Class: ActiveRecord::Relation

Inherits:
Object
  • Object
show all
Includes:
Batches, Calculations, Delegation, Explain, FinderMethods, QueryMethods, SpawnMethods
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb,
activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/merger.rb

Overview

Active Record Relation

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: HashMerger, Merger

Constant Summary

MULTI_VALUE_METHODS =
[:includes, :eager_load, :preload, :select, :group,
:order, :joins, :where, :having, :bind, :references,
:extending, :unscope]
SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS =
[:limit, :offset, :lock, :readonly, :from, :reordering,
:reverse_order, :distinct, :create_with, :uniq]
INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL =
[:limit, :distinct, :offset, :group, :having]
VALUE_METHODS =
MULTI_VALUE_METHODS + SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS

Constants included from FinderMethods

FinderMethods::ONE_AS_ONE

Constants included from QueryMethods

QueryMethods::VALID_UNSCOPING_VALUES

Constants included from Delegation

Delegation::BLACKLISTED_ARRAY_METHODS

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods included from FinderMethods

#exists?, #fifth, #fifth!, #find, #find_by, #find_by!, #first, #first!, #forty_two, #forty_two!, #fourth, #fourth!, #last, #last!, #raise_record_not_found_exception!, #second, #second!, #take, #take!, #third, #third!

Methods included from Calculations

#average, #calculate, #count, #ids, #maximum, #minimum, #pluck, #sum

Methods included from SpawnMethods

#except, #merge, #merge!, #only, #spawn

Methods included from QueryMethods

#_select!, #arel, #bind, #bind!, #create_with, #create_with!, #create_with_value, #distinct, #distinct!, #eager_load, #eager_load!, #extending, #extending!, #from, #from!, #group, #group!, #having, #having!, #includes, #includes!, #joins, #joins!, #limit, #limit!, #lock, #lock!, #none, #none!, #offset, #offset!, #order, #order!, #preload, #preload!, #readonly, #readonly!, #references, #references!, #reorder, #reorder!, #reverse_order, #reverse_order!, #rewhere, #select, #unscope, #unscope!, #where, #where!

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Concern

#append_features, #class_methods, extended, #included

Methods included from Batches

#find_each, #find_in_batches

Methods included from Explain

#collecting_queries_for_explain, #exec_explain

Methods included from Delegation

#respond_to?

Constructor Details

#initialize(klass, table, predicate_builder, values = {}) ⇒ Relation

Returns a new instance of Relation



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 23

def initialize(klass, table, predicate_builder, values = {})
  @klass  = klass
  @table  = table
  @values = values
  @offsets = {}
  @loaded = false
  @predicate_builder = predicate_builder
end

Dynamic Method Handling

This class handles dynamic methods through the method_missing method in the class ActiveRecord::Delegation

Instance Attribute Details

#klassObject (readonly) Also known as: model

Returns the value of attribute klass



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 19

def klass
  @klass
end

#loadedObject (readonly) Also known as: loaded?

Returns the value of attribute loaded



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 19

def loaded
  @loaded
end

#predicate_builderObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute predicate_builder



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 19

def predicate_builder
  @predicate_builder
end

#tableObject (readonly)

Returns the value of attribute table



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 19

def table
  @table
end

Instance Method Details

#==(other) ⇒ Object

Compares two relations for equality.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 617

def ==(other)
  case other
  when Associations::CollectionProxy, AssociationRelation
    self == other.to_a
  when Relation
    other.to_sql == to_sql
  when Array
    to_a == other
  end
end

#_update_record(values, id, id_was) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 74

def _update_record(values, id, id_was) # :nodoc:
  substitutes, binds = substitute_values values

  scope = @klass.unscoped

  if @klass.finder_needs_type_condition?
    scope.unscope!(where: @klass.inheritance_column)
  end

  relation = scope.where(@klass.primary_key => (id_was || id))
  bvs = binds + relation.bind_values
  um = relation
    .arel
    .compile_update(substitutes, @klass.primary_key)

