OAuth 2.0 Logo by Chris Messina, CC BY-SA 3.0 Yukihiro Matsumoto, Ruby Visual Identity Team, CC BY-SA 2.5


OAuth 2.0 is the industry-standard protocol for authorization. OAuth 2.0 focuses on client developer simplicity while providing specific authorization flows for web applications, desktop applications, mobile phones, and living room devices. This is a RubyGem for implementing OAuth 2.0 clients and servers in Ruby applications. See the sibling oauth gem for OAuth 1.0 implementations in Ruby.

Release Documentation

Version 2.0.x

2.0.x Readmes | Version | Release Date | Readme | |---------|--------------|----------------------------------------------------------| | 2.0.9 | 2022-09-16 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.9/README.md | | 2.0.8 | 2022-09-01 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.8/README.md | | 2.0.7 | 2022-08-22 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.7/README.md | | 2.0.6 | 2022-07-13 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.6/README.md | | 2.0.5 | 2022-07-07 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.5/README.md | | 2.0.4 | 2022-07-01 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.4/README.md | | 2.0.3 | 2022-06-28 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.3/README.md | | 2.0.2 | 2022-06-24 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.2/README.md | | 2.0.1 | 2022-06-22 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.1/README.md | | 2.0.0 | 2022-06-21 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v2.0.0/README.md |

Older Releases

1.4.x Readmes | Version | Release Date | Readme | |---------|--------------|-------------------------------------------------------------| | 1.4.11 | Sep 16, 2022 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.11/README.md | | 1.4.10 | Jul 1, 2022 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.10/README.md | | 1.4.9 | Feb 20, 2022 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.9/README.md | | 1.4.8 | Feb 18, 2022 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.8/README.md | | 1.4.7 | Mar 19, 2021 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.7/README.md | | 1.4.6 | Mar 19, 2021 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.6/README.md | | 1.4.5 | Mar 18, 2021 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.5/README.md | | 1.4.4 | Feb 12, 2020 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.4/README.md | | 1.4.3 | Jan 29, 2020 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.3/README.md | | 1.4.2 | Oct 1, 2019 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.2/README.md | | 1.4.1 | Oct 13, 2018 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.1/README.md | | 1.4.0 | Jun 9, 2017 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.4.0/README.md |
1.3.x Readmes | Version | Release Date | Readme | |----------|--------------|----------------------------------------------------------| | 1.3.1 | Mar 3, 2017 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.3.1/README.md | | 1.3.0 | Dec 27, 2016 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.3.0/README.md |
≤= 1.2.x Readmes (2016 and before) | Version | Release Date | Readme | |----------|--------------|----------------------------------------------------------| | 1.2.0 | Jun 30, 2016 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.2.0/README.md | | 1.1.0 | Jan 30, 2016 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.1.0/README.md | | 1.0.0 | May 23, 2014 | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/blob/v1.0.0/README.md | | < 1.0.0 | Find here | https://gitlab.com/oauth-xx/oauth2/-/tags |


Project bundle add oauth2
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Install the gem and add to the application's Gemfile by executing:

$ bundle add oauth2

If bundler is not being used to manage dependencies, install the gem by executing:

$ gem install oauth2

OAuth2 for Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of OAuth2 and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source packages you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact packages you use. Learn more.

Security contact information

To report a security vulnerability, please use the Tidelift security contact. Tidelift will coordinate the fix and disclosure.

For more see SECURITY.md.

What is new for v2.0?

  • Officially support Ruby versions >= 2.7
  • Unofficially support Ruby versions >= 2.5
  • Incidentally support Ruby versions >= 2.2
  • Drop support for the expired MAC Draft (all versions)
  • Support IETF rfc7523 JWT Bearer Tokens
  • Support IETF rfc7231 Relative Location in Redirect
  • Support IETF rfc6749 Don't set oauth params when nil
  • Support OIDC 1.0 Private Key JWT; based on the OAuth JWT assertion specification (RFC 7523)
  • Support new formats, including from jsonapi.org: application/vdn.api+json, application/vnd.collection+json, application/hal+json, application/problem+json
  • Adds new option to OAuth2::Client#get_token:
    • :access_token_class (AccessToken); user specified class to use for all calls to get_token
  • Adds new option to OAuth2::AccessToken#initialize:
    • :expires_latency (nil); number of seconds by which AccessToken validity will be reduced to offset latency
  • By default, keys are transformed to camel case.
    • Original keys will still work as previously, in most scenarios, thanks to rash_alt gem.
    • However, this is a breaking change if you rely on response.parsed.to_h, as the keys in the result will be camel case.
    • As of version 2.0.4 you can turn key transformation off with the snaky: false option.
  • By default, the :auth_scheme is now :basic_auth (instead of :request_body)
    • Third-party strategies and gems may need to be updated if a provider was requiring client id/secret in the request body
  • ... A lot more


Targeted ruby compatibility is non-EOL versions of Ruby, currently 2.7, 3.0 and 3.1. Compatibility is further distinguished by supported and unsupported versions of Ruby. Ruby is limited to 2.2+ for 2.x releases. See 1-4-stable branch for older rubies.

