SitePrism

A Page Object Model DSL for Capybara

SitePrism gives you a simple, clean and semantic DSL for describing your site using the Page Object Model pattern, for use with Capybara in automated acceptance testing.

Find the pretty documentation here: http://rdoc.info/gems/site_prism/frames

Build Status

Make sure to add your project/company to https://github.com/natritmeyer/site_prism/wiki/Who-is-using-SitePrism

Developing / Contributing to SitePrism

We love it when people want to get involved with our Open Source Project.

We have a brief set of setup docs HERE

Supported Rubies / Browsers

SitePrism is built and tested to work on Ruby 2.3 - 2.5. There is also some limited support for the Ruby 2.2 series.

SitePrism should run on all major browsers. The gem's integration tests are ran on Chrome and Firefox.

If you find your browser doesn't integrate nicely with SitePrism, please open an issue request

Synopsis

Here's an overview of how SitePrism is designed to be used:

# define our site's pages

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/index.htm'
  set_url_matcher /google.com\/?/

  element :search_field, 'input[name="q"]'
  element :search_button, 'button[name="btnK"]'
  elements :footer_links, '#footer a'
  section :menu, MenuSection, '#gbx3'
end

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Page
  set_url_matcher /google.com\/results\?.*/

  section :menu, MenuSection, '#gbx3'
  sections :search_results, SearchResultSection, '#results li'

  def search_result_links
    search_results.map { |result| result.title['href'] }
  end
end

# define sections used on multiple pages or multiple times on one page

class MenuSection < SitePrism::Section
  element :search, 'a.search'
  element :images, 'a.image-search'
  element :maps, 'a.map-search'
end

class SearchResultSection < SitePrism::Section
  element :title, 'a.title'
  element :blurb, 'span.result-description'
end

# now for some tests

When(/^I navigate to the google home page$/) do
  @home = Home.new
  @home.load
end

Then(/^the home page should contain the menu and the search form$/) do
  @home.wait_for_menu # menu loads after a second or 2, give it time to arrive
  expect(@home).to have_menu
  expect(@home).to have_search_field
  expect(@home).to have_search_button
end

When(/^I search for Sausages$/) do
  @home.search_field.set 'Sausages'
  @home.search_button.click
end

Then(/^the search results page is displayed$/) do
  @results_page = SearchResults.new
  expect(@results_page).to be_displayed
end

Then(/^the search results page contains 10 individual search results$/) do
  @results_page.wait_for_search_results
  expect(@results_page).to have_search_results(count: 10)
end

Then(/^the search results contain a link to the wikipedia sausages page$/) do
  expect(@results_page.search_result_links).to include('http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sausage')
end

Now for the details...

Setup

Installation

To install SitePrism:

gem install site_prism

Using SitePrism with Cucumber

If you are using cucumber, here's what needs requiring:

require 'capybara'
require 'capybara/cucumber'
require 'selenium-webdriver'
require 'site_prism'

Using SitePrism with RSpec

If you're using rspec instead, here's what needs requiring:

require 'capybara'
require 'capybara/rspec'
require 'selenium-webdriver'
require 'site_prism'

Introduction to the Page Object Model

The Page Object Model is a test automation pattern that aims to create an abstraction of your site's user interface that can be used in tests. The most common way to do this is to model each page as a class, and to then use instances of those classes in your tests.

If a class represents a page then each element of the page is represented by a method that, when called, returns a reference to that element that can then be acted upon (clicked, set text value), or queried (is it enabled? / visible?).

SitePrism is based around this concept, but goes further as you'll see below by also allowing modelling of repeated sections that appear on multiple pages, or many times on a page using the concept of sections.

Pages

As you might be able to guess from the name, pages are fairly central to the Page Object Model. Here's how SitePrism models them:

Creating a Page Model

The simplest page is one that has nothing defined in it. Here's an example of how to begin modelling a home page:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
end

The above has nothing useful defined, only the name.

Adding a URL

A page usually has a URL. If you want to be able to navigate to a page, you'll need to set its URL. Here's how:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url 'http://www.google.com'
end

If you've set Capybara's app_host then you can set the URL as follows:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/home.htm'
end

Note that setting a URL is optional - you only need to set a url if you want to be able to navigate directly to that page. It makes sense to set the URL for a page model of a home page or a login page, but probably not a search results page.

Parametrized URLs

SitePrism uses the addressable gem and therefore allows for parameterization of URLs. Here is a simple example:

class UserProfile < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/users{/username}'
end

...and a more complex example:

class Search < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/search{?query*}'
end

See https://github.com/sporkmonger/addressable for more details on parameterized URLs.