  @klass.connection.update(
    um,
    'SQL',
    bvs,
  )
end

#any?Boolean

Returns true if there are any records.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 275

def any?
  if block_given?
    to_a.any? { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) }
  else
    !empty?
  end
end

#as_json(options = nil) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 253

def as_json(options = nil) #:nodoc:
  to_a.as_json(options)
end

#blank?Boolean

Returns true if relation is blank.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 633

def blank?
  to_a.blank?
end

#create(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Tries to create a new record with the same scoped attributes defined in the relation. Returns the initialized object if validation fails.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.create.

Examples

users = User.where(name: 'Oscar')
users.create # #<User id: 3, name: "oscar", ...>

users.create(name: 'fxn')
users.create # #<User id: 4, name: "fxn", ...>

users.create { |user| user.name = 'tenderlove' }
# #<User id: 5, name: "tenderlove", ...>

users.create(name: nil) # validation on name
# #<User id: nil, name: nil, ...>


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 143

def create(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create(*args, &block) }
end

#create!(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Similar to #create, but calls create! on the base class. Raises an exception if a validation error occurs.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.create!.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 151

def create!(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create!(*args, &block) }
end

#delete(id_or_array) ⇒ Object

Deletes the row with a primary key matching the id argument, using a SQL DELETE statement, and returns the number of rows deleted. Active Record objects are not instantiated, so the object's callbacks are not executed, including any :dependent association options.

You can delete multiple rows at once by passing an Array of ids.

Note: Although it is often much faster than the alternative, #destroy, skipping callbacks might bypass business logic in your application that ensures referential integrity or performs other essential jobs.

Examples

# Delete a single row
Todo.delete(1)

# Delete multiple rows
Todo.delete([2,3,4])


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 516

def delete(id_or_array)
  where(primary_key => id_or_array).delete_all
end

#delete_all(conditions = nil) ⇒ Object

Deletes the records matching conditions without instantiating the records first, and hence not calling the destroy method nor invoking callbacks. This is a single SQL DELETE statement that goes straight to the database, much more efficient than destroy_all. Be careful with relations though, in particular :dependent rules defined on associations are not honored. Returns the number of rows affected.

Post.delete_all("person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')")
Post.delete_all(["person_id = ? AND (category = ? OR category = ?)", 5, 'Something', 'Else'])
Post.where(person_id: 5).where(category: ['Something', 'Else']).delete_all

Both calls delete the affected posts all at once with a single DELETE statement. If you need to destroy dependent associations or call your before_* or after_destroy callbacks, use the destroy_all method instead.

If an invalid method is supplied, delete_all raises an ActiveRecord error:

Post.limit(100).delete_all
# => ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError: delete_all doesn't support limit


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 466

def delete_all(conditions = nil)
  invalid_methods = INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL.select { |method|
    if MULTI_VALUE_METHODS.include?(method)
      send("#{method}_values").any?
    else
      send("#{method}_value")
    end
  }
  if invalid_methods.any?
    raise ActiveRecordError.new("delete_all doesn't support #{invalid_methods.join(', ')}")
  end

  if conditions
    where(conditions).delete_all
  else
    stmt = Arel::DeleteManager.new
    stmt.from(table)

    if joins_values.any?
      @klass.connection.join_to_delete(stmt, arel, table[primary_key])
    else
      stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
    end

    affected = @klass.connection.delete(stmt, 'SQL', bind_values)

    reset
    affected
  end
end

#destroy(id) ⇒ Object

Destroy an object (or multiple objects) that has the given id. The object is instantiated first, therefore all callbacks and filters are fired off before the object is deleted. This method is less efficient than ActiveRecord#delete but allows cleanup methods and other actions to be run.

This essentially finds the object (or multiple objects) with the given id, creates a new object from the attributes, and then calls destroy on it.

Parameters

  • id - Can be either an Integer or an Array of Integers.

