Module: FriendlyId::Slugged

Defined in:
lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb

Overview

Slugged Models

FriendlyId can use a separate column to store slugs for models which require some text processing.

For example, blog applications typically use a post title to provide the basis of a search engine friendly URL. Such identifiers typically lack uppercase characters, use ASCII to approximate UTF-8 characters, and strip out other characters which may make them aesthetically unappealing or error-prone when used in a URL.

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :title, :use => :slugged
end

@post = Post.create(:title => "This is the first post!")
@post.friendly_id   # returns "this-is-the-first-post"
redirect_to @post   # the URL will be /posts/this-is-the-first-post

In general, use slugs by default unless you know for sure you don't need them. To activate the slugging functionality, use the Slugged module.

FriendlyId will generate slugs from a method or column that you specify, and store them in a field in your model. By default, this field must be named :slug, though you may change this using the slug_column configuration option. You should add an index to this column, and in most cases, make it unique. You may also wish to constrain it to NOT NULL, but this depends on your app's behavior and requirements.

Example Setup

# your model
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :title, :use => :slugged
  validates_presence_of :title, :slug, :body
end

# a migration
class CreatePosts < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def self.up
    create_table :posts do |t|
      t.string :title, :null => false
      t.string :slug, :null => false
      t.text :body
    end

    add_index :posts, :slug, :unique => true
  end

  def self.down
    drop_table :posts
  end
end

Working With Slugs

Formatting

By default, FriendlyId uses Active Support's paramaterize method to create slugs. This method will intelligently replace spaces with dashes, and Unicode Latin characters with ASCII approximations:

movie = Movie.create! :title => "Der Preis fürs Überleben"
movie.slug #=> "der-preis-furs-uberleben"

Column or Method?

FriendlyId always uses a method as the basis of the slug text - not a column. At first glance, this may sound confusing, but remember that Active Record provides methods for each column in a model's associated table, and that's what FriendlyId uses.

Here's an example of a class that uses a custom method to generate the slug:

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :name_and_location, use: :slugged

  def name_and_location
    "#{name} from #{location}"
  end
end

bob = Person.create! :name => "Bob Smith", :location => "New York City"
bob.friendly_id #=> "bob-smith-from-new-york-city"

FriendlyId refers to this internally as the "base" method.

Uniqueness

When you try to insert a record that would generate a duplicate friendly id, FriendlyId will append a UUID to the generated slug to ensure uniqueness:

car = Car.create :title => "Peugeot 206"
car2 = Car.create :title => "Peugeot 206"

car.friendly_id #=> "peugeot-206"
car2.friendly_id #=> "peugeot-206-f9f3789a-daec-4156-af1d-fab81aa16ee5"

Previous versions of FriendlyId appended a numeric sequence to make slugs unique, but this was removed to simplify using FriendlyId in concurrent code.

Candidates

Since UUIDs are ugly, FriendlyId provides a "slug candidates" functionality to let you specify alternate slugs to use in the event the one you want to use is already taken. For example:

class Restaurant < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :slug_candidates, use: :slugged

  # Try building a slug based on the following fields in
  # increasing order of specificity.
  def slug_candidates
    [
      :name,
      [:name, :city],
      [:name, :street, :city],
      [:name, :street_number, :street, :city]
    ]
  end
end

r1 = Restaurant.create! name: 'Plaza Diner', city: 'New Paltz'
r2 = Restaurant.create! name: 'Plaza Diner', city: 'Kingston'

r1.friendly_id  #=> 'plaza-diner'
r2.friendly_id  #=> 'plaza-diner-kingston'

To use candidates, make your FriendlyId base method return an array. The method need not be named slug_candidates; it can be anything you want. The array may contain any combination of symbols, strings, procs or lambdas and will be evaluated lazily and in order. If you include symbols, FriendlyId will invoke a method on your model class with the same name. Strings will be interpreted literally. Procs and lambdas will be called and their return values used as the basis of the friendly id. If none of the candidates can generate a unique slug, then FriendlyId will append a UUID to the first candidate as a last resort.

Sequence Separator

By default, FriendlyId uses a dash to separate the slug from a sequence.

You can change this with the sequence_separator configuration option.

Providing Your Own Slug Processing Method

You can override #normalize_friendly_id in your model for total control over the slug format. It will be invoked for any generated slug, whether for a single slug or for slug candidates.

Deciding When to Generate New Slugs

As of FriendlyId 5.0, slugs are only generated when the slug field is nil. If you want a slug to be regenerated,set the slug field to nil:

restaurant.friendly_id # joes-diner
restaurant.name = "The Plaza Diner"
restaurant.save!
restaurant.friendly_id # joes-diner
restaurant.slug = nil
restaurant.save!
restaurant.friendly_id # the-plaza-diner

You can also override the #should_generate_new_friendly_id? method, which lets you control exactly when new friendly ids are set:

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :title, :use => :slugged

  def should_generate_new_friendly_id?
    title_changed?
  end
end

If you want to extend the default behavior but add your own conditions, don't forget to invoke super from your implementation:

class Category < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :name, :use => :slugged

  def should_generate_new_friendly_id?
    name_changed? || super
  end
end

Locale-specific Transliterations

Active Support's parameterize uses transliterate, which in turn can use I18n's transliteration rules to consider the current