Ruby Engine Compatibility Policy This gem is tested against MRI, JRuby, and Truffleruby. Each of those has varying versions that target a specific version of MRI Ruby. This gem should work in the just-listed Ruby engines according to the targeted MRI compatibility in the table below. If you would like to add support for additional engines, see `gemfiles/README.md`, then submit a PR to the correct maintenance branch as according to the table below.
Ruby Version Compatibility Policy If something doesn't work on one of these interpreters, it's a bug. This library may inadvertently work (or seem to work) on other Ruby implementations, however support will only be provided for the versions listed above. If you would like this library to support another Ruby version, you may volunteer to be a maintainer. Being a maintainer entails making sure all tests run and pass on that implementation. When something breaks on your implementation, you will be responsible for providing patches in a timely fashion. If critical issues for a particular implementation exist at the time of a major release, support for that Ruby version may be dropped.
Ruby OAuth2 Version Maintenance Branch Supported Officially Supported Unofficially Supported Incidentally
1️⃣ 2.0.x main 2.7, 3.0, 3.1 2.5, 2.6 2.2, 2.3, 2.4
2️⃣ 1.4.x 1-4-stable 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.0, 3.1 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 1.9, 2.0
3️⃣ older N/A Best of luck to you! Please upgrade!

NOTE: The 1.4 series will only receive critical security updates. See SECURITY.md

Usage Examples

Global Configuration

If you started seeing this warning, but everything it working fine, you can now silence it.

OAuth2::AccessToken.from_hash: `hash` contained more than one 'token' key
OAuth2.configure do |config|
  config.silence_extra_tokens_warning = true # default: false

authorize_url and token_url are on site root (Just Works!)

require 'oauth2'
client = OAuth2::Client.new('client_id', 'client_secret', site: 'https://example.org')
# => #<OAuth2::Client:0x00000001204c8288 @id="client_id", @secret="client_sec...
client.auth_code.authorize_url(redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth2/callback')
# => "https://example.org/oauth/authorize?client_id=client_id&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%3A8080%2Foauth2%2Fcallback&response_type=code"

access = client.auth_code.get_token('authorization_code_value', redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth2/callback', headers: {'Authorization' => 'Basic some_password'})
response = access.get('/api/resource', params: {'query_foo' => 'bar'})
# => OAuth2::Response

Relative authorize_url and token_url (Not on site root, Just Works!)

In above example, the default Authorization URL is oauth/authorize and default Access Token URL is oauth/token, and, as they are missing a leading /, both are relative.

client = OAuth2::Client.new('client_id', 'client_secret', site: 'https://example.org/nested/directory/on/your/server')
# => #<OAuth2::Client:0x00000001204c8288 @id="client_id", @secret="client_sec...
client.auth_code.authorize_url(redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth2/callback')
# => "https://example.org/nested/directory/on/your/server/oauth/authorize?client_id=client_id&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%3A8080%2Foauth2%2Fcallback&response_type=code"

Customize authorize_url and token_url

You can specify custom URLs for authorization and access token, and when using a leading / they will not be relative, as shown below:

client = OAuth2::Client.new('client_id', 'client_secret',
                            site: 'https://example.org/nested/directory/on/your/server',
                            authorize_url: '/jaunty/authorize/',
                            token_url: '/stirrups/access_token')
# => #<OAuth2::Client:0x00000001204c8288 @id="client_id", @secret="client_sec...
client.auth_code.authorize_url(redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth2/callback')
# => "https://example.org/jaunty/authorize/?client_id=client_id&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%3A8080%2Foauth2%2Fcallback&response_type=code"
# => OAuth2::Client

snake_case and indifferent access in Response#parsed

response = access.get('/api/resource', params: {'query_foo' => 'bar'})
# Even if the actual response is CamelCase. it will be made available as snaky:
JSON.parse(response.body)         # => {"accessToken"=>"aaaaaaaa", "additionalData"=>"additional"}
response.parsed                   # => {"access_token"=>"aaaaaaaa", "additional_data"=>"additional"}
response.parsed.access_token      # => "aaaaaaaa"
response.parsed[:access_token]    # => "aaaaaaaa"
response.parsed.additional_data   # => "additional"
response.parsed[:additional_data] # => "additional"
response.parsed.class.name        # => OAuth2::SnakyHash (subclass of Hashie::Mash::Rash, from `rash_alt` gem)