Navigating to the Page

Once the URL has been set (using set_url), you can navigate directly to the page using #load:

@home_page = Home.new
@home_page.load

Navigating to a page with a parameterized URL

The #load method takes parameters and will apply them to the URL. Using the examples above:

class UserProfile < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/users{/username}'
end

@user_profile = UserProfile.new
@user_profile.load #=> /users
@user_profile.load(username: 'bob') #=> loads /users/bob

...and...

class Search < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/search{?query*}'
end

@search = Search.new
@search.load(query: 'simple') #=> loads /search?query=simple
@search.load(query: {'color'=> 'red', 'text'=> 'blue'}) #=> loads /search?color=red&text=blue

This will tell whichever capybara driver you have configured to navigate to the URL set against that page's class.

See https://github.com/sporkmonger/addressable for more details on parameterized URLs.

Verifying that a particular page is displayed

Automated tests often need to verify that a particular page is displayed. SitePrism can automatically parse your URL template and verify that whatever components your template specifies match the currently viewed page. For example, with the following URL template:

class Account < SitePrism::Page
  set_url '/accounts/{id}{?query*}'
end

The following test code would pass:

@account_page = Account.new
@account_page.load(id: 22, query: { token: 'ca2786616a4285bc' })

expect(@account_page.current_url).to end_with('/accounts/22?token=ca2786616a4285bc')
expect(@account_page).to be_displayed

Calling #displayed? will return true if the browser's current URL matches the page's template and false if it doesn't.

Specifying parameter values for templated URLs

Sometimes you want to verify not just that the current URL matches the template, but that you're looking at a specific page matching that template.

Given the previous example, if you wanted to ensure that the browser had loaded account number 22, you could assert the following:

expect(@account_page).to be_displayed(id: 22)

You can even use regular expressions. If for example, you wanted to ensure that the browser was displaying an account with an id ending with 2, you could do:

expect(@account_page).to be_displayed(id: /2\z/)

Accessing specific matches from a templated URL in your tests

If passing options to displayed? isn't powerful enough to meet your needs, you can directly access and assert on the url_matches found when comparing your page's URL template to the current_url:

@account_page = Account.new
@account_page.load(id: 22, query: { token: 'ca2786616a4285bc', color: 'irrelevant' })

expect(@account_page).to be_displayed(id: 22)
expect(@account_page.url_matches['query']['token']).to eq('ca2786616a4285bc')

Falling back to basic regexp matchers

If SitePrism's built-in URL matching is not sufficient for your needs you can override and use SitePrism's previous support for regular expression-based URL matchers by it by calling set_url_matcher:

class Account < SitePrism::Page
  set_url_matcher %r{/accounts/\d+}
end

Testing for Page display

SitePrism's #displayed? predicate method allows for semantic code in your tests:

Then /^the account page is displayed$/ do
  expect(@account_page).to be_displayed
  expect(@some_other_page).not_to be_displayed
end

Getting the Current Page's URL

SitePrism allows you to get the current page's URL. Here's how it's done:

class Account < SitePrism::Page
end

@account = Account.new
@account.current_url #=> "http://www.example.com/account/123"
expect(@account.current_url).to include('example.com/account/')

Page Title

Getting a page's title isn't hard:

class Account < SitePrism::Page
end

@account = Account.new
@account.title #=> "Welcome to Your Account"

HTTP vs. HTTPS

You can easily tell if the page is secure or not by checking to see if the current URL begins with 'https' or not. SitePrism provides the secure? method that will return true if the current url begins with 'https' and false if it doesn't. For example:

class Account < SitePrism::Page
end

@account = Account.new
@account.secure? #=> true/false
expect(@account).to be_secure

Elements

Pages are made up of elements (text fields, buttons, combo boxes, etc), either individual elements or groups of them. Examples of individual elements would be a search field or a company logo image; examples of element collections would be items in any sort of list, eg: menu items, images in a carousel, etc.

Individual Elements

To interact with individual elements, they need to be defined as part of the relevant page. SitePrism makes this easy:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  element :search_field, 'input[name="q"]'
end

Here we're adding a search field to the Home page. The element method takes 2 arguments: the name of the element as a symbol, and a css selector as a string.

