:fire: Simple, powerful, first-party analytics for Rails

Track visits and events in Ruby, JavaScript, and native apps. Data is stored in your database by default, and you can customize it for any data store as you grow.

Ahoy 4.0 was recently released - see how to upgrade

:postbox: Check out Ahoy Email for emails and Field Test for A/B testing

:tangerine: Battle-tested at Instacart

Build Status


Add this line to your application’s Gemfile:

gem "ahoy_matey"

And run:

bundle install
rails generate ahoy:install
rails db:migrate

Restart your web server, open a page in your browser, and a visit will be created :tada:

Track your first event from a controller with:

ahoy.track "My first event", language: "Ruby"

JavaScript, Native Apps, & AMP

Enable the API in config/initializers/ahoy.rb:

Ahoy.api = true

And restart your web server.


For Rails 7 / Importmap, add to config/importmap.rb:

pin "ahoy", to: "ahoy.js"

And add to app/javascript/application.js:

import "ahoy"

For Rails 6 / Webpacker, run:

yarn add ahoy.js

And add to app/javascript/packs/application.js:

import ahoy from "ahoy.js"

For Rails 5 / Sprockets, add to app/assets/javascripts/application.js:

//= require ahoy

Track an event with:

ahoy.track("My second event", {language: "JavaScript"});

Native Apps

Check out Ahoy iOS and Ahoy Android.

Geocoding Setup

To enable geocoding, see the Geocoding section.

GDPR Compliance

Ahoy provides a number of options to help with GDPR compliance. See the GDPR section for more info.

How It Works


When someone visits your website, Ahoy creates a visit with lots of useful information.

  • traffic source - referrer, referring domain, landing page
  • location - country, region, city, latitude, longitude
  • technology - browser, OS, device type
  • utm parameters - source, medium, term, content, campaign

Use the current_visit method to access it.

Prevent certain Rails actions from creating visits with:

skip_before_action :track_ahoy_visit

This is typically useful for APIs. If your entire Rails app is an API, you can use:

Ahoy.api_only = true

You can also defer visit tracking to JavaScript. This is useful for preventing bots (that aren’t detected by their user agent) and users with cookies disabled from creating a new visit on each request. :when_needed will create visits server-side only when needed by events, and false will disable server-side creation completely, discarding events without a visit.

Ahoy.server_side_visits = :when_needed


Each event has a name and properties. There are several ways to track events.


ahoy.track "Viewed book", title: "Hot, Flat, and Crowded"

Track actions automatically with:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  after_action :track_action


  def track_action
    ahoy.track "Ran action", request.path_parameters


ahoy.track("Viewed book", {title: "The World is Flat"});

See Ahoy.js for a complete list of features.

Native Apps

See the docs for Ahoy iOS and Ahoy Android.


  <script async custom-element="amp-analytics" src="https://cdn.ampproject.org/v0/amp-analytics-0.1.js"></script>
  <%= amp_event "Viewed article", title: "Analytics with Rails" %>

Associated Models

Say we want to associate orders with visits. Just add visitable to the model.

class Order < ApplicationRecord
  visitable :ahoy_visit

When a visitor places an order, the ahoy_visit_id column is automatically set :tada:

See where orders are coming from with simple joins:


Here’s what the migration to add the ahoy_visit_id column should look like:

class AddAhoyVisitToOrders < ActiveRecord::Migration[7.0]
  def change
    add_reference :orders, :ahoy_visit

Customize the column with:

visitable :sign_up_visit


Ahoy automatically attaches the current_user to the visit. With Devise, it attaches the user even if they sign in after the visit starts.

With other authentication frameworks, add this to the end of your sign in method:


To see the visits for a given user, create an association:

class User < ApplicationRecord
  has_many :visits, class_name: "Ahoy::Visit"

And use:


Custom User Method

Use a method besides current_user

Ahoy.user_method = :true_user

or use a proc

Ahoy.user_method = ->(controller) { controller.true_user }


To attach the user with Doorkeeper, be sure you have a current_resource_owner method in ApplicationController.

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base

  def current_resource_owner
    User.find(doorkeeper_token.resource_owner_id) if doorkeeper_token


To attach the user with Knock, either include Knock::Authenticablein ApplicationController:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::API
  include Knock::Authenticable

Or include it in Ahoy:

Ahoy::BaseController.include Knock::Authenticable

And use:

Ahoy.user_method = ->(controller) { controller.send(:authenticate_entity, "user") }


Bots are excluded from tracking by default. To include them, use:

Ahoy.track_bots = true

Add your own rules with:

Ahoy.exclude_method = lambda do |controller, request|
  request.ip == ""

Visit Duration

By default, a new visit is created after 4 hours of inactivity. Change this with:

Ahoy.visit_duration = 30.minutes


To track visits across multiple subdomains, use:

Ahoy.cookie_domain = :all

Set other cookie options with:

Ahoy.cookie_options = {same_site: :lax}

You can also disable cookies

Token Generation

Ahoy uses random UUIDs for visit and visitor tokens by default, but you can use your own generator like Druuid.

