAN        RIGHT         TRUE
COS           FTEST         MID           ROMAN         TRUNC
COSH          FV            MIN           ROUND         TTEST
COUNT         GAMMADIST     MINUTE        ROUNDDOWN     TYPE
COUNTA        GAMMAINV      MINVERSE      ROUNDUP       UPPER
COUNTBLANK    GAMMALN       MIRR          ROW           VALUE
COUNTIF       GEOMEAN       MMULT         ROWS          VAR
COVAR         GROWTH        MOD           RSQ           VARP
CRITBINOM     HARMEAN       MODE          SEARCH        VDB
DATE          HLOOKUP       MONTH         SECOND        VLOOKUP
DATEVALUE     HOUR          N             SIGN          WEEKDAY
DAVERAGE      HYPGEOMDIST   NA            SIN           WEIBULL
DAY           IF            NEGBINOMDIST  SINH          YEAR
DAYS360       INDEX         NORMDIST      SKEW          ZTEST

– You can also modify the module to support function names in the following languages: German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Finnish, Italian and Swedish. See the function_locale.pl program in the examples directory of the distro. ++

For a general introduction to Excel's formulas and an explanation of the syntax of the function refer to the Excel help files or the following: office.microsoft.com/en-us/assistance/CH062528031033.aspx

If your formula doesn't work in WriteExcel try the following:

1. Verify that the formula works in Excel (or Gnumeric or OpenOffice.org).
2. Ensure that it isn't on the Caveats list shown above.
3. Ensure that cell references and formula names are in uppercase.
4. Ensure that you are using ':' as the range operator, A1:A4.
5. Ensure that you are using ',' as the union operator, SUM(1,2,3).
6. Ensure that the function is in the above table.

If you go through steps 1-6 and you still have a problem, mail me.

Improving performance when working with formulas

Writing a large number of formulas with WriteExcel can be slow. This is due to the fact that each formula has to be parsed and with the current implementation this is computationally expensive.

However, in a lot of cases the formulas that you write will be quite similar, for example:

worksheet.write_formula('B1',    '=A1 * 3 + 50',    format)
worksheet.write_formula('B2',    '=A2 * 3 + 50',    format)
...
...
worksheet.write_formula('B99',   '=A999 * 3 + 50',  format)
worksheet.write_formula('B1000', '=A1000 * 3 + 50', format)

In this example the cell reference changes in iterations from A1 to A1000. The parser treats this variable as a token and arranges it according to predefined rules. However, since the parser is oblivious to the value of the token, it is essentially performing the same calculation 1000 times. This is inefficient.

The way to avoid this inefficiency and thereby speed up the writing of formulas is to parse the formula once and then repeatedly substitute similar tokens.

A formula can be parsed and stored via the store_formula() worksheet method. You can then use the repeat_formula() method to substitute pattern, replace pairs in the stored formula:

formula = worksheet.store_formula('=A1 * 3 + 50')

(0...1000).each do |row|
   worksheet.repeat_formula(row, 1, formula, format, 'A1', 'A'.(row +1))
end

On an arbitrary test machine this method was 10 times faster than the brute force method shown above. – For more information about how WriteExcel parses and stores formulas see the WriteExcel::Formula man page.

It should be noted however that the overall speed of direct formula parsing will be improved in a future version. ++


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2816

def write_formula(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 3   # Check the number of args

  row, col, formula, format, value = args

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  xf        = xf_record_index(row, col, format)  # The cell format

  # Strip the = sign at the beginning of the formula string
  formula = formula.sub(/^=/, '')

  # Parse the formula using the parser in Formula.pm
  # nakamura add:  to get byte_stream, set second arg TRUE
  # because ruby doesn't have Perl's "wantarray"
  formula = parser.parse_formula(formula, true)

  store_formula_common(row, col, xf, value, formula)
  0
end

#write_number(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_number(row, col,    token[, format])
write_number(A1_notation, token[, format])

Write a double to the specified row and column (zero indexed). An integer can be written as a double. Excel will display an integer. $format is optional.

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range

Write an integer or a float to the cell specified by row and column

worksheet.write_number(0, 0,  123456)
worksheet.write_number('A2',  2.3451)

See the note about “Cell notation”. The format parameter is optional.