What if I hate snakes and/or indifference?

response = access.get('/api/resource', params: {'query_foo' => 'bar'}, snaky: false)
JSON.parse(response.body)         # => {"accessToken"=>"aaaaaaaa", "additionalData"=>"additional"}
response.parsed                   # => {"accessToken"=>"aaaaaaaa", "additionalData"=>"additional"}
response.parsed['accessToken']    # => "aaaaaaaa"
response.parsed['additionalData'] # => "additional"
response.parsed.class.name        # => Hash (just, regular old Hash)
Debugging Set an environment variable, however you would [normally do that](https://github.com/bkeepers/dotenv). ```ruby # will log both request and response, including bodies ENV['OAUTH_DEBUG'] = 'true' ``` By default, debug output will go to `$stdout`. This can be overridden when initializing your OAuth2::Client. ```ruby require 'oauth2' client = OAuth2::Client.new( 'client_id', 'client_secret', site: 'https://example.org', logger: Logger.new('example.log', 'weekly') ) ```


The AccessToken methods #get, #post, #put and #delete and the generic #request will return an instance of the #OAuth2::Response class.

This instance contains a #parsed method that will parse the response body and return a Hash-like OAuth2::SnakyHash if the Content-Type is application/x-www-form-urlencoded or if the body is a JSON object. It will return an Array if the body is a JSON array. Otherwise, it will return the original body string.

The original response body, headers, and status can be accessed via their respective methods.


If you have an existing Access Token for a user, you can initialize an instance using various class methods including the standard new, from_hash (if you have a hash of the values), or from_kvform (if you have an application/x-www-form-urlencoded encoded string of the values).


On 400+ status code responses, an OAuth2::Error will be raised. If it is a standard OAuth2 error response, the body will be parsed and #code and #description will contain the values provided from the error and error_description parameters. The #response property of OAuth2::Error will always contain the OAuth2::Response instance.

If you do not want an error to be raised, you may use :raise_errors => false option on initialization of the client. In this case the OAuth2::Response instance will be returned as usual and on 400+ status code responses, the Response instance will contain the OAuth2::Error instance.

Authorization Grants

Currently the Authorization Code, Implicit, Resource Owner Password Credentials, Client Credentials, and Assertion authentication grant types have helper strategy classes that simplify client use. They are available via the #auth_code, #implicit, #password, #client_credentials, and #assertion methods respectively.

These aren't full examples, but demonstrative of the differences between usage for each strategy.

auth_url = client.auth_code.authorize_url(redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth/callback')
access = client.auth_code.get_token('code_value', redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth/callback')

auth_url = client.implicit.authorize_url(redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth/callback')
# get the token params in the callback and
access = OAuth2::AccessToken.from_kvform(client, query_string)

access = client.password.get_token('username', 'password')

access = client.client_credentials.get_token

# Client Assertion Strategy
# see: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7523
claimset = {
  iss: 'http://localhost:3001',
  aud: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth2/token',
  sub: '[email protected]',
  exp: Time.now.utc.to_i + 3600,
assertion_params = [claimset, 'HS256', 'secret_key']
access = client.assertion.get_token(assertion_params)

# The `access` (i.e. access token) is then used like so:
access.token # actual access_token string, if you need it somewhere
access.get('/api/stuff') # making api calls with access token

If you want to specify additional headers to be sent out with the request, add a 'headers' hash under 'params':

access = client.auth_code.get_token('code_value', redirect_uri: 'http://localhost:8080/oauth/callback', headers: {'Some' => 'Header'})

You can always use the #request method on the OAuth2::Client instance to make requests for tokens for any Authentication grant type.


This library aims to adhere to Semantic Versioning 2.0.0. Violations of this scheme should be reported as bugs. Specifically, if a minor or patch version is released that breaks backward compatibility, a new version should be immediately released that restores compatibility. Breaking changes to the public API will only be introduced with new major versions.

As a result of this policy, you can (and should) specify a dependency on this gem using the Pessimistic Version Constraint with two digits of precision.

For example:

spec.add_dependency 'oauth2', '~> 2.0'


License: MIT

FOSSA Status


After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake spec to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.





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Code of Conduct

Everyone interacting in the OAuth2 project’s codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms and mailing lists is expected to follow the code of conduct.