Class: Gcloud::Bigquery::Table

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb,
lib/gcloud/bigquery/table/list.rb,
lib/gcloud/bigquery/table/schema.rb

Overview

Table

A named resource representing a BigQuery table that holds zero or more records. Every table is defined by a schema that may contain nested and repeated fields.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"

table = dataset.create_table "my_table" do |schema|
  schema.string "first_name", mode: :required
  schema.record "cities_lived", mode: :repeated do |nested_schema|
    nested_schema.string "place", mode: :required
    nested_schema.integer "number_of_years", mode: :required
  end
end

row = {
  "first_name" => "Alice",
  "cities_lived" => [
    {
      "place" => "Seattle",
      "number_of_years" => 5
    },
    {
      "place" => "Stockholm",
      "number_of_years" => 6
    }
  ]
}
table.insert row

See Also:

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: List, Schema

Attributes collapse

Data collapse

Lifecycle collapse

Instance Method Details

#api_urlObject

A URL that can be used to access the dataset using the REST API.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 189

def api_url
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["selfLink"]
end

#bytes_countObject

The number of bytes in the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 218

def bytes_count
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["numBytes"]
end

#copy(destination_table, create: nil, write: nil, dryrun: nil) ⇒ Gcloud::Bigquery::CopyJob

Copies the data from the table to another table. The destination table argument can also be a string identifier as specified by the Query Reference: project_name:datasetId.tableId. This is useful for referencing tables in other projects and datasets.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"
destination_table = dataset.table "my_destination_table"

copy_job = table.copy destination_table

Passing a string identifier for the destination table:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

copy_job = table.copy "other-project:other_dataset.other_table"

Parameters:

  • destination_table (Table, String)

    The destination for the copied data.

  • create (String)

    Specifies whether the job is allowed to create new tables.

    The following values are supported:

    • needed - Create the table if it does not exist.
    • never - The table must already exist. A 'notFound' error is raised if the table does not exist.
  • write (String)

    Specifies how to handle data already present in the destination table. The default value is empty.

    The following values are supported:

    • truncate - BigQuery overwrites the table data.
    • append - BigQuery appends the data to the table.
    • empty - An error will be returned if the destination table already contains data.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 488

def copy destination_table, create: nil, write: nil, dryrun: nil
  ensure_connection!
  options = { create: create, write: write, dryrun: dryrun }
  resp = connection.copy_table table_ref,
                               get_table_ref(destination_table),
                               options
  if resp.success?
    Job.from_gapi resp.data, connection
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#created_atObject

The time when this table was created.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 238

def created_at
  ensure_full_data!
  Time.at(@gapi["creationTime"] / 1000.0)
end

#data(token: nil, max: nil, start: nil) ⇒ Gcloud::Bigquery::Data

Retrieves data from the table.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

data = table.data
data.each do |row|
  puts row["first_name"]
end
more_data = table.data token: data.token

Parameters:

  • token (String)

    Page token, returned by a previous call, identifying the result set.

  • max (Integer)

    Maximum number of results to return.

  • start (Integer)

    Zero-based index of the starting row to read.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 426

def data token: nil, max: nil, start: nil
  ensure_connection!
  options = { token: token, max: max, start: start }
  resp = connection.list_tabledata dataset_id, table_id, options
  if resp.success?
    Data.from_response resp, self
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#dataset_idObject

The ID of the Dataset containing this table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 98

def dataset_id
  @gapi["tableReference"]["datasetId"]
end

#deleteBoolean

Permanently deletes the table.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

table.delete

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

    Returns true if the table was deleted.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 819

def delete
  ensure_connection!
  resp = connection.delete_table dataset_id, table_id
  if resp.success?
    true
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#descriptionObject

The description of the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 199

def description
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["description"]
end

#description=(new_description) ⇒ Object

Updates the description of the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 209

def description= new_description
  patch_gapi! description: new_description
end

#etagObject

A string hash of the dataset.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 179

def etag
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["etag"]
end

#expires_atObject

The time when this table expires. If not present, the table will persist indefinitely. Expired tables will be deleted and their storage reclaimed.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 250

def expires_at
  ensure_full_data!
  return nil if @gapi["expirationTime"].nil?
  Time.at(@gapi["expirationTime"] / 1000.0)
end

#extract(extract_url, format: nil, compression: nil, delimiter: nil, header: nil, dryrun: nil) ⇒ Gcloud::Bigquery::ExtractJob

Extract the data from the table to a Google Cloud Storage file.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

extract_job = table.extract "gs://my-bucket/file-name.json",
                            format: "json"

Parameters:

  • extract_url (Gcloud::Storage::File, String, Array<String>)

    The Google Storage file or file URI pattern(s) to which BigQuery should extract the table data.