In general it is sufficient to use the write() method.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2276

def write_number(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 3                # Check the number of args

  record  = 0x0203                          # Record identifier
  length  = 0x000E                          # Number of bytes to follow

  row     = args[0]                         # Zero indexed row
  col     = args[1]                         # Zero indexed column
  num     = args[2]
  xf      = xf_record_index(row, col, args[3]) # The cell format

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 if check_dimensions(row, col) != 0

  header = [record, length].pack('vv')
  data   = [row, col, xf].pack('vvv')
  xl_double = [num].pack("d")

  xl_double.reverse! if @byte_order

  # Store the data or write immediately depending on the compatibility mode.
  store_with_compatibility(row, col, header + data + xl_double)

  0
end

#write_row(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_row(row, col   , array[, format])
write_row(A1_notation, array[, format])

Write a row of data starting from (row, col). Call write_col() if any of the elements of the array are in turn array. This allows the writing of 1D or 2D arrays of data in one go.

Returns: the first encountered error value or zero for no errors

The write_row() method can be used to write a 1D or 2D array of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. You must pass a reference to the array of data rather than the array itself. The write() method is then called for each element of the data. For example:

array      = ['awk', 'gawk', 'mawk']

worksheet.write_row(0, 0, array_ref)

# The above example is equivalent to:
worksheet.write(0, 0, array[0])
worksheet.write(0, 1, array[1])
worksheet.write(0, 2, array[2])

Note: For convenience the write() method behaves in the same way as write_row() if it is passed an array. Therefore the following two method calls are equivalent:

worksheet.write_row('A1', array) # Write a row of data
worksheet.write(    'A1', array) # Same thing

As with all of the write methods the format parameter is optional. If a format is specified it is applied to all the elements of the data array.

Array references within the data will be treated as columns. This allows you to write 2D arrays of data in one go. For example:

eec =  [
            ['maggie', 'milly', 'molly', 'may'  ],
            [13,       14,      15,      16     ],
            ['shell',  'star',  'crab',  'stone']
       ]

worksheet.write_row('A1', eec)

Would produce a worksheet as follows:

 -----------------------------------------------------------
|   |    A    |    B    |    C    |    D    |    E    | ...
 -----------------------------------------------------------
| 1 | maggie  | 13      | shell   | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 2 | milly   | 14      | star    | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 3 | molly   | 15      | crab    | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 4 | may     | 16      | stone   | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 5 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
| 6 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...

To write the data in a row-column order refer to the write_col() method below.

Any nil values in the data will be ignored unless a format is applied to the data, in which case a formatted blank cell will be written. In either case the appropriate row or column value will still be incremented.

The write_row() method returns the first error encountered when writing the elements of the data or zero if no errors were encountered. See the return values described for the write() method above.

See also the write_arrays.rb program in the examples directory of the distro.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3112

def write_row(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Catch non array refs passed by user.
  raise "Not an array ref in call to write_row() #{$!}" unless args[2].respond_to?(:to_ary)

  row, col, tokens, options = args
  error = false
  if tokens
    tokens.each do |token|
      # Check for nested arrays
      if token.respond_to?(:to_ary)
        ret = write_col(row, col, token, options)
      else
        ret = write(row, col, token, options)
      end

      # Return only the first error encountered, if any.
      error ||= ret
      col += 1
    end
  end
  error || 0
end

#write_string(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_string(row, col,    token[, format])
write_string(A1_notation, token[, format])

Write a string to the specified row and column (zero indexed).

The format parameter is optional.

Returns 0 : normal termination

     -1 : insufficient number of arguments
     -2 : row or column out of range
     -3 : long string truncated to 255 chars

worksheet.write_string(0, 0, 'Your text here')
worksheet.write_string('A2', 'or here')

The maximum string size is 32767 characters. However the maximum string segment that Excel can display in a cell is 1000. All 32767 characters can be displayed in the formula bar.

The write() method will also handle strings in UTF-8 format. You can also write Unicode in UTF16 format via the write_utf16be_string() method.

