Mojibake occurs in English most frequently due to misinterpreting and bad-transcoding between Windows-1252, ISO-8859-1, and UTF-8. This module provides a mojibake sequence to original character mapping table, and utility to recover mojibake’d text.

Testing has been with English but other Latin based languages, where Windows-1252 is in the wild, should also benefit.


Mojibake mappings generation requires the String encoding support in ruby 1.9 as provided by:

  • ruby >= 1.9.2 (tested 1.9.2p290, 1.9.3p392, 2.0.0p247 Linux)

  • jruby ~> 1.6.5 or ~> 1.7.5 (tested 1.6.8, 1.7.5 Linux)

  • rubinius >= 2.0.0 (tested via Travis CI)

Note: jruby versions 1.7.0-1.7.4 have various encoding support regressions. Recovery of text with default settings is supported by using the pre-generated table.json when in ruby 1.8 mode, or for other jruby versions.


gem install mojibake

require 'mojibake'
mapper =
mapper.recover( '“quotedâ€�' ) #=> '“quoted”'

Or via cli:

mojibake -h

List the mojibake mapping table (output in UTF-8):

mojibake -t

Recover from a text file:

mojibake input.txt


Copyright © 2011-2013 David Kellum

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the “License”); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:

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