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Shoulda helps you write more understandable, maintainable Rails-specific tests under Minitest and Test::Unit.

📢 See what's changed in recent versions.


As a meta gem, the shoulda gem doesn't contain any code of its own but rather brings in behavior from two other gems:

For instance:

require "test_helper"

class UserTest < ActiveSupport::TestCase
  context "associations" do
    should have_many(:posts)

  context "validations" do
    should validate_presence_of(:email)
    should allow_value("[email protected]").for(:email)
    should_not allow_value("not-an-email").for(:email)

  context "#name" do
    should "consist of first and last name" do
      user = "John", last_name: "Smith")
      assert_equal "John Smith",

Here, the context and should methods come from Shoulda Context; matchers (e.g. have_many, allow_value) come from Shoulda Matchers.

See the READMEs for these projects for more information.


Shoulda Matchers is tested and supported against Ruby 2.4+, Rails 4.2.x+, RSpec 3.x, and Minitest 5.x.


Shoulda is open source, and we are grateful for everyone who's contributed so far.

If you'd like to contribute, please take a look at the instructions for installing dependencies and crafting a good pull request.


Shoulda follows Semantic Versioning 2.0 as defined at


Shoulda is copyright © 2006-2019 thoughtbot, inc. It is free software, and may be redistributed under the terms specified in the MIT-LICENSE file.

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