Examples

# Destroy a single object
Todo.destroy(1)

# Destroy multiple objects
todos = [1,2,3]
Todo.destroy(todos)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 439

def destroy(id)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map { |one_id| destroy(one_id) }
  else
    find(id).destroy
  end
end

#destroy_all(conditions = nil) ⇒ Object

Destroys the records matching conditions by instantiating each record and calling its destroy method. Each object's callbacks are executed (including :dependent association options). Returns the collection of objects that were destroyed; each will be frozen, to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).

Note: Instantiation, callback execution, and deletion of each record can be time consuming when you're removing many records at once. It generates at least one SQL DELETE query per record (or possibly more, to enforce your callbacks). If you want to delete many rows quickly, without concern for their associations or callbacks, use delete_all instead.

Parameters

  • conditions - A string, array, or hash that specifies which records to destroy. If omitted, all records are destroyed. See the Conditions section in the introduction to ActiveRecord::Base for more information.

Examples

Person.destroy_all("last_login < '2004-04-04'")
Person.destroy_all(status: "inactive")
Person.where(age: 0..18).destroy_all


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 412

def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
  if conditions
    where(conditions).destroy_all
  else
    to_a.each(&:destroy).tap { reset }
  end
end

#eager_loading?Boolean

Returns true if relation needs eager loading.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 596

def eager_loading?
  @should_eager_load ||=
    eager_load_values.any? ||
    includes_values.any? && (joined_includes_values.any? || references_eager_loaded_tables?)
end

#empty?Boolean

Returns true if there are no records.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 263

def empty?
  return @records.empty? if loaded?

  if limit_value == 0
    true
  else
    c = count(:all)
    c.respond_to?(:zero?) ? c.zero? : c.empty?
  end
end

#encode_with(coder) ⇒ Object

Serializes the relation objects Array.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 249

def encode_with(coder)
  coder.represent_seq(nil, to_a)
end

#explainObject

Runs EXPLAIN on the query or queries triggered by this relation and returns the result as a string. The string is formatted imitating the ones printed by the database shell.

Note that this method actually runs the queries, since the results of some are needed by the next ones when eager loading is going on.

Please see further details in the Active Record Query Interface guide.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 237

def explain
  #TODO: Fix for binds.
  exec_explain(collecting_queries_for_explain { exec_queries })
end

#find_or_create_by(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Finds the first record with the given attributes, or creates a record with the attributes if one is not found:

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
# We already have one so the existing record will be returned.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with
# a particular last name.
User.create_with(last_name: 'Johansson').find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett')
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method accepts a block, which is passed down to create. The last example above can be alternatively written this way:

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with a
# different last name.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett') do |user|
  user.last_name = 'Johansson'
end
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method always returns a record, but if creation was attempted and failed due to validation errors it won't be persisted, you get what create returns in such situation.

Please note *this method is not atomic*, it runs first a SELECT, and if there are no results an INSERT is attempted. If there are other threads or processes there is a race condition between both calls and it could be the case that you end up with two similar records.

Whether that is a problem or not depends on the logic of the application, but in the particular case in which rows have a UNIQUE constraint an exception may be raised, just retry:

begin
  CreditAccount.find_or_create_by(user_id: user.id)
rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique
  retry
end


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 213

def find_or_create_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create(attributes, &block)
end

#find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Like find_or_create_by, but calls create! so an exception is raised if the created record is invalid.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 219

def find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create!(attributes, &block)
end

#find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block) ⇒ Object

Like find_or_create_by, but calls new instead of create.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 224

def find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || new(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_create(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 155

def first_or_create(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || create(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_create!(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 159

def first_or_create!(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || create!(attributes, &block)
end

#first_or_initialize(attributes = nil, &block) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 163

def first_or_initialize(attributes = nil, &block) # :nodoc:
  first || new(attributes, &block)
end

#initialize_copy(other) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 32

def initialize_copy(other)
  # This method is a hot spot, so for now, use Hash[] to dup the hash.
  #   https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/7166
  @values        = Hash[@values]
  @values[:bind] = @values[:bind].dup if @values.key? :bind
  reset
end

