Class: Class

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/subclasses.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes.rb

Overview

Extends the class object with class and instance accessors for class attributes, just like the native attr* accessors for instance attributes.

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#cattr_accessor(*syms, &blk) ⇒ Object

Defines both class and instance accessors for class attributes.

class Person
  cattr_accessor :hair_colors
end

Person.hair_colors = [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
Person.hair_colors     # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
Person.new.hair_colors # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]

If a subclass changes the value then that would also change the value for parent class. Similarly if parent class changes the value then that would change the value of subclasses too.

class Male < Person
end

Male.hair_colors << :blue
Person.hair_colors # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red, :blue]

To opt out of the instance writer method, pass :instance_writer => false. To opt out of the instance reader method, pass :instance_reader => false.

class Person
  cattr_accessor :hair_colors, :instance_writer => false, :instance_reader => false
end

Person.new.hair_colors = [:brown]  # => NoMethodError
Person.new.hair_colors             # => NoMethodError

Or pass :instance_accessor => false, to opt out both instance methods.

class Person
  cattr_accessor :hair_colors, :instance_accessor => false
end

Person.new.hair_colors = [:brown]  # => NoMethodError
Person.new.hair_colors             # => NoMethodError

Also you can pass a block to set up the attribute with a default value.

class Person
  cattr_accessor :hair_colors do
    [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
  end
end

Person.class_variable_get("@@hair_colors") #=> [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 164

def cattr_accessor(*syms, &blk)
  cattr_reader(*syms)
  cattr_writer(*syms, &blk)
end

#cattr_reader(*syms) ⇒ Object

Defines a class attribute if it's not defined and creates a reader method that returns the attribute value.

class Person
  cattr_reader :hair_colors
end

Person.class_variable_set("@@hair_colors", [:brown, :black])
Person.hair_colors     # => [:brown, :black]
Person.new.hair_colors # => [:brown, :black]

The attribute name must be a valid method name in Ruby.

class Person
  cattr_reader :"1_Badname "
end
# => NameError: invalid attribute name

If you want to opt out the instance reader method, you can pass :instance_reader => false or :instance_accessor => false.

class Person
  cattr_reader :hair_colors, :instance_reader => false
end

Person.new.hair_colors # => NoMethodError

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 32

def cattr_reader(*syms)
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      unless defined? @@#{sym}
        @@#{sym} = nil
      end

      def self.#{sym}
        @@#{sym}
      end
    EOS

    unless options[:instance_reader] == false || options[:instance_accessor] == false
      class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
        def #{sym}
          @@#{sym}
        end
      EOS
    end
  end
end

#cattr_writer(*syms) ⇒ Object

Defines a class attribute if it's not defined and creates a writer method to allow assignment to the attribute.

class Person
  cattr_writer :hair_colors
end

Person.hair_colors = [:brown, :black]
Person.class_variable_get("@@hair_colors") # => [:brown, :black]
Person.new.hair_colors = [:blonde, :red]
Person.class_variable_get("@@hair_colors") # => [:blonde, :red]

The attribute name must be a valid method name in Ruby.

class Person
  cattr_writer :"1_Badname "
end
# => NameError: invalid attribute name

If you want to opt out the instance writer method, pass :instance_writer => false or :instance_accessor => false.

class Person
  cattr_writer :hair_colors, :instance_writer => false
end

Person.new.hair_colors = [:blonde, :red] # => NoMethodError

Also, you can pass a block to set up the attribute with a default value.

class Person
  cattr_writer :hair_colors do
    [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]
  end
end

Person.class_variable_get("@@hair_colors") # => [:brown, :black, :blonde, :red]

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors.rb', line 92

def cattr_writer(*syms)
  options = syms.extract_options!
  syms.each do |sym|
    class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
      unless defined? @@#{sym}
        @@#{sym} = nil
      end

      def self.#{sym}=(obj)
        @@#{sym} = obj
      end
    EOS

    unless options[:instance_writer] == false || options[:instance_accessor] == false
      class_eval(<<-EOS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1)
        def #{sym}=(obj)
          @@#{sym} = obj
        end
      EOS
    end
    self.send("#{sym}=", yield) if block_given?
  end
end

