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AnyStyle is a very fast and smart parser for academic references. It was originally inspired by ParsCit and FreeCite; AnyStyle uses machine learning algorithms and aims to make it easy to train the model with data that is relevant to your parsing needs.

Using AnyStyle CLI

$ [sudo] gem install anystyle-cli
$ anystyle --help
$ anystyle help find
$ anystyle help parse

See anystyle-cli for more details.

Web Application and Web Service

AnyStyle is available as a web-application and service at

Please note that the web service is currently based on the legacy 0.x branch.

Using AnyStyle in Ruby

$ [sudo] gem install anystyle

Reference Parsing

Document Parsing


Dictionary Adapters

During the statistical analysis of reference strings, AnyStyle relies on a large feature dictionary; by default, AnyStyle creates a persistent Ruby Hash in the folder of the anystyle-data Gem. This uses up about 2MB of disk space and keeps the entire dictionary in memory. If you prefer a smaller memory footprint, you can alternatively use AnyStyle's GDBM dictionary. GDBM bindings are part of the Ruby standard library and are supported on all platforms, but you may have to install GDBM on your platform before installing Ruby.

If you do not want to use the the persistent Ruyb Hash nor the GBDM bindings, you can store your dictionary in memory (not recommended) or use a Redis. The best way to change the default dictionary adapter is by adjusting AnyStyle's default configuration (when using the default parser instances you must set the default before using the parser):

AnyStyle::Dictionary.defaults[:adapter] = :ruby
#-> Use a persistent Ruby hash;
#-> slower start-up than GDBM but no extra dependency

AnyStyle::Dictionary.defaults[:adapter] = :hash
#-> Use in-memory dictionary; slow start-up but uses no space on disk

require 'anystyle/dictionary/gdbm'
AnyStyle::Dictionary.defaults[:adapter] = :gdbm

To use Redis, install the redis and redis/namespace (optional) Gems and configure AnyStyle to use the Redis adapter:

AnyStyle::Dictionary.defaults[:adapter] = :redis

# Adjust the Redis-specifi configuration
require 'anystyle/dictionary/redis'
AnyStyle::Dictionary::Redis.defaults[:host] = 'localhost'
AnyStyle::Dictionary::Redis.defaults[:port] = 6379


The AnyStyle source code is hosted on GitHub. You can check out a copy of the latest code using Git:

$ git clone

If you've found a bug or have a question, please open an issue on the AnyStyle issue tracker. Or, for extra credit, clone the AnyStyle repository, write a failing example, fix the bug and submit a pull request.


Copyright 2011-2018 Sylvester Keil. All rights reserved.

AnyStyle is distributed under a BSD-style license. See LICENSE for details.