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Formerly known as asciidoctor-csd.

This gem is still under development.


This gem processes Asciidoctor documents following a template for generating CSD International Standards.

The gem currently inherits from the gem, and aligns closely to it. Refer to the ISO gem for guidance, including

The following outputs are generated.

  • (Optional) An HTML preview generated directly from the Asciidoctor document, using native Asciidoc formatting.

    • AsciiMathML is to be used for mathematical formatting. The gem uses the Ruby AsciiMath parser, which is syntactically stricter than the common MathJax processor; if you do not get expected results, try bracketting terms your in AsciiMathML expressions.

  • an XML representation of the document, intended as a document model for CSD International Standards.

  • The XML representation is processed in turn to generate the following outputs as end deliverable CSD standard drafts.

    • HTML

    • PDF

This AsciiDoc syntax for writing CSD standards is hereby named "AsciiCSD".


The preferred way to invoke this gem is via the metanorma script:

$ metanorma --type csd a.adoc                   # output HTML and PDF
$ metanorma --type csd --extensions html a.adoc # output just HTML
$ metanorma --type csd --extensions pdf a.adoc  # output just PDF
$ metanorma --type csd --extensions xml a.adoc  # output CSD XML

The gem translates the document into CSD XML format, and then validates its output against the CSD XML document model; errors are reported to console against the XML, and are intended for users to check that they have provided all necessary components of the document.

The gem then converts the XML into HTML and PDF.

The gem can also be invoked directly within asciidoctor, though this is deprecated:

$ asciidoctor -b csd -r 'metanorma-csd' a.adoc


If you are using a Mac, the repository has instructions on setting up your machine to run Metanorma scripts such as this one. You need only run the following in a Terminal console:

$ bash <(curl -s
$ gem install metanorma-csd

PDF output

PDF output is generated by printing the HTML output as PDF. This is done within the gem, using Headless Chrome, via the Puppeteer Node library.

To get the PDF output working, do the following:

The script includes Puppeteer installation.


Document model

The CSD Standard Document model is an instance of the StandardDocument model.

The CSD format ("CSD XML") intends to introduce rigour into the CSD standards authoring process, and is prescribed in a separate document.


Asciidoctor has been selected as the authoring tool to generate the document model representation of CSD standards. It is a document formatting tool like Markdown and DocBook, which combines the relative ease of use of the former (using relatively lightweight markup), and the rigour and expressively of the latter (it has a well-defined syntax, and was in fact initially developed as a DocBook document authoring tool). Asciidoctor has built-in capability to output Text, DocBook and HTML; so it can be used to preview the file as it is being authored.

Generating documents via a document model substantially automated formatting associated with the document, including automating numbering of headings, figures, tables etc, and automatically generating references and citations.

Document Attributes

The gem relies on Asciidoctor document attributes to provide necessary metadata about the document. These include:


The document edition


The date the document was last updated


The year which will be claimed as when the copyright for the document was issued


The main component of the English title of the document (mandatory). (The first line of the AsciiDoc document, which contains the title introduced with =, is ignored)


The document type (see CSD deliverables: The different types of CSD publications) (mandatory). The permitted types are:


Code Artifact




Proposal; includes IETF DRAFT


Recommendation; includes IETF RFC




The document status. The permitted types are: proposal, working-draft, committee-draft, draft-standard, final-draft, published, withdrawn.


The name of the relevant CSD technical committee (mandatory)


The language of the document (only en for now) (mandatory)

The attribute :draft:, if present, includes review notes in the XML output; these are otherwise suppressed.

AsciiCSD features not also present in AsciiISO

  • [keyword]#...#: encodes keywords, such as "MUST", "MUST NOT". (Encoded as <span class="keyword">…​</span>.

Data Models

The CSD Standard Document format is an instance of the StandardDocument model. Details of this general model can be found on its page. Details of the CSD modifications to this general model can be found on the CSD model repository.