Accessing the individual element

The element method will add a number of methods to instances of the particular Page class. The first method to be added is the name of the element. So using the following example:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url 'http://www.google.com'

  element :search_field, 'input[name="q"]'
end

... the following shows how to get hold of the search field:

@home = Home.new
@home.load

@home.search_field #=> will return the capybara element found using the selector
@home.search_field.set 'the search string' #=> since search_field returns a capybara element, you can use the capybara API to deal with it
@home.search_field.text #=> standard method on a capybara element; returns a string

Testing for the existence of the element

Another method added to the Page class by the element method is the has_<element name>? method. Using the same example as above:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url 'http://www.google.com'

  element :search_field, 'input[name="q"]'
end

... you can test for the existence of the element on the page like this:

@home = Home.new
@home.load
@home.has_search_field? #=> returns true if it exists, false if it doesn't

...which makes for nice test code:

Then /^the search field exists$/ do
  expect(@home).to have_search_field
end

Testing that an element does not exist

To test that an element does not exist on the page, it is not possible to just call #not_to have_search_field. SitePrism supplies the #has_no_<element>? method that should be used to test for non-existence. Using the above example:

@home = Home.new
@home.load
@home.has_no_search_field? #=> returns true if it doesn't exist, false if it does

...which makes for nice test code:

Then /^the search field exists$/ do
  expect(@home).to have_no_search_field #NB: NOT => expect(@home).not_to have_search_field
end

Waiting for an element to become visible

A method that gets added by calling element is the wait_until_<element_name>_visible method. Calling this method will cause the test to wait for Capybara's default wait time for the element to become visible. You can customise the wait time by supplying a number of seconds to wait in-line or configuring the default wait time.

@home.wait_until_search_field_visible
# or...
@home.wait_until_search_field_visible(wait: 10)

Waiting for an element to become invisible

Another method added by calling element is the wait_until_<element_name>_invisible method. Calling this method will cause the test to wait for Capybara's default wait time for the element to become invisible. You can as with the visibility waiter, customise the wait time in the same way.

@home.wait_until_search_field_invisible
# or...
@home.wait_until_search_field_invisible(wait: 10)

CSS Selectors vs. XPath Expressions

While the above examples all use CSS selectors to find elements, it is possible to use XPath expressions too. In SitePrism, everywhere that you can use a CSS selector, you can use an XPath expression.

An example:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  # CSS Selector
  element :first_name, 'div#signup input[name="first-name"]'

  # Identical selector as an XPath expression
  element :first_name, :xpath, '//div[@id="signup"]//input[@name="first-name"]'
end

Summary of what the element method provides:

Given:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  element :search_field, 'input[name="q"]'
end

Then the following methods are available:

@home.search_field
@home.has_search_field?
@home.has_no_search_field?
@home.wait_until_search_field_visible
@home.wait_until_search_field_invisible

Element Collections

Sometimes you don't want to deal with an individual element but rather with a collection of similar elements, for example, a list of names. To enable this, SitePrism provides the elements method on the Page class. Here's how it works:

class Friends < SitePrism::Page
  elements :names, 'ul#names li a'
end

Just like the element method, the elements method takes 2 arguments: the first being the name of the elements as a symbol, the second is the css selector (Or locator strategy), that would return capybara elements.

Accessing the elements

Just like the element method, the elements method adds a few methods to the Page class. The first one is of the name of the element collection which returns an array of capybara elements that match the css selector. Using the example above:

class Friends < SitePrism::Page
  elements :names, 'ul#names li a'
end

You can access the element collection like this:

@friends_page = Friends.new
# ...
@friends_page.names #=> [<Capybara::Element>, <Capybara::Element>, <Capybara::Element>]

With that you can do all the normal things that are possible with arrays:

@friends_page.names.each { |name| puts name.text }
@friends_page.names.map { |name| name.text }

Or even run some tests ...

expect(@friends_page.names.map { |name| name.text }).to eq(['Alice', 'Bob', 'Fred'])
expect(@friends_page.names.size).to eq(3)
expect(@friends_page).to have(3).names

Testing for the existence of the element collection

Just like the element method, the elements method adds a method to the page that will allow you to check for the existence of the collection, called has_<element collection name>?. As long as there is at least 1 element in the array, the method will return true, otherwise it wil return false. For example, with the following page:

class Friends < SitePrism::Page
  elements :names, 'ul#names li a'
end

Then the following method is available:

@friends_page.has_names? #=> returns true if at least one element is found using the relevant selector

This in turn allows the following nice test code

Then /^there should be some names listed on the page$/ do
  expect(@friends_page).to have_names #=> This only passes if there is at least one `name`
end

Waiting for the elements to be visible or invisible

Like an individual element, calling the elements method will create two methods: wait_until_<elements_name>_visible and wait_until_<elements_name>_invisible. Calling these methods will cause your test to wait for the elements to become visible or invisible. Using the above example:

@friends_page.wait_until_names_visible
# and...
@friends_page.wait_until_names_invisible

It is possible to wait for a specific amount of time instead of using the default Capybara wait time:

@friends_page.wait_until_names_visible(wait: 5)
# and...
@friends_page.wait_until_names_invisible(wait: 7)

Checking that all mapped elements are present on the page

Throughout my time in test automation I keep getting asked to provide the ability to check that all elements that should be on the page are on the page. Why people would want to test this, I don't know. But if that's what you want to do, SitePrism provides the #all_there? method that will return true if all mapped items are present in the browser and false if they're not all there.

