Sinatra + EM-Synchrony - fast, concurrent web applications with no callbacks!

Sinatra::Synchrony is a very small extension for Sinatra that dramatically improves the concurrency of your web application. Powered by EventMachine and EM-Synchrony, it increases the number of clients your application can serve per process when you have a lot of slow IO calls (like HTTP calls to external APIs). Because it uses Fibers internally to handle concurrency, no callback gymnastics are required! Just develop as if you were writing a normal Sinatra web application, use non-blocking libraries (see below) and you're all set!

How it works

  • Loads EventMachine and EM-Synchrony. Requires app server with EventMachine and Ruby 1.9 support (Thin, Rainbows!, Heroku). It should also work on JRuby (with JRUBY_OPTS="--1.9").
  • Inserts the Rack::FiberPool middleware, which automatically provides a Fiber for each incoming request, allowing EM-Synchrony to work.
  • Adds em-http-request, which you can use with EM::Synchrony to do concurrent HTTP calls to APIs! Or if you'd rather use a different client:
  • Patches TCPSocket via EM-Synchrony. Any software that uses this (such as an HTTP Client that uses Net::HTTP) can run without blocking IO. RestClient works great with this!
  • Patches Rack::Test so that it runs your tests within an EventMachine. Just test the same way you did before and it should just work.
  • Patches Resolv via em-resolv-replace, enabling non-blocking DNS lookups magically, the way David Bowie would want it.

What it doesn't do (yet)

Provide non-blocking drivers for everything. Right now the focus was to deal with the biggest concurrency problem for most apps, which is API calls to external websites. You don't have to make everything non-blocking to speed up applications with this approach, which is the important thing to understand. For example, if your database access is under ten milliseconds, it's not as bad as an API call to an external web site that takes a few seconds. There are numerous non-blocking drivers available however, check out the Protocol Implementations page on the EventMachine GitHub Wiki for a full list. I would personally like to see plug-and-play drivers implemented for the major three ORMs (ActiveRecord, DataMapper, Sequel), because then I could simply drop them into this gem and you'd be non-blocking without requiring any special changes. For most of the web applications I work on, this would be all I need to eliminate my blocking IO problems forever!


Install the gem:

gem install sinatra-synchrony

Register with Sinatra at the top, before any other middleware or plugins are loaded:

require 'sinatra/base'
require 'sinatra/synchrony'
class App < Sinatra::Base
  register Sinatra::Synchrony

If you are developing with a classic style app, just require the gem and it will automatically load:

require 'sinatra'
require 'sinatra/synchrony'

get '/' do
  'Sinatra::Synchrony is loaded automatically in classic mode, nothing needed'

Net::HTTP / TCPSocket

If you're using anything based on TCPSocket (such as Net::HTTP, which is used by many things), you can replace the native Ruby TCPSocket with one that supports EventMachine and allows for concurrency:


This will allow you to use things like RestClient without any changes:

RestClient.get ''

This is not perfect though - the TCPSocket overload doesn't currently support SSL and will throw an exception. This is more for when you have ruby libraries that use Net::HTTP and you want to try something. If you intend to do HTTP requests, I strongly recommend using Faraday instead, which has support for EM-HTTP-Request.

Please encourage Ruby library developers to use (or at least support) Faraday instead of Net::HTTP. Aside from the inability to be concurrent natively, it's a pretty weird and crappy interface, which makes it harder to replace it with something better.


Add this to the top of your test file:


Then just write your tests as usual, and all tests will be run within EventMachine. You must be in the test environment so that Sinatra will not load Rack::FiberPool.


Despite enabling synchronous programming without callbacks, there is no performance hit to your application! All the performance benefits you expect from Thin/Rainbows and EventMachine are still there:

class App < Sinatra::Base
  register Sinatra::Synchrony
  get '/' do
    'Hello World!'

Benchmarked with rackup -s thin:

$ ab -c 50 -n 2000
Requests per second:    3102.30 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       16.117 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.322 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0    0   0.1      0       1
Processing:     5   16   7.7     13      38
Waiting:        3   13   7.0     10      35
Total:          6   16   7.7     13      38

Let's try a simple blocking IO example to prove it works. 100 hits to

require 'sinatra'
require 'sinatra/synchrony'
require 'rest-client'
require 'faraday'
Faraday.default_adapter = :em_synchrony

get '/' do
  Faraday.get ''

$ ab -c 100 -n 100
Time taken for tests:   0.256 seconds

For a perspective, this operation takes 33 seconds without this extension.


This gem was designed to help us develop faster games and internal applications for Geoloqi: a real-time geofencing and location update platform. We wanted to share with you how we deal with concurrency issues, and also make it easy to utilize this for our other projects. One of these projects is our recently released Geoloqi ruby adapter, which can utilize Faraday and sinatra-synchrony to provide massive concurrency with almost no changes required to your code.

TODO / Thoughts

  • We are using this in production without any problems, and it's very stable for us. But you should test before deploying anything with it.
  • There is work underway to make this a Rack middleware, and integrate that middleware with this plugin. That way, many other frameworks can take advantage of this. There is also work exploratory work to provide support for non-EventMachine Reactor pattern implementations with this approach, but it's beyond the scope of this extension.



  • Ilya Grigorik and PostRank for their amazing work on em-synchrony, em-http-request, and countless articles explaining this.
  • Mike Perham and Carbon Five. For rack-fiber_pool, em-resolv-replace, and many blog posts and presentations on this.
  • Konstantin Haase for session overload suggestion.
  • Steeve Morin
  • Ryan Caught
  • The many Sinatra developers that liberated me from framework hell, and EventMachine developers that liberated me from blocking IO hell.