Module: MongoModel::Callbacks

Extended by:
ActiveSupport::Concern
Included in:
EmbeddedDocument
Defined in:
lib/mongomodel/concerns/callbacks.rb

Overview

Callbacks are hooks into the lifecycle of a MongoModel object that allow you to trigger logic before or after an alteration of the object state. This can be used to make sure that associated and dependent objects are deleted when destroy is called (by overwriting before_destroy) or to massage attributes before they're validated (by overwriting before_validation). As an example of the callbacks initiated, consider the Document#save call for a new document:

  • (-) save

  • (-) valid

  • (1) before_validation

  • (-) validate

  • (-) validate_on_create

  • (2) after_validation

  • (3) before_save

  • (4) before_create

  • (-) create

  • (5) after_create

  • (6) after_save

That's a total of eight callbacks, which gives you immense power to react and prepare for each state in the MongoModel lifecycle. The sequence for calling Document#save for an existing record is similar, except that each _on_create callback is replaced by the corresponding _on_update callback.

Examples:

class CreditCard < MongoModel::Document
  # Strip everything but digits, so the user can specify "555 234 34" or
  # "5552-3434" or both will mean "55523434"
  def before_validation_on_create
    self.number = number.gsub(/[^0-9]/, "") if number?
  end
end

class Subscription < MongoModel::Document
  before_create :record_signup

  private
    def 
      self.signed_up_on = Date.today
    end
end

Inheritable callback queues

Besides the overwritable callback methods, it's also possible to register callbacks through the use of the callback macros. Their main advantage is that the macros add behavior into a callback queue that is kept intact down through an inheritance hierarchy. Example:

class Topic < MongoModel::Document
  before_destroy :destroy_author
end

class Reply < Topic
  before_destroy :destroy_readers
end

Now, when Topic#destroy is run only destroy_author is called. When Reply#destroy is run, both destroy_author and destroy_readers are called. Contrast this to the situation where we've implemented the save behavior through overwriteable methods:

class Topic < MongoModel::Document
  def before_destroy() destroy_author end
end

class Reply < Topic
  def before_destroy() destroy_readers end
end

In that case, Reply#destroy would only run destroy_readers and not destroy_author. So, use the callback macros when you want to ensure that a certain callback is called for the entire hierarchy, and use the regular overwriteable methods when you want to leave it up to each descendant to decide whether they want to call super and trigger the inherited callbacks.

IMPORTANT: In order for inheritance to work for the callback queues, you must specify the callbacks before specifying the associations. Otherwise, you might trigger the loading of a child before the parent has registered the callbacks and they won't be inherited.

Types of callbacks

There are four types of callbacks accepted by the callback macros: Method references (symbol), callback objects, inline methods (using a proc), and inline eval methods (using a string). Method references and callback objects are the recommended approaches, inline methods using a proc are sometimes appropriate (such as for creating mix-ins), and inline eval methods are deprecated.

The method reference callbacks work by specifying a protected or private method available in the object, like this:

class Topic < MongoModel::Document
  before_destroy :delete_parents

  private
    def delete_parents
      self.class.delete_all "parent_id = #{id}"
    end
end

The callback objects have methods named after the callback called with the record as the only parameter, such as:

class BankAccount < MongoModel::Document
  before_save      EncryptionWrapper.new
  after_save       EncryptionWrapper.new
  after_initialize EncryptionWrapper.new
end

class EncryptionWrapper
  def before_save(doc)
    doc.credit_card_number = encrypt(doc.credit_card_number)
  end

  def after_save(doc)
    doc.credit_card_number = decrypt(doc.credit_card_number)
  end

  alias_method :after_load, :after_save

  private
    def encrypt(value)
      # Secrecy is committed
    end

    def decrypt(value)
      # Secrecy is unveiled
    end
end

So you specify the object you want messaged on a given callback. When that callback is triggered, the object has a method by the name of the callback messaged. You can make these callbacks more flexible by passing in other initialization data such as the name of the attribute to work with:

class BankAccount < MongoModel::Document
  before_save      EncryptionWrapper.new("credit_card_number")
  after_save       EncryptionWrapper.new("credit_card_number")
  after_initialize EncryptionWrapper.new("credit_card_number")
end

class EncryptionWrapper
  def initialize(attribute)
    @attribute = attribute
  end

  def before_save(doc)
    doc.send("#{@attribute}=", encrypt(doc.send("#{@attribute}")))
  end

  def after_save(record)
    doc.send("#{@attribute}=", decrypt(doc.send("#{@attribute}")))
  end

  alias_method :after_load, :after_save

  private
    def encrypt(value)
      # Secrecy is committed
    end

    def decrypt(value)
      # Secrecy is unveiled
    end
end

The callback macros usually accept a symbol for the method they're supposed to run, but you can also pass a “method string”, which will then be evaluated within the binding of the callback. Example:

class Topic < MongoModel::Document
  before_destroy 'self.class.delete_all "parent_id = #{id}"'
end

Notice that single quotes (') are used so the #{id} part isn't evaluated until the callback is triggered. Also note that these inline callbacks can be stacked just like the regular ones:

class Topic < MongoModel::Document
  before_destroy 'self.class.delete_all "parent_id = #{id}"',
                 'puts "Evaluated after parents are destroyed"'
end

The after_find and after_initialize exceptions

Because after_find and after_initialize are called for each object found and instantiated by find, we've had to implement a simple performance constraint (50% more speed on a simple test case). Unlike all the other callbacks, after_find and after_initialize will only be run if an explicit implementation is defined (def after_find). In that case, all of the callback types will be called.

before_validation* returning statements

If the returning value of a before_validation callback can be evaluated to false, the process will be aborted and Document#save will return false. If Document#save! is called it will raise a MongoModel::DocumentInvalid exception. Nothing will be appended to the errors object.

Canceling callbacks

If a before_* callback returns false, all the later callbacks and the associated action are cancelled. If an after_* callback returns false, all the later callbacks are cancelled. Callbacks are generally run in the order they are defined, with the exception of callbacks defined as methods on the model, which are called last.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: ClassMethods

Constant Summary

CALLBACKS =
[
  :after_initialize, :after_find, :before_validation, :after_validation,
  :before_save, :around_save, :after_save, :before_create, :around_create,
  :after_create, :before_update, :around_update, :after_update,
  :before_destroy, :around_destroy, :after_destroy
]

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Details

#initialize(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'lib/mongomodel/concerns/callbacks.rb', line 214

def initialize(*args, &block) #:nodoc:
  super
  run_callbacks_with_embedded(:initialize)
end

#run_callbacks_with_embedded(kind, *args, &block) ⇒ Object



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# File 'lib/mongomodel/concerns/callbacks.rb', line 219

def run_callbacks_with_embedded(kind, *args, &block)
  if block_given?
    embedded_callbacks = nest_embedded_callbacks(kind, *args, &block)
    run_callbacks(kind, *args, &embedded_callbacks)
  else
    run_callbacks(kind, *args)
    embedded_documents.each { |doc| doc.run_callbacks(kind, *args) } unless kind == :initialize
  end
end