@friends_page.all_there? #=> true/false

# and...

Then /^the friends page contains all the expected elements$/ do
  expect(@friends_page).to be_all_there
end

You may wish to have elements declared in a page object class that are not always guaranteed to be present (success or error messages, etc.). If you'd still like to test such a page with all_there? you can declare expected_elements on your page object class that narrows the elements included in all_there? check to those that definitely should be present.

class TestPage < SitePrism::Page
  element :name_field, '#name'
  element :address_field, '#address'
  element :success_message, 'span.alert-success'

  expected_elements :name_field, :address_field
end

And if you aren't sure which elements will be present, Then ask SitePrism to tell you!

class TestPage < SitePrism::Page
  element :name_field, '#name'
  element :address_field, '#address'
  element :success_message, 'span.alert-success'
end

# and... Only `address_field` is on the page

@test_page.elements_present #=> [:address_field]

Sections

SitePrism allows you to model sections of a page that appear on multiple pages or that appear a number of times on a page separately from Pages. SitePrism provides the Section class for this task.

Individual Sections

In the same way that SitePrism provides element and elements, it provides section and sections. The first returns an instance of a page section, the second returns an array of section instances, one for each capybara element found by the supplied css selector. What follows is an explanation of section.

Defining a Section

A section is similar to a page in that it inherits from a SitePrism class:

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
end

At the moment, this section does nothing.

Adding a section to a page

Pages include sections that's how SitePrism works. Here's a page that includes the above Menu section:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

The way to add a section to a page (or another section - which is possible) is to call the section method. It takes 3 arguments: the first is the name of the section as referred to on the page (sections that appear on multiple pages can be named differently). The second argument is the class of which an instance will be created to represent the page section, and the following arguments are Capybara::Node::Finders. These identify the root node of the section on this page (note that the css selector can be different for different pages as the whole point of sections is that they can appear in different places / ways on different pages).

You can define a section as a class and/or an Anonymous section. This will then allow you to have some handy constructs like the one below

class People < SitePrism::Section
  element :footer, 'h4'
end

class HomePage < SitePrism::Page
  # section people_with_block will have `headline` and
  # `footer` elements in it
  section :people_with_block, People do
    element :headline, 'h2'
  end
end

The 3rd argument (Locators), can be omitted if you are re-using the same locator for all references to the section Class. In order to do this, simply tell SitePrism that you want to use a default search argument.

class People < SitePrism::Section
  set_default_search_arguments '.people'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :people, People
end

Accessing a Page's section

The section method (like the element method) adds a few methods to the page or section class it was called against. The first method that is added is one that returns an instance of the section, the method name being the first argument to the section method. Here's an example:

# the section

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
end

# the page that includes the section

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

# the page and section in action

@home = Home.new
@home.menu #=> <MenuSection...>

When the menu method is called against @home, an instance of Menu (the second argument to the section method) is returned. The third argument that is passed to the section method is the locator that will be used to find the root element of the section; this root node becomes the 'scope' of the section.

The following shows that though the same section can appear on multiple pages, it can take a different root node:

# define the section that appears on both pages

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
end

# define 2 pages, each containing the same section

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx48'
end

You can see that the Menu is used in both the Home and SearchResults pages, but each has slightly different root node. The capybara element that is found by the css selector becomes the root node for the relevant page's instance of the Menu section.

Adding elements to a section

This works just the same as adding elements to a page:

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
  element :search, 'a.search'
  element :images, 'a.image-search'
  element :maps, 'a.map-search'
end

Note that the locators used to find elements are searched for within the scope of the root element of that section. The search for the element won't be page-wide but it will only look in the section.

When the section is added to a page ...

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

...then the section's elements can be accessed like this:

@home = Home.new
@home.load

@home.menu.search #=> returns a capybara element representing the link to the search page
@home.menu.search.click #=> clicks the search link in the home page menu
@home.menu.search['href'] #=> returns the value for the href attribute of the capybara element representing the search link
@home.menu.has_images? #=> returns true or false based on whether the link is present in the section on the page
@home.menu.wait_for_images #=> waits for capybara's default wait time until the element appears in the page section

This then leads to some pretty test code ...