  • format (String)

    The exported file format. The default value is csv.

    The following values are supported:

  • compression (String)

    The compression type to use for exported files. Possible values include GZIP and NONE. The default value is NONE.

  • delimiter (String)

    Delimiter to use between fields in the exported data. Default is ,.

  • header (Boolean)

    Whether to print out a header row in the results. Default is true.

Returns:

See Also:


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 577

def extract extract_url, format: nil, compression: nil, delimiter: nil,
            header: nil, dryrun: nil
  ensure_connection!
  options = { format: format, compression: compression,
              delimiter: delimiter, header: header, dryrun: dryrun }
  resp = connection.extract_table table_ref, extract_url, options
  if resp.success?
    Job.from_gapi resp.data, connection
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#fieldsObject

The fields of the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 383

def fields
  f = schema["fields"]
  f = f.to_hash if f.respond_to? :to_hash
  f = [] if f.nil?
  f
end

#headersObject

The names of the columns in the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 395

def headers
  fields.map { |f| f["name"] }
end

#idObject

The combined Project ID, Dataset ID, and Table ID for this table, in the format specified by the Query Reference: project_name:datasetId.tableId. To use this value in queries see #query_id.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 130

def id
  @gapi["id"]
end

#insert(rows, skip_invalid: nil, ignore_unknown: nil) ⇒ Gcloud::Bigquery::InsertResponse

Inserts data into the table for near-immediate querying, without the need to complete a #load operation before the data can appear in query results.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

rows = [
  { "first_name" => "Alice", "age" => 21 },
  { "first_name" => "Bob", "age" => 22 }
]
table.insert rows

Parameters:

  • rows (Hash, Array<Hash>)

    A hash object or array of hash objects containing the data.

  • skip_invalid (Boolean)

    Insert all valid rows of a request, even if invalid rows exist. The default value is false, which causes the entire request to fail if any invalid rows exist.

  • ignore_unknown (Boolean)

    Accept rows that contain values that do not match the schema. The unknown values are ignored. Default is false, which treats unknown values as errors.

Returns:

See Also:


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 790

def insert rows, skip_invalid: nil, ignore_unknown: nil
  rows = [rows] if rows.is_a? Hash
  ensure_connection!
  options = { skip_invalid: skip_invalid, ignore_unknown: ignore_unknown }
  resp = connection.insert_tabledata dataset_id, table_id, rows, options
  if resp.success?
    InsertResponse.from_gapi rows, resp.data
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#load(file, format: nil, create: nil, write: nil, projection_fields: nil, jagged_rows: nil, quoted_newlines: nil, encoding: nil, delimiter: nil, ignore_unknown: nil, max_bad_records: nil, quote: nil, skip_leading: nil, dryrun: nil) ⇒ Gcloud::Bigquery::LoadJob

Loads data into the table. You can pass a gcloud storage file path or a gcloud storage file instance. Or, you can upload a file directly. See Loading Data with a POST Request.