Ahoy.token_generator = -> { Druuid.gen }


You can use Rack::Attack to throttle requests to the API.

class Rack::Attack
  throttle("ahoy/ip", limit: 20, period: 1.minute) do |req|
    if req.path.start_with?("/ahoy/")


Exceptions are rescued so analytics do not break your app. Ahoy uses Safely to try to report them to a service by default. To customize this, use:

Safely.report_exception_method = ->(e) { Rollbar.error(e) }


Ahoy uses Geocoder for geocoding. We recommend configuring local geocoding or load balancer geocoding so IP addresses are not sent to a 3rd party service. If you do use a 3rd party service and adhere to GDPR, be sure to add it to your subprocessor list. If Ahoy is configured to mask IPs, the masked IP is used (this can reduce accuracy but is better for privacy).

To enable geocoding, add this line to your application’s Gemfile:

gem "geocoder"

And update config/initializers/ahoy.rb:

Ahoy.geocode = true

Geocoding is performed in a background job so it doesn’t slow down web requests. The default job queue is :ahoy. Change this with:

Ahoy.job_queue = :low_priority

Local Geocoding

For privacy and performance, we recommend geocoding locally. Add this line to your application’s Gemfile:

gem "maxminddb"

For city-level geocoding, download the GeoLite2 City database and create config/initializers/geocoder.rb with:

  ip_lookup: :geoip2,
  geoip2: {
    file: "path/to/GeoLite2-City.mmdb"

For country-level geocoding, install the geoip-database package. It’s preinstalled on Heroku. For Ubuntu, use:

sudo apt-get install geoip-database

And create config/initializers/geocoder.rb with:

  ip_lookup: :maxmind_local,
  maxmind_local: {
    file: "/usr/share/GeoIP/GeoIP.dat",
    package: :country

Load Balancer Geocoding

Some load balancers can add geocoding information to request headers.

Update config/initializers/ahoy.rb with:

Ahoy.geocode = false

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore
  def track_visit(data)
    data[:country] = request.headers["<country-header>"]
    data[:region] = request.headers["<region-header>"]
    data[:city] = request.headers["<city-header>"]

GDPR Compliance

Ahoy provides a number of options to help with GDPR compliance.

Update config/initializers/ahoy.rb with:

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore
  def authenticate(data)
    # disables automatic linking of visits and users

Ahoy.mask_ips = true
Ahoy.cookies = false


  • Masks IP addresses
  • Switches from cookies to anonymity sets
  • Disables automatic linking of visits and users

If you use JavaScript tracking, also set:

ahoy.configure({cookies: false});

IP Masking

Ahoy can mask IPs with the same approach Google Analytics uses for IP anonymization. This means:

  • For IPv4, the last octet is set to 0 ( becomes
  • For IPv6, the last 80 bits are set to zeros (2001:4860:4860:0:0:0:0:8844 becomes 2001:4860:4860::)
Ahoy.mask_ips = true

IPs are masked before geolocation is performed.

To mask previously collected IPs, use:

Ahoy::Visit.find_each do |visit|
  visit.update_column :ip, Ahoy.mask_ip(visit.ip)

Anonymity Sets & Cookies

Ahoy can switch from cookies to anonymity sets. Instead of cookies, visitors with the same IP mask and user agent are grouped together in an anonymity set.

Ahoy.cookies = false

Previously set cookies are automatically deleted. If you use JavaScript tracking, also set:

ahoy.configure({cookies: false});

Note: With anonymity sets, visits no longer expire after 4 hours of inactivity. A new visit is only created when the IP mask or user agent changes (for instance, when a user updates their browser). There are plans to address this in the next major version.

Data Retention

Data should only be retained for as long as it’s needed. Delete older data with:

Ahoy::Visit.where("started_at < ?", 2.years.ago).find_in_batches do |visits|
  visit_ids = visits.map(&:id)
  Ahoy::Event.where(visit_id: visit_ids).delete_all
  Ahoy::Visit.where(id: visit_ids).delete_all

You can use Rollup to aggregate important data before you do.

Ahoy::Visit.rollup("Visits", interval: "hour")

Delete data for a specific user with:

user_id = 123
visit_ids = Ahoy::Visit.where(user_id: user_id).pluck(:id)
Ahoy::Event.where(visit_id: visit_ids).delete_all
Ahoy::Visit.where(id: visit_ids).delete_all
Ahoy::Event.where(user_id: user_id).delete_all


Ahoy is built with developers in mind. You can run the following code in your browser’s console.