Then /^the home page menu contains a link to the various search functions$/ do
  expect(@home.menu).to have_search
  expect(@home.menu.search['href']).to include('google.com')
  expect(@home.menu).to have_images
  expect(@home.menu).to have_maps
end
Accessing section elements using a block

A Section can be scoped so it is only accessible inside a block. This is similar to Capybara's within method and allows for shorter test code particularly with nested sections. Some of this test code can be made a little prettier by simply passing a block in.

Then /^the home page menu contains a link to the various search functions$/ do
  @home.menu do |menu|
    expect(menu).to have_search
    expect(menu.search['href']).to include('google.com')
    expect(menu).to have_images
    expect(menu).to have_maps
  end
end

Getting a section's parent

It is possible to ask a section for its parent (page, or section if this section is a subsection). For example, given the following setup:

class MySubSection < SitePrism::Section
  element :some_element, 'abc'
end

class MySection < SitePrism::Section
  section :my_subsection, MySubSection, 'def'
end

class MyPage < SitePrism::Page
  section :my_section, MySection, 'ghi'
end

Then calling #parent will return the following:

@my_page = MyPage.new
@my_page.load

@my_page.my_section.parent #=> returns @my_page
@my_page.my_section.my_subsection.parent #=> returns @my_page.my_section

Getting a section's parent page

It is possible to ask a section for the page that it belongs to. For example, given the following setup:

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
  element :search, 'a.search'
  element :images, 'a.image-search'
  element :maps, 'a.map-search'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

...you can get the section's parent page:

@home = Home.new
@home.load
@home.menu.parent_page #=> returns @home

Testing for the existence of a section

Just like elements, it is possible to test for the existence of a section. The section method adds a method called has_<section name>? to the page or section it's been added to - same idea as what the has_<element name>? method. Given the following setup:

class Menu < SitePrism::Section
  element :search, 'a.search'
  element :images, 'a.image-search'
  element :maps, 'a.map-search'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, Menu, '#gbx3'
end

You can check whether the section is present on the page or not:

@home = Home.new
#...
@home.has_menu? #=> returns true or false

Again, this allows pretty test code:

expect(@home).to have_menu
expect(@home).not_to have_menu

Waiting for a section to become visible or invisible

Like an element, it is possible to wait for a section to become visible or invisible. Calling the section method creates two methods on the relevant page or section: wait_until_<section_name>_visible and wait_until_<section_name>_invisible. Using the above example, here's how they're used:

@home = Home.new
@home.wait_until_menu_visible
# and...
@home.wait_until_menu_invisible

Again, as for an element, it is possible to give a specific amount of time to wait for visibility/invisibility of a section. Here's how:

@home = Home.new
@home.wait_until_menu_visible(wait: 5)
# and...
@home.wait_until_menu_invisible(wait: 3)

Sections within sections

You are not limited to adding sections only to pages; you can nest sections within sections within sections within sections!


# define a page that contains an area that contains a section for both
# logging in and registration. Modelling each of the sub-sections separately

class Login < SitePrism::Section
  element :username, '#username'
  element :password, '#password'
  element :sign_in, 'button'
end

class Registration < SitePrism::Section
  element :first_name, '#first_name'
  element :last_name, '#last_name'
  element :next_step, 'button.next-reg-step'
end

class LoginRegistrationForm < SitePrism::Section
  section :login, Login, 'div.login-area'
  section :registration, Registration, 'div.reg-area'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :login_and_registration, LoginRegistrationForm, 'div.login-registration'
end

# how to login (fatuous, but demonstrates the point):

Then /^I sign in$/ do
  @home = Home.new
  @home.load
  expect(@home).to 
  expect(@home.).to have_username
  @home...username.set 'bob'
  @home...password.set 'p4ssw0rd'
  @home....click
end

# how to sign up:

When /^I enter my name into the home page's registration form$/ do
  @home = Home.new
  @home.load
  expect(@home.).to have_first_name
  expect(@home.).to have_last_name
  @home..first_name.set 'Bob'
  # ...
end

Anonymous Sections

If you want to use a section more as a namespace for elements and are not planning on re-using it, you may find it more convenient to define an anonymous section using a block:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  section :menu, '.menu' do
    element :title, '.title'
    elements :items, 'a'
  end
end

This code will create an anonymous section that you can use in the same way as an ordinary section:

@home = Home.new
expect(@home.menu).to have_title

Section Collections

An individual section represents a discrete section of a page, but often sections are repeated on a page, an example is a search result listing - each listing contains a title, a url and a description of the content. It makes sense to model this only once and then to be able to access each instance of a search result on a page as an array of SitePrism sections. To achieve this, SitePrism provides the sections method that can be called in a page or a section.

The only difference between section and sections is that whereas the first returns an instance of the supplied section class, the second returns an array containing as many instances of the section class as there are capybara elements found by the supplied css selector. This is better explained in the following example ...