A note about large direct uploads

You may encounter a Broken pipe (Errno::EPIPE) error when attempting to upload large files. To avoid this problem, add the httpclient gem to your project, and the line (or lines) of configuration shown below. These lines must execute after you require gcloud but before you make your first gcloud connection. The first statement configures Faraday to use httpclient. The second statement, which should only be added if you are using a version of Faraday at or above 0.9.2, is a workaround for this gzip issue.

require "gcloud"

# Use httpclient to avoid broken pipe errors with large uploads Faraday.default_adapter = :httpclient

# Only add the following statement if using Faraday >= 0.9.2 # Override gzip middleware with no-op for httpclient Faraday::Response.register_middleware :gzip => Faraday::Response::Middleware

gcloud = Gcloud.new bigquery = gcloud.bigquery

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

load_job = table.load "gs://my-bucket/file-name.csv"

Pass a gcloud storage file instance:


require "gcloud"
require "gcloud/storage"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

storage = gcloud.storage
bucket = storage.bucket "my-bucket"
file = bucket.file "file-name.csv"
load_job = table.load file

Upload a file directly:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

file = File.open "my_data.csv"
load_job = table.load file

Parameters:

  • file (File, Gcloud::Storage::File, String)

    A file or the URI of a Google Cloud Storage file containing data to load into the table.

  • format (String)

    The exported file format. The default value is csv.

    The following values are supported:

  • create (String)

    Specifies whether the job is allowed to create new tables.

    The following values are supported:

    • needed - Create the table if it does not exist.
    • never - The table must already exist. A 'notFound' error is raised if the table does not exist.
  • write (String)

    Specifies how to handle data already present in the table. The default value is empty.

    The following values are supported:

    • truncate - BigQuery overwrites the table data.
    • append - BigQuery appends the data to the table.
    • empty - An error will be returned if the table already contains data.
  • projection_fields (Array<String>)

    If the format option is set to datastore_backup, indicates which entity properties to load from a Cloud Datastore backup. Property names are case sensitive and must be top-level properties. If not set, BigQuery loads all properties. If any named property isn't found in the Cloud Datastore backup, an invalid error is returned.

  • jagged_rows (Boolean)

    Accept rows that are missing trailing optional columns. The missing values are treated as nulls. If false, records with missing trailing columns are treated as bad records, and if there are too many bad records, an invalid error is returned in the job result. The default value is false. Only applicable to CSV, ignored for other formats.

  • quoted_newlines (Boolean)

    Indicates if BigQuery should allow quoted data sections that contain newline characters in a CSV file. The default value is false.

  • encoding (String)

    The character encoding of the data. The supported values are UTF-8 or ISO-8859-1. The default value is UTF-8.

  • delimiter (String)

    Specifices the separator for fields in a CSV file. BigQuery converts the string to ISO-8859-1 encoding, and then uses the first byte of the encoded string to split the data in its raw, binary state. Default is ,.

  • ignore_unknown (Boolean)

    Indicates if BigQuery should allow extra values that are not represented in the table schema. If true, the extra values are ignored. If false, records with extra columns are treated as bad records, and if there are too many bad records, an invalid error is returned in the job result. The default value is false.

    The format property determines what BigQuery treats as an extra value:

    • CSV: Trailing columns
    • JSON: Named values that don't match any column names
  • max_bad_records (Integer)

    The maximum number of bad records that BigQuery can ignore when running the job. If the number of bad records exceeds this value, an invalid error is returned in the job result. The default value is 0, which requires that all records are valid.

  • quote (String)

    The value that is used to quote data sections in a CSV file. BigQuery converts the string to ISO-8859-1 encoding, and then uses the first byte of the encoded string to split the data in its raw, binary state. The default value is a double-quote ". If your data does not contain quoted sections, set the property value to an empty string. If your data contains quoted newline characters, you must also set the allowQuotedNewlines property to true.

  • skip_leading (Integer)

    The number of rows at the top of a CSV file that BigQuery will skip when loading the data. The default value is 0. This property is useful if you have header rows in the file that should be skipped.

Returns:


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 738

def load file, format: nil, create: nil, write: nil,
         projection_fields: nil, jagged_rows: nil, quoted_newlines: nil,
         encoding: nil, delimiter: nil, ignore_unknown: nil,
         max_bad_records: nil, quote: nil, skip_leading: nil, dryrun: nil
  ensure_connection!
  options = { format: format, create: create, write: write,
              projection_fields: projection_fields,
              jagged_rows: jagged_rows, quoted_newlines: quoted_newlines,
              encoding: encoding, delimiter: delimiter,
              ignore_unknown: ignore_unknown,
              max_bad_records: max_bad_records, quote: quote,
              skip_leading: skip_leading, dryrun: dryrun }
  return load_storage(file, options) if storage_url? file
  return load_local(file, options) if local_file? file
  fail Gcloud::Bigquery::Error, "Don't know how to load #{file}"
end

