What is it?

Hummingbird is a way to write SQL migrations in SQL, and provide some minimal tooling around running these migrations against a DB.

Why is it?

DSLs that abstract away the differences in databases can be nice to work with, but they often cater to something resembling the lowest common denominator amongst those databases.

How to use it


Hummingbird will look for a hummingbird.yml in the directory passed to Hummingbird::Configuration.new. Hummingbird will also look for a user-specific .hummingbird.yml in that directory. The user-specific configuration file will take precidence over the configuration in the hummingbird.yml. Both the configuration file name and path, and the user-specific configuration name and path can be overridden by passing :config_file => config_name or :user_config_file => user_config_name to Hummingbird::Configuration.new.

For example:

config = Hummingbird::Configuration.new(
  config_file: 'path/to/config.yml',
  user_config_file: '/absolute/path/to/user_config.yml'

The above example will cause Hummingbird to look for the configuration file in File.join(Dir.getwd, 'path/to/config.yml'), and to look for the user's configuration file in /absolute/path/to/user_config.yml.

Both of these configuration files are YAML files with the following format:

basedir: 'sql'
planfile: 'application.plan'
migrations_dir: 'migrations'
migrations_table: 'application_migrations'
connection_string: 'sqlite://db/database.db'
  • basedir: The planfile, and migrations_dir settings are relative to this directory, which is relative to the current working directory.
  • planfile: Described more below. This determines the order in which migration files are run.
  • migrations_dir: This is the name of the directory that will contain all of the migrations. All files in this directory are considered to be migration files, and Hummingbird will recurse into any and all subdirectories starting here.
  • connection_string: This is a Sequel compatible connection string for connecting to the database.

The above example configures Hummingbird to look in the file sql/application.plan for the list of migrations to run, in the directory sql/migrations for all of the migration files, use the table named application_migrations within the database, and to connect to the database using the Sequel connection string 'sqlite://db/database.db'.

Boot-strapping the Database

Hummingbird is capable of bootstrapping itself into the database to be managed as long as the first migration creates the table named by the migrations_table configuration option. This table will need to have a migration_name column of type TEXT (or similar data type to handle the maximum file path relative to migrations_dir), and a run_on column of type INTEGER.

The following is an example for defining the migrations_table for SQLite3, and PostgreSQL:

CREATE TABLE hummingbird_migrations (
  migration_name TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
  run_on INTEGER

Plan file

The plan file contains the names of the migration files to be run, one per line, in the order that they should be run.

Given the following plan file and the example configuration from above:


Hummingbird would attempt to run the files sql/migrations/bootstrap.sql, sql/migrations/stored_procedures/foo.sql, sql/migrations/tables/bar.sql in exactly this order.

Running migrations

Right now, only just enough is written to enable someone to write their own rake task, or other glue code to actually migrate their database using Hummingbird.

This isn't really a great way to go about it, but you can do the following in your Rakefile at least until the rest of the glue is included in Hummingbird itself:

desc 'Migrate the database'
task "migrate" do
  require 'hummingbird'

  config = Hummingbird::Configuration.new(Dir.getwd)
  plan   = Hummingbird::Plan.new(config.planfile, config.migrations_dir)
  db     = Hummingbird::Database.new(config.connection_string, config.migrations_table)

  unplanned_files = plan.files_missing_from_plan
  fail "Found migration files not listed in #{config.planfile}: #{unplanned_files.join(', ')}" unless unplanned_files.empty?

  missing_files = plan.files_missing_from_migration_dir
  fail "Found planned migration files not in migrations directory: #{missing_files.join(', ')}" unless missing_files.empty?

  migrations_already_run = db.already_run_migrations
  migrations_to_run      = plan.migrations_to_be_run(migrations_already_run)

  puts "#{plan.planned_files.count} migrations planned; #{migrations_already_run.count} already run; #{migrations_to_run.count} to run"

  migrations_to_run.each do |migration|
    puts "Running migration: #{migration[:migration_name]}"
    db.run_migration(migration[:migration_name], migration[:sql])