Adding a Section collection to a page (or other section)

Given the following setup:

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Section
  element :title, 'a.title'
  element :blurb, 'span.result-description'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  sections :search_results, SearchResults, '#results li'
end

It is possible to access each of the search results:

@home = Home.new
# ...
@home.search_results.each do |result|
  puts result.title.text
end

This allows for pretty tests ...

Then /^there are lots of search_results$/ do
  expect(@results_page.search_results.size).to eq(10)

  @home.search_results.each do |result|
    expect(result).to have_title
    expect(result.blurb.text).not_to be_empty
  end
end

The css selector that is passed as the 3rd argument to the sections method ("#results li") is used to find a number of capybara elements. Each capybara element found using the css selector is used to create a new instance of SearchResults and becomes its root element. So if the css selector finds 3 li elements, calling search_results will return an array containing 3 instances of SearchResults, each with one of the li elements as it's root element.

Anonymous Section Collections

You can define collections of anonymous sections the same way you would define a single anonymous section:

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  sections :search_results, '#results li' do
    element :title, 'a.title'
    element :blurb, 'span.result-description'
  end
end

Testing for existence of Sections

Using the example above, it is possible to test for the existence of the sections. As long as there is at least one section in the array, the sections item is said to exist. The sections method adds a has_<sections name>? method to the page/section that our section has been added to.

So given the example below, we can do the following ...

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Section
  element :title, 'a.title'
  element :blurb, 'span.result-description'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  sections :search_results, SearchResults, '#results li'
end

Here's how to test for the existence of the section:

@home = Home.new
# ...
@home.has_search_results? #=> Only returns `true` if there is 1 or more results

This allows for some pretty tests ...

Then /^there are search results on the page$/ do
  expect(@home).to have_search_results
end

Waiting for sections to appear/disappear

The last methods added by sections to the page/section we're adding our sections to are wait_until_<sections name>_visible and wait_until_<sections name>_invisible. They will wait for capybara's default wait time for there to be at least one of the section items in the array of sections to be visible or for one of the section items to be invisible respectively.

For example:

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Section
  element :title, 'a.title'
  element :blurb, 'span.result-decription'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  sections :search_results, SearchResults, '#results li'
end

... here's how to wait for one the section items to become visible:

@home = Home.new
# ...
@home.wait_until_search_results_visible
@home.wait_until_search_results_visible(wait: 3) #=> waits for 3 seconds instead of the default capybara timeout

... and how to wait for the sections to disappear

@home = Home.new
# ...
@home.wait_until_search_results_invisible
@home.wait_until_search_results_invisible(wait: 6) #=> waits for 6 seconds instead of the default capybara timeout

Load Validations

Load validations enable common validations to be abstracted and performed on a Page or Section to determine when it has finished loading and is ready for interaction in your tests.

For example, suppose you have a page which displays a 'Loading...' message while the body of the page is loaded in the background. Load validations can be used to ensure tests wait for the correct url to be displayed and the loading message is no longer present before trying to interact with the page.

Other use cases include Sections which are displayed conditionally and may take time to become ready to interact with, such as animated lightboxes.

Using Load Validations

Load validations can be used in three constructs:

  • Passing a block to Page#load
  • Passing a block to Loadable#when_loaded
  • Calling Loadable#loaded?

Page#load

When a block is passed to the Page#load method, the url will be loaded normally and then the block will be executed within the context of when_loaded. See when_loaded documentation below for further details.

Example:

# Load the page and then execute a block after all load validations pass:
my_page_instance.load do |page|
  page.do_something
end

Loadable#when_loaded

The Loadable#when_loaded method on a Loadable class instance will yield the instance of the class into a block after all load validations have passed.

If any load validation fails, an error will be raised with the reason, if given, for the failure.

Example:

# Execute a block after all load validations pass:
a_loadable_page_or_section.when_loaded do |loadable|
  loadable.do_something
end

Loadable#loaded?

You can explicitly run load validations on a Loadable via the loaded? method. This method will execute all load validations on the object and return a boolean value. In the event of a validation failure, a validation error can be accessed via the load_error method on the object, if any error message was emitted by the failing validation.

Example:

it 'loads the page' do
  some_page.load
  some_page.loaded?    #=> true if/when all load validations pass
  another_page.loaded? #=> false if any load validations fail
  another_page.load_error #=> A string error message if one was supplied by the failing load validation, or nil
end

Defining Load Validations

A load validation is a block which returns a boolean value when evaluated against an instance of the Page or Section where defined.

class SomePage < SitePrism::Page
  element :foo_element, '.foo'
  load_validation { has_foo_element? }
end

The block may be defined as a two-element array which includes the boolean check as the first element and an error message as the second element. It is highly recommended to supply an error message, as they are extremely useful in debugging validation errors.