#class_attribute(*attrs) ⇒ Object

Declare a class-level attribute whose value is inheritable by subclasses. Subclasses can change their own value and it will not impact parent class.

class Base
  class_attribute :setting
end

class Subclass < Base
end

Base.setting = true
Subclass.setting            # => true
Subclass.setting = false
Subclass.setting            # => false
Base.setting                # => true

In the above case as long as Subclass does not assign a value to setting by performing Subclass.setting = something , Subclass.setting would read value assigned to parent class. Once Subclass assigns a value then the value assigned by Subclass would be returned.

This matches normal Ruby method inheritance: think of writing an attribute on a subclass as overriding the reader method. However, you need to be aware when using class_attribute with mutable structures as Array or Hash. In such cases, you don't want to do changes in places but use setters:

Base.setting = []
Base.setting                # => []
Subclass.setting            # => []

# Appending in child changes both parent and child because it is the same object:
Subclass.setting << :foo
Base.setting               # => [:foo]
Subclass.setting           # => [:foo]

# Use setters to not propagate changes:
Base.setting = []
Subclass.setting += [:foo]
Base.setting               # => []
Subclass.setting           # => [:foo]

For convenience, a query method is defined as well:

Subclass.setting?       # => false

Instances may overwrite the class value in the same way:

Base.setting = true
object = Base.new
object.setting          # => true
object.setting = false
object.setting          # => false
Base.setting            # => true

To opt out of the instance reader method, pass :instance_reader => false.

object.setting          # => NoMethodError
object.setting?         # => NoMethodError

To opt out of the instance writer method, pass :instance_writer => false.

object.setting = false  # => NoMethodError

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/attribute.rb', line 68

def class_attribute(*attrs)
  options = attrs.extract_options!
  instance_reader = options.fetch(:instance_reader, true)
  instance_writer = options.fetch(:instance_writer, true)

  attrs.each do |name|
    class_eval <<-RUBY, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1
      def self.#{name}() nil end
      def self.#{name}?() !!#{name} end

      def self.#{name}=(val)
        singleton_class.class_eval do
          remove_possible_method(:#{name})
          define_method(:#{name}) { val }
        end

        if singleton_class?
          class_eval do
            remove_possible_method(:#{name})
            def #{name}
              defined?(@#{name}) ? @#{name} : singleton_class.#{name}
            end
          end
        end
        val
      end

      if instance_reader
        remove_possible_method :#{name}
        def #{name}
          defined?(@#{name}) ? @#{name} : self.class.#{name}
        end

        def #{name}?
          !!#{name}
        end
      end
    RUBY

    attr_writer name if instance_writer
  end
end

#duplicable?Boolean

Classes are not duplicable:

c = Class.new # => #<Class:0x10328fd80>
c.dup         # => #<Class:0x10328fd80>

Note dup returned the same class object.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable.rb', line 91

def duplicable?
  false
end

#subclassesObject

Returns an array with the direct children of self.

Integer.subclasses # => [Bignum, Fixnum]

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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/subclasses.rb', line 29

def subclasses
  subclasses, chain = [], descendants
  chain.each do |k|
    subclasses << k unless chain.any? { |c| c > k }
  end
  subclasses
end

#superclass_delegating_accessor(name, options = {}) ⇒ Object


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes.rb', line 7

def superclass_delegating_accessor(name, options = {})
  # Create private _name and _name= methods that can still be used if the public
  # methods are overridden. This allows
  _superclass_delegating_accessor("_#{name}")

  # Generate the public methods name, name=, and name?
  # These methods dispatch to the private _name, and _name= methods, making them
  # overridable
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, name) { send("_#{name}") }
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, "#{name}?") { !!send("_#{name}") }
  singleton_class.send(:define_method, "#{name}=") { |value| send("_#{name}=", value) }

  # If an instance_reader is needed, generate methods for name and name= on the
  # class itself, so instances will be able to see them
  define_method(name) { send("_#{name}") } if options[:instance_reader] != false
  define_method("#{name}?") { !!send("#{name}") } if options[:instance_reader] != false
end