In general it is sufficient to use the write() method. However, you may sometimes wish to use the write_string() method to write data that looks like a number but that you don't want treated as a number. For example, zip codes or phone numbers:

# Write as a plain string
worksheet.write_string('A1', '01209')

However, if the user edits this string Excel may convert it back to a number. To get around this you can use the Excel text format @:

# Format as a string. Doesn't change to a number when edited
format1 = workbook.add_format(:num_format => '@')
worksheet.write_string('A2', '01209', format1)

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2346

def write_string(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if (args.size < 3)                # Check the number of args

  row, col, str, format = args
  str = str.to_s
  xf  = xf_record_index(row, col, format)    # The cell format
  encoding    = 0x0
  str_error   = 0

  ruby_19 {str = convert_to_ascii_if_ascii(str) }

  # Handle utf8 strings
  if is_utf8?(str)
    str_utf16le = utf8_to_16le(str)
    return write_utf16le_string(row, col, str_utf16le, args[3])
  end

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  # Limit the string to the max number of chars.
  if str.bytesize > 32767
    str       = str[0, 32767]
    str_error = -3
  end

  # Prepend the string with the type.
  str_header  = [str.length, encoding].pack('vC')
  str         = str_header + str

  str_unique = update_workbook_str_table(str)

  record      = 0x00FD                        # Record identifier
  length      = 0x000A                        # Bytes to follow
  header = [record, length].pack('vv')
  data   = [row, col, xf, str_unique].pack('vvvV')

  # Store the data or write immediately depending on the compatibility mode.
  store_with_compatibility(row, col, header + data)

  str_error
end

#write_url(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_url(row, col   , url[, label, , format]) -> int
write_url(A1_notation, url[, label, , format]) -> int

Write a hyperlink. This is comprised of two elements: the visible label and the invisible link. The visible label is the same as the link unless an alternative string is specified.

The parameters label and format are optional.

The url can be to a http, ftp, mail, internal sheet, or external directory url.

Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range
-3 : long string truncated to 255 chars

Write a hyperlink to a URL in the cell specified by row and column. The hyperlink is comprised of two elements: the visible label and the invisible link. The visible label is the same as the link unless an alternative label is specified. The parameters label and the format are optional.

The label is written using the write() method. Therefore it is possible to write strings, numbers or formulas as labels.

There are four web style URI's supported: http://, https://, ftp:// and

mailto

worksheet.write_url(0, 0, 'www.ruby.org/' ) worksheet.write_url(1, 0, 'www.ruby.com/', 'Ruby home' ) worksheet.write_url('A3', 'www.ruby.com/', format ) worksheet.write_url('A4', 'www.ruby.com/', 'Perl', format) worksheet.write_url('A5', '[email protected]' )

There are two local URIs supported: internal: and external:. These are used for hyperlinks to internal worksheet references or external workbook and worksheet references:

worksheet.write_url('A6',  'internal:Sheet2!A1'                   )
worksheet.write_url('A7',  'internal:Sheet2!A1',   format         )
worksheet.write_url('A8',  'internal:Sheet2!A1:B2'                )
worksheet.write_url('A9',  q{internal:'Sales Data'!A1}            )
worksheet.write_url('A10', 'external:c:\temp\foo.xls'             )
worksheet.write_url('A11', 'external:c:\temp\foo.xls#Sheet2!A1'   )
worksheet.write_url('A12', 'external:..\..\..\foo.xls'            )
worksheet.write_url('A13', 'external:..\..\..\foo.xls#Sheet2!A1'  )
worksheet.write_url('A13', 'external:\\\\NETWORK\share\foo.xls'   )

All of the these URI types are recognised by the write() method, see above.

Worksheet references are typically of the form Sheet1!A1. You can also refer to a worksheet range using the standard Excel notation: Sheet1!A1:B2.

In external links the workbook and worksheet name must be separated by the # character: external:Workbook.xls#Sheet1!A1'.

You can also link to a named range in the target worksheet. For example say you have a named range called my_name in the workbook c:tempfoo.xls you could link to it as follows:

worksheet.write_url('A14', 'external:c:\temp\foo.xls#my_name')

Note, you cannot currently create named ranges with WriteExcel.

Links to network files are also supported. MS/Novell Network files normally begin with two back slashes as follows \NETWORKetc. In order to generate this in a single or double quoted string you will have to escape the backslashes, '\\NETWORKetc'.

If you are using double quote strings then you should be careful to escape anything that looks like a metacharacter. Why can't I use “C:tempfoo” in DOS paths?.