The error message is ignored unless the boolean value is evaluated as falsey.

class SomePage < SitePrism::Page
  element :foo_element, '.foo'
  load_validation { [has_foo_element?, 'did not have foo element!'] }
end

Load validations may be defined on SitePrism::Page and SitePrism::Section classes (herein referred to as Loadables) and are evaluated against an instance of the class when created.

Load Validation Inheritance and Execution Order

Any number of load validations may be defined on a Loadable and they are inherited by its subclasses (if any exist).

Load validations are executed in the order that they are defined. Inherited load validations are executed from the top of the inheritance chain (e.g. SitePrism::Page or SitePrism::Section) to the bottom.

For example:

class BasePage < SitePrism::Page
  element :loading_message, '.loader'

  load_validation do
    [has_no_loading_message?(wait: 10), 'loading message was still displayed']
  end
end

class FooPage < BasePage
  set_url '/foo'

  section :form, '#form'
  element :some_other_element, '.myelement'

  load_validation { [has_form?, 'form did not appear'] }
  load_validation { [has_some_other_element?, 'some other element did not appear'] }
end

In the above example, when loaded? is called on an instance of FooPage, the validations will be performed in the following order:

  1. The BasePage validation will wait for the loading message to disappear.
  2. The FooPage validation will wait for the form element to be present.
  3. The FooPage validation will wait for the some_other_element element to be present.

NB: SitePrism::Page used to include a default load validation on page.displayed? however for v3 this has been removed. It is therefore necessary to re-define this if you want to retain the behaviour from site_prism v2. See UPGRADING.md for more info on this.

Using Capybara Query Options

When querying an element, section or a collection of elements or sections, you may supply Capybara query options as arguments to the element and section methods in order to refine the results of the query and enable Capybara to wait for all of the conditions necessary to properly fulfill your request.

Given the following sample page and elements:

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Section
  element :title, 'a.title'
  element :blurb, 'span.result-decription'
end

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  element :footer, '.footer'
  sections :search_results, SearchResults, '#results li'
end

Asserting the attributes of an element or section returned by any method may fail if the page has not finished loading the section(s):

@home = Home.new
# ...
expect(@home.search_results.size).to == 25 # This may fail!

The above query can be rewritten to utilize the Capybara :count option when querying for the sections to be present and countable, which in turn causes Capybara to expect some number of results to be returned. The method calls below will succeed, provided the elements appear on the page within the timeout:

@home = Home.new
@home.has_search_results?(count: 25)
# OR
@home.search_results(count: 25)

Now we can write pretty, non-failing tests without hard coding these options into our page and section classes:

Then /^there are search results on the page$/ do
  expect(@results_page).to have_search_results(count: 25)
end

This is supported for all of the Capybara options including, but not limited to :count, :text etc. This can also be used when defining page objects.

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  element :footer, '.footer'
  element :view_more, 'li', text: 'View More'
  sections :search_results, SearchResults, '#results li', count: 5
end

Methods Supporting Capybara Options

The following element methods allow Capybara options to be passed as arguments to the method:

@results_page.<element_or_section_name>(text: 'Welcome!')
@results_page.has_<element_or_section_name>?(count: 25)
@results_page.has_no_<element_or_section_name>?(text: 'Logout')
@results_page.wait_until_<element_or_section_name>_visible(text: 'Some ajaxy text appears!')
@results_page.wait_until_<element_or_section_name>_invisible(text: 'Some ajaxy text disappears!')

Test views with Page objects

It's possible to use the same page objects of integration tests for view tests, too, just pass the rendered HTML to the load method:

require 'spec_helper'

describe 'admin/things/index' do
  let(:list_page) { AdminThingsListPage.new }
  let(:thing) { build(:thing, some_attribute: 'some attribute') }

  it 'contains the things we expect' do
    assign(:things, [thing])

    render template: 'admin/things/index'

    list_page.load(rendered)

    expect(list_page.rows.first.some_attribute).to have_text('some attribute')
  end
end

iFrames

SitePrism allows you to interact with iframes. An iframe is declared as a SitePrism::Page class, and then referenced by the page or section it is embedded into. Like a section, it is possible to test for the existence of the iframe, wait for it to exist as well as interact with the page it contains.