#insert(values) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 40

def insert(values) # :nodoc:
  primary_key_value = nil

  if primary_key && Hash === values
    primary_key_value = values[values.keys.find { |k|
      k.name == primary_key
    }]

    if !primary_key_value && connection.prefetch_primary_key?(klass.table_name)
      primary_key_value = connection.next_sequence_value(klass.sequence_name)
      values[klass.arel_table[klass.primary_key]] = primary_key_value
    end
  end

  im = arel.create_insert
  im.into @table

  substitutes, binds = substitute_values values

  if values.empty? # empty insert
    im.values = Arel.sql(connection.empty_insert_statement_value)
  else
    im.insert substitutes
  end

  @klass.connection.insert(
    im,
    'SQL',
    primary_key,
    primary_key_value,
    nil,
    binds)
end

#inspectObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 641

def inspect
  entries = to_a.take([limit_value, 11].compact.min).map!(&:inspect)
  entries[10] = '...' if entries.size == 11

  "#<#{self.class.name} [#{entries.join(', ')}]>"
end

#joined_includes_valuesObject

Joins that are also marked for preloading. In which case we should just eager load them. Note that this is a naive implementation because we could have strings and symbols which represent the same association, but that aren't matched by this. Also, we could have nested hashes which partially match, e.g. { a: :b } & { a: [:b, :c] }



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 606

def joined_includes_values
  includes_values & joins_values
end

#loadObject

Causes the records to be loaded from the database if they have not been loaded already. You can use this if for some reason you need to explicitly load some records before actually using them. The return value is the relation itself, not the records.

Post.where(published: true).load # => #<ActiveRecord::Relation>


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 526

def load
  exec_queries unless loaded?

  self
end

#many?Boolean

Returns true if there is more than one record.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 284

def many?
  if block_given?
    to_a.many? { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) }
  else
    limit_value ? to_a.many? : size > 1
  end
end

#new(*args, &block) ⇒ Object Also known as: build

Initializes new record from relation while maintaining the current scope.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.new.

users = User.where(name: 'DHH')
user = users.new # => #<User id: nil, name: "DHH", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>

You can also pass a block to new with the new record as argument:

user = users.new { |user| user.name = 'Oscar' }
user.name # => Oscar


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 120

def new(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.new(*args, &block) }
end

#pretty_print(q) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 628

def pretty_print(q)
  q.pp(self.to_a)
end

#reloadObject

Forces reloading of relation.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 533

def reload
  reset
  load
end

#resetObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 538

def reset
  @last = @to_sql = @order_clause = @scope_for_create = @arel = @loaded = nil
  @should_eager_load = @join_dependency = nil
  @records = []
  @offsets = {}
  self
end

#scope_for_createObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 591

def scope_for_create
  @scope_for_create ||= where_values_hash.merge(create_with_value)
end

#scopingObject

Scope all queries to the current scope.

Comment.where(post_id: 1).scoping do
  Comment.first
end
# => SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" = 1 ORDER BY "comments"."id" ASC LIMIT 1

Please check unscoped if you want to remove all previous scopes (including the default_scope) during the execution of a block.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 301

def scoping
  previous, klass.current_scope = klass.current_scope, self
  yield
ensure
  klass.current_scope = previous
end

#sizeObject

Returns size of the records.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 258

def size
  loaded? ? @records.length : count(:all)
end

#substitute_values(values) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 96

def substitute_values(values) # :nodoc:
  binds = values.map do |arel_attr, value|
    [@klass.columns_hash[arel_attr.name], value]
  end

  substitutes = values.each_with_index.map do |(arel_attr, _), i|
    [arel_attr, @klass.connection.substitute_at(binds[i][0])]
  end