Force a new visit

ahoy.reset(); // then reload the page

Log messages


Turn off logging


Debug API requests in Ruby

Ahoy.quiet = false

Data Stores

Data tracked by Ahoy is sent to your data store. Ahoy ships with a data store that uses your Rails database by default. You can find it in config/initializers/ahoy.rb:

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore

There are four events data stores can subscribe to:

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::BaseStore
  def track_visit(data)
    # new visit

  def track_event(data)
    # new event

  def geocode(data)
    # visit geocoded

  def authenticate(data)
    # user authenticates

Data stores are designed to be highly customizable so you can scale as you grow. Check out examples for Kafka, RabbitMQ, Fluentd, NATS, NSQ, and Amazon Kinesis Firehose.

Track Additional Data

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore
  def track_visit(data)
    data[:accept_language] = request.headers["Accept-Language"]

Two useful methods you can use are request and controller.

You can pass additional visit data from JavaScript with:

ahoy.configure({visitParams: {referral_code: 123}});

And use:

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore
  def track_visit(data)
    data[:referral_code] = request.parameters[:referral_code]

Use Different Models

class Ahoy::Store < Ahoy::DatabaseStore
  def visit_model

  def event_model

Explore the Data

Blazer is a great tool for exploring your data.

With ActiveRecord, you can do:


Chartkick and Groupdate make it easy to visualize the data.

<%= line_chart Ahoy::Visit.group_by_day(:started_at).count %>

Querying Events

Ahoy provides a few methods on the event model to make querying easier.

To query on both name and properties, you can use:

Ahoy::Event.where_event("Viewed product", product_id: 123).count

Or just query properties with:

Ahoy::Event.where_props(product_id: 123, category: "Books").count

Group by properties with:

Ahoy::Event.group_prop(:product_id, :category).count

Note: MySQL and MariaDB always return string keys (including "null" for nil) for group_prop.


It’s easy to create funnels.

viewed_store_ids = Ahoy::Event.where(name: "Viewed store").distinct.pluck(:user_id)
added_item_ids = Ahoy::Event.where(user_id: viewed_store_ids, name: "Added item to cart").distinct.pluck(:user_id)
viewed_checkout_ids = Ahoy::Event.where(user_id: added_item_ids, name: "Viewed checkout").distinct.pluck(:user_id)

The same approach also works with visitor tokens.


Improve query performance by pre-aggregating data with Rollup.

Ahoy::Event.where(name: "Viewed store").rollup("Store views")

This is only needed if you have a lot of data.


To forecast future visits and events, check out Prophet.

daily_visits = Ahoy::Visit.group_by_day(:started_at).count # uses Groupdate

Anomaly Detection

To detect anomalies in visits and events, check out AnomalyDetection.rb.

daily_visits = Ahoy::Visit.group_by_day(:started_at).count # uses Groupdate
AnomalyDetection.detect(daily_visits, period: 7)

Breakout Detection

To detect breakouts in visits and events, check out Breakout.

daily_visits = Ahoy::Visit.group_by_day(:started_at).count # uses Groupdate


To make recommendations based on events, check out Disco.


API Spec


Generate visit and visitor tokens as UUIDs, and include these values in the Ahoy-Visit and Ahoy-Visitor headers with all requests.

Send a POST request to /ahoy/visits with Content-Type: application/json and a body like:

  "visit_token": "<visit-token>",
  "visitor_token": "<visitor-token>",
  "platform": "iOS",
  "app_version": "1.0.0",
  "os_version": "11.2.6"

After 4 hours of inactivity, create another visit (use the same visitor token).


Send a POST request to /ahoy/events with Content-Type: application/json and a body like:

  "visit_token": "<visit-token>",
  "visitor_token": "<visitor-token>",
  "events": [
      "id": "<optional-random-id>",
      "name": "Viewed item",
      "properties": {
        "item_id": 123
      "time": "2018-01-01T00:00:00-07:00"



There are two notable changes to geocoding:

  1. Geocoding is now disabled by default (this was already the case for new installations with 3.2.0+). Check out the instructions for how to enable it.

  2. The geocoder gem is now an optional dependency. To use geocoding, add it to your Gemfile:

  gem "geocoder"

Also, check out the upgrade notes for Ahoy.js.


View the changelog


Everyone is encouraged to help improve this project. Here are a few ways you can help:

To get started with development:

git clone https://github.com/ankane/ahoy.git
cd ahoy
bundle install
bundle exec rake test

To test Mongoid, use:

ADAPTER=mongoid bundle exec rake test

To test query methods, use:

# Postgres
createdb ahoy_test
bundle exec rake test:query_methods:postgresql

# SQLite
bundle exec rake test:query_methods:sqlite

# MySQL and MariaDB
mysqladmin create ahoy_test
bundle exec rake test:query_methods:mysql

# MongoDB
bundle exec rake test:query_methods:mongoid