Creating an iFrame

An iframe is declared in the same way as a Page:

class MyIframe < SitePrism::Page
  element :some_text_field, 'input.username'
end

To expose the iframe, reference it from another page or class using the iframe method. The iframe method takes 3 arguments; the name by which you would like to reference the iframe, the page class that represents the iframe, and the CSS selector by which you can locate the iframe. For example:

class PageContainingIframe < SitePrism::Page
  iframe :my_iframe, MyIframe, '#my_iframe_id'
end

Locating an iFrame

While the above example uses a CSS selector to find the iframe, it is also possible to use an XPath expression or the index of the iframe in its parent (a shortcut for an nth-of-type CSS selector). For example:

class PageContainingIframe < SitePrism::Page
  # XPath Expression:
  iframe :my_iframe, MyIframe, :xpath, '//iframe[@id="my_iframe_id"]'

  # Index (nth-of-type) Selector:
  iframe :my_iframe, MyIframe, 0
end

Testing for an iframe's existence

Like an element or section, it is possible to test for an iframe's existence using the auto-generated has_<iframe_name>? method. Using the above example, here's how it's done:

@page = PageContainingIframe.new
# ...
@page.has_my_iframe? #=> true
expect(@page).to have_my_iframe

Interacting with an iframe's contents:

Since an iframe contains a fully fledged SitePrism::Page, you are able to interact with the elements and sections defined within it. Due to capybara internals it is necessary to pass a block to the iframe instead of simply calling methods on it; the block argument is the SitePrism::Page that represents the iframe's contents. For example:

# SitePrism::Page representing the iframe
class LoginFrame < SitePrism::Page
  element :username, 'input.username'
  element :password, 'input.password'
end

# SitePrism::Page representing the page that contains the iframe
class Home < SitePrism::Page
  set_url 'http://www.example.com'

  iframe :login_frame, LoginFrame, '#login_and_registration'
end

# cucumber step that performs login
When /^I log in$/ do
  @home = Home.new
  @home.load

  @home. do |frame|
    #`frame` is an instance of the `LoginFrame` class
    frame.username.set 'admin'
    frame.password.set 'p4ssword'
  end
end

SitePrism Configuration

SitePrism can be configured to change its behaviour.

For each of the following configuration options, either add it in the spec_helper.rb file if you are running SitePrism as a Unit Test framework, or in your env.rb if you are running a Cucumber based framework

Using Capybara Implicit Waits

By default, SitePrism element and section methods utilize Capybara's implicit wait methodology and will return only once the shorter of the Capybara timeout limit has been reached or the required query has passed.

If you want to tweak the waiting time or disable it completely, configure it as per the code below

Capybara.configure do |config|
  config.default_max_wait_time = 11 #=> Wait up to 11 seconds for all querys to fail
  # or alternatively, if you don't want to ever wait
  config.default_max_wait_time = 0 #=> Don't ever wait! 
end

Note that even with implicit waits on you can dynamically modify the wait times in any SitePrism method to help work-around special circumstances.

# Option 1: using wait key assignment
@home.search_results(wait: 20) # will wait up to 20 seconds

# Option 2: using Capybara directly, this will wait up to 20 seconds
Capybara.using_wait_time(20) do
  @home.search_results
end

Using SitePrism with VCR

There's a SitePrism plugin called site_prism.vcr that lets you use SitePrism with the VCR gem. Check it out HERE

Epilogue

So, we've seen how to use SitePrism to put together page objects made up of pages, elements, sections and iframes. But how to organise this stuff? There are a few ways of saving yourself having to create instances of pages all over the place. Here's an example of this common problem:

@home = Home.new # <-- noise
@home.load
@home.search_field.set 'Sausages'
@home.search_field.search_button.click
@results_page = SearchResults.new # <-- noise
expect(@results_page).to have_search_result_items

The annoyance (and, later, maintenance nightmare) is having to create @home and @results_page. It would be better to not have to create instances of pages all over your tests.

The way I've dealt with this problem is to create a class containing methods that return instances of the pages. Eg:

# our pages

class Home < SitePrism::Page
  #...
end

class SearchResults < SitePrism::Page
  #...
end

class Maps < SitePrism::Page
  #...
end

# here's the app class that represents our entire site:

class App
  def home
    Home.new
  end

  def results_page
    SearchResults.new
  end

  def maps
    Maps.new
  end
end

# and here's how to use it

#first line of the test...
Given(/^I start on the home page$/) do
  @app = App.new
  @app.home.load
end

When(/^I search for Sausages$/) do
  @app.home.search_field.set 'Sausages'
  @app.home.search_button.click
end

Then(/^I am on the results page$/) do
  expect(@app.results_page).to be_displayed
end

# etc...

The only thing that needs instantiating is the App class - from then on pages don't need to be initialized, they are now returned by methods on @app.

It is possible to further optimise this, by using Cucumber/RSpec hooks, however the investigation and optimisation of this is left as an exercise to the Reader.

Happy testing from all of the SitePrism team!