  [substitutes, binds]
end

#to_aObject

Converts relation objects to Array.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 243

def to_a
  load
  @records
end

#to_sqlObject

Returns sql statement for the relation.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').to_sql
# => SELECT "users".* FROM "users"  WHERE "users"."name" = 'Oscar'


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 550

def to_sql
  @to_sql ||= begin
                relation   = self
                connection = klass.connection
                visitor    = connection.visitor

                if eager_loading?
                  find_with_associations { |rel| relation = rel }
                end

                arel  = relation.arel
                binds = (arel.bind_values + relation.bind_values).dup
                binds.map! { |bv| connection.quote(*bv.reverse) }
                collect = visitor.accept(arel.ast, Arel::Collectors::Bind.new)
                collect.substitute_binds(binds).join
              end
end

#uniq_valueObject

uniq and uniq! are silently deprecated. uniq_value delegates to distinct_value to maintain backwards compatibility. Use distinct_value instead.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 612

def uniq_value
  distinct_value
end

#update(id = :all, attributes) ⇒ Object

Updates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass. The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.

Parameters

  • id - This should be the id or an array of ids to be updated.

  • attributes - This should be a hash of attributes or an array of hashes.

Examples

# Updates one record
Person.update(15, user_name: 'Samuel', group: 'expert')

# Updates multiple records
people = { 1 => { "first_name" => "David" }, 2 => { "first_name" => "Jeremy" } }
Person.update(people.keys, people.values)

# Updates multiple records from the result of a relation
people = Person.where(group: 'expert')
people.update(group: 'masters')

Note: Updating a large number of records will run a
UPDATE query for each record, which may cause a performance
issue. So if it is not needed to run callbacks for each update, it is
preferred to use <tt>update_all</tt> for updating all records using
a single query.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 375

def update(id = :all, attributes)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map.with_index { |one_id, idx| update(one_id, attributes[idx]) }
  elsif id == :all
    to_a.each { |record| record.update(attributes) }
  else
    object = find(id)
    object.update(attributes)
    object
  end
end

#update_all(updates) ⇒ Object

Updates all records in the current relation with details given. This method constructs a single SQL UPDATE statement and sends it straight to the database. It does not instantiate the involved models and it does not trigger Active Record callbacks or validations. Values passed to `update_all` will not go through ActiveRecord's type-casting behavior. It should receive only values that can be passed as-is to the SQL database.

Parameters

  • updates - A string, array, or hash representing the SET part of an SQL statement.

Examples

# Update all customers with the given attributes
Customer.update_all wants_email: true

# Update all books with 'Rails' in their title
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').update_all(author: 'David')

# Update all books that match conditions, but limit it to 5 ordered by date
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').order(:created_at).limit(5).update_all(author: 'David')

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 328

def update_all(updates)
  raise ArgumentError, "Empty list of attributes to change" if updates.blank?

  stmt = Arel::UpdateManager.new

  stmt.set Arel.sql(@klass.send(:sanitize_sql_for_assignment, updates))
  stmt.table(table)
  stmt.key = table[primary_key]

  if joins_values.any?
    @klass.connection.join_to_update(stmt, arel)
  else
    stmt.take(arel.limit)
    stmt.order(*arel.orders)
    stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
  end

  bvs = arel.bind_values + bind_values
  @klass.connection.update stmt, 'SQL', bvs
end

#valuesObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 637

def values
  Hash[@values]
end

#where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name) ⇒ Object

Returns a hash of where conditions.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').where_values_hash
# => {name: "Oscar"}


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb', line 572

def where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name)
  equalities = where_values.grep(Arel::Nodes::Equality).find_all { |node|
    node.left.relation.name == relation_table_name
  }

  binds = Hash[bind_values.find_all(&:first).map { |column, v| [column.name, v] }]

  Hash[equalities.map { |where|
    name = where.left.name
    [name, binds.fetch(name.to_s) {
      case where.right
      when Array then where.right.map(&:val)
      when Arel::Nodes::Casted, Arel::Nodes::Quoted
        where.right.val
      end
    }]
  }]
end