#locationObject

The geographic location where the table should reside. Possible values include EU and US. The default value is US.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 290

def location
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["location"]
end

#modified_atObject

The date when this table was last modified.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 261

def modified_at
  ensure_full_data!
  Time.at(@gapi["lastModifiedTime"] / 1000.0)
end

#nameObject

The name of the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 161

def name
  @gapi["friendlyName"]
end

#name=(new_name) ⇒ Object

Updates the name of the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 170

def name= new_name
  patch_gapi! name: new_name
end

#project_idObject

The ID of the Project containing this table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 107

def project_id
  @gapi["tableReference"]["projectId"]
end

#query_idObject

The value returned by #id, wrapped in square brackets if the Project ID contains dashes, as specified by the Query Reference. Useful in queries.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.table "my_table"

data = bigquery.query "SELECT name FROM #{table.query_id}"

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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 152

def query_id
  project_id["-"] ? "[#{id}]" : id
end

#reload!Object Also known as: refresh!

Reloads the table with current data from the BigQuery service.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 834

def reload!
  ensure_connection!
  resp = connection.get_table dataset_id, table_id
  if resp.success?
    @gapi = resp.data
  else
    fail ApiError.from_response(resp)
  end
end

#rows_countObject

The number of rows in the table.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 228

def rows_count
  ensure_full_data!
  @gapi["numRows"]
end

#schema(replace: false) {|schema_builder| ... } ⇒ Object

Returns the table's schema as hash containing the keys and values returned by the Google Cloud BigQuery Rest API . This method can also be used to set, replace, or add to the schema by passing a block. See Schema for available methods. To set the schema by passing a hash instead, use #schema=.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.create_table "my_table"

table.schema do |schema|
  schema.string "first_name", mode: :required
  schema.record "cities_lived", mode: :repeated do |nested_schema|
    nested_schema.string "place", mode: :required
    nested_schema.integer "number_of_years", mode: :required
  end
end

Parameters:

  • replace (Boolean)

    Whether to replace the existing schema with the new schema. If true, the fields will replace the existing schema. If false, the fields will be added to the existing schema. When a table already contains data, schema changes must be additive. Thus, the default value is false.

Yields:

  • (schema_builder)

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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 327

def schema replace: false
  ensure_full_data!
  g = @gapi
  g = g.to_hash if g.respond_to? :to_hash
  s = g["schema"] ||= {}
  return s unless block_given?
  s = nil if replace
  schema_builder = Schema.new s
  yield schema_builder
  self.schema = schema_builder.schema if schema_builder.changed?
end

#schema=(new_schema) ⇒ Object

Updates the schema of the table. To update the schema using a block instead, use #schema.

Examples:

require "gcloud"

gcloud = Gcloud.new
bigquery = gcloud.bigquery
dataset = bigquery.dataset "my_dataset"
table = dataset.create_table "my_table"

schema = {
  "fields" => [
    {
      "name" => "first_name",
      "type" => "STRING",
      "mode" => "REQUIRED"
    },
    {
      "name" => "age",
      "type" => "INTEGER",
      "mode" => "REQUIRED"
    }
  ]
}
table.schema = schema

Parameters:

  • new_schema (Hash)

    A hash containing keys and values as specified by the Google Cloud BigQuery Rest API .


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 374

def schema= new_schema
  patch_gapi! schema: new_schema
end

#table?Boolean

Checks if the table's type is "TABLE".

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 271

def table?
  @gapi["type"] == "TABLE"
end

#table_idObject

A unique ID for this table. The ID must contain only letters (a-z, A-Z), numbers (0-9), or underscores (_). The maximum length is 1,024 characters.


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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 89

def table_id
  @gapi["tableReference"]["tableId"]
end

#view?Boolean

Checks if the table's type is "VIEW".

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'lib/gcloud/bigquery/table.rb', line 280

def view?
  @gapi["type"] == "VIEW"
end