Finally, you can avoid most of these quoting problems by using forward slashes. These are translated internally to backslashes:

worksheet.write_url('A14', "external:c:/temp/foo.xls"             )
worksheet.write_url('A15', 'external://NETWORK/share/foo.xls'     )

See also, the note about “Cell notation”.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3598

def write_url(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Check the number of args
  return -1 if args.size < 3

  # Add start row and col to arg list
  write_url_range(args[0], args[1], *args)
end

#write_url_range(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_url_range(row1, col1, row2, col2, url[, string, , format])  -> Fixnum
write_url_range('A1:D2',                url[, string, , format])  -> Fixnum

This is the more general form of write_url(). It allows a hyperlink to be written to a range of cells. This function also decides the type of hyperlink to be written. These are either, Web (http, ftp, mailto), Internal (Sheet1!A1) or external ('c:tempfoo.xls#Sheet1!A1').

See also write_url() above for a general description and return values.

This method is essentially the same as the write_url() method described above. The main difference is that you can specify a link for a range of cells:

worksheet.write_url(0, 0, 0, 3, 'ftp://www.ruby.org/'              )
worksheet.write_url(1, 0, 0, 3, 'http://www.ruby.com/', 'Ruby home')
worksheet.write_url('A3:D3',    'internal:Sheet2!A1'               )
worksheet.write_url('A4:D4',    'external:c:\temp\foo.xls'         )

This method is generally only required when used in conjunction with merged cells. See the merge_range() method and the merge property of a Format object, “CELL FORMATTING”.

There is no way to force this behaviour through the write() method.

The parameters string and the $format are optional and their position is interchangeable. However, they are applied only to the first cell in the range.

See also, the note about “Cell notation”.


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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 3642

def write_url_range(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  # Check the number of args
  return -1 if args.size < 5

  # Reverse the order of _string_ and _format_ if necessary. We work on a copy
  # in order to protect the callers args.
  #
  args[5], args[6] = [ args[6], args[5] ] if args[5].respond_to?(:xf_index)

  url = args[4]

  # Check for internal/external sheet links or default to web link
  return write_url_internal(*args) if url =~ /^internal:/
  return write_url_external(*args) if url =~ /^external:/
  write_url_web(*args)
end

#write_utf16be_string(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_utf16be_string(row, col, string, format)

Write a Unicode string to the specified row and column (zero indexed). $format is optional. Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range
-3 : long string truncated to 255 chars

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2403

def write_utf16be_string(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if args.size < 3                  # Check the number of args

  record      = 0x00FD                        # Record identifier
  length      = 0x000A                        # Bytes to follow

  row, col, str = args
  xf          = xf_record_index(row, col, args[3]) # The cell format
  encoding    = 0x1
  str_error   = 0

  # Check that row and col are valid and store max and min values
  return -2 unless check_dimensions(row, col) == 0

  # Limit the utf16 string to the max number of chars (not bytes).
  if str.bytesize > 32767* 2
    str       = str[0..32767*2]
    str_error = -3
  end

  num_bytes = str.bytesize
  num_chars = (num_bytes / 2).to_i

  # Check for a valid 2-byte char string.
  raise "Uneven number of bytes in Unicode string" unless num_bytes % 2 == 0

  # Change from UTF16 big-endian to little endian
  str = utf16be_to_16le(str)

  # Add the encoding and length header to the string.
  str_header  = [num_chars, encoding].pack("vC")
  str         = str_header + str

  str_unique = update_workbook_str_table(str)

  header = [record, length].pack("vv")
  data   = [row, col, xf, str_unique].pack("vvvV")

  # Store the data or write immediately depending on the compatibility mode.
  store_with_compatibility(row, col, header + data)

  str_error
end

#write_utf16le_string(*args) ⇒ Object

:call-seq:

write_utf16le_string(row, col, string, format)

Write a UTF-16LE string to the specified row and column (zero indexed). $format is optional. Returns 0 : normal termination

-1 : insufficient number of arguments
-2 : row or column out of range
-3 : long string truncated to 255 chars

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# File 'lib/writeexcel/worksheet.rb', line 2461

def write_utf16le_string(*args)
  # Check for a cell reference in A1 notation and substitute row and column
  args = row_col_notation(args)

  return -1 if (args.size < 3)                  # Check the number of args

  row, col, str, format = args

  # Change from UTF16 big-endian to little endian
  str = utf16be_to_16le(str)

  write_utf16be_string(row, col, str, format)
end