a sa-weet-ass library for structuring rails applications using the 'data
access object' design pattern.  dao consists of two main data access
objects, *api* objects and *conducer* objects.  conducers combine the
presenter pattern with the conductor pattern.


  class Api < Dao::Api
    call('/posts') do
      get do
        data[:posts] ={|post| post.attributes}

      post do
        post =[:post])

          data[:post] = post.attributes
          status 420


  # TODO

wikipedia has this to say about dao in general

    In computer software, a data access object (DAO) is an object that
    provides an abstract interface to some type of database or other
    persistence mechanism. By mapping application calls to the persistence
    layer, DAOs provide some specific data operations without exposing
    details of the database. This isolation supports the single
    responsibility principle. It separates what data accesses the
    application needs, in terms of domain-specific objects and data types
    (the public interface of the DAO), from how these needs can be satisfied
    with a specific DBMS, database schema, etc. (the implementation of the

and this to say about the single responsibility principle

    In object-oriented programming, the single responsibility principle
    states that every class should have a single responsibility, and that
    responsibility should be entirely encapsulated by the class. All its
    services should be narrowly aligned with that responsibility.

    Responsibility [is defined] as a reason to change, and [single
    responsibility means] that a class or module should have one, and only
    one, reason to change. As an example, consider a module that compiles and
    prints a report. Such a module can be changed for two reasons. First,
    the content of the report can change. Second, the format of the report
    can change. These two things change for very different causes; one
    substantive, and one cosmetic. The single responsibility principle says
    that these two aspects of the problem are really two separate
    responsibilities, and should therefore be in separate classes or
    modules. It would be a bad design to couple two things that change for
    different reasons at different times.

even though rails is the sweet, its ActiveRecord class violates (or, at
least, encourages a programmer to violate) the single responsibility

this leads to obvious problems

    Jim Weirich, at the end of his SOLID Ruby Talk at the 2009 Ruby
    Conference, asks the audience: "ActiveRecord objects implement a domain
    concept and a persistence concept. Does this violate the SRP (Single
    Responsibility Principle)?" The audience agrees that it does violate the
    SRP. Jim asks if this bothers them. Many members of the audience say
    yes. Why? It makes testing harder. It makes the persistence object a lot

and subtle yet sweeping consequences (as described by uncle bob)

    The problem I have with ActiveRecord is that it creates confusion about
    ... two very different styles of programming. A database table is a
    data structure. It has exposed data and no behavior. But an ActiveRecord
    appears to be an object. It has “hidden” data, and exposed behavior. I
    put the word “hidden” in quotes because the data is, in fact, not
    hidden. Almost all ActiveRecord derivatives export the database columns
    through accessors and mutators. Indeed, the Active Record is meant to be
    used like a data structure.

    On the other hand, many people put business rule methods in their
    ActiveRecord classes; which makes them appear to be objects. This leads
    to a dilemma. On which side of the line does the Active Record really
    fall? Is it an object? Or is it a data structure?

    This dilemma is the basis for the oft-cited impedance mismatch between
    relational databases and object oriented languages. Tables are data
    structures, not classes. Objects are encapsulated behavior, not database


    The problem is that Active Records are data structures. Putting business
    rule methods in them doesn’t turn them into true objects. In the end,
    the algorithms that employ ActiveRecords are vulnerable to changes in
    schema, and changes in type. They are not immune to changes in type, the
    way algorithms that use objects are.


    So applications built around ActiveRecord are applications built around
    data structures. And applications that are built around data structures
    are procedural—they are not object oriented. The opportunity we miss
    when we structure our applications around ActiveRecord is the
    opportunity to use object oriented design.

and a clear solution (again, uncle bob)

    I am not recommending against the use of ActiveRecord. I think the
    pattern is very useful. What I am advocating is a separation between the
    application and ActiveRecord.

    ActiveRecord belongs in the layer that separates the database from the
    application. It makes a very convenient halfway-house between the hard
    data structures of database tables, and the behavior exposing objects in
    the application.

    Applications should be designed and structured around objects, not data
    structures. Those objects should expose business behaviors, and hide any
    vestige of the database.

welcome to the dao


  applications that are written on dao look like this in ruby

    result ='/posts/new', params)

  and like this in javascript

    result ='/posts/new', params)

  in command-line applications they look like this

    result ='/posts/new', params)

  and in tests this syntax is used

    result ='/posts/new', params)

  when a developer wants to understand the interface of a dao application
  she does this

    vi app/api.rb

  when a developer of a dao application wants to play with a dao application
  interactively she does

    (rails console)

    > api = result ='/posts/new', params)

  when a remote client wants to understand the api of a dao application she

    curl --silent | less

  this kind of brutally consistent interface is made possible by structuring
  access to data around the finest data structure of all time - the hash.
  in the case of dao the hash is a well structured and slightly clever hash,
  but a simple hash interface is the basis of every bit of goodness dao has
  to offer.

  in dao, application developers do not bring models into controllers and,
  especially not into views.  instead, a unified interface to application
  logic and data is used everywhere: in tests, in controllers, from the
  command-line, and also from javascript.

  this seperation of concerns brings with it many, many desirable qualities:

    - total seperation of concerns between the front and back end of a web
      application.  when developers are using dao changes to the data model
      have zero effect on controllers and views.

    - issues related to having models in controllers and views such as
      difficulty reasoning about caching and n+1 queries in views killing
      the db simply disappear.

    - bad programming practices like using quasi-global variables
      (current_user) or decorating models with view specific attributes
      (password_verification) are no longer needed.

    - developers are able to reason over the abilities of an application by
      reading only a few source files.

    - databases can be swapped, mixed, or alternate storage/caching
      mechanisms added at any time without affecting the application's
      controllers or views.

    - transition from form based views to semi-ajax ones to fully-ajax ones
      is direct.

    - forms and interfaces that involve dozens of models are as easy to deal
      with as simple ones.

    - code can be optimized at the interface.



gem 'dao', :path => File.expand_path('..') ### Gemfile
rails generate dao api
vim -o app/api.rb app/controllers/api_controller.rb
curl --silent
curl --silent


  - dao depends has tied itself to rails, for better or worse...
  - drop custom form encoding.  just use a rack-like approach.
  - dao form parameter encoding has changed slightly to 'dao[/api/path][x,y,z]=42'
  - dao form paramters are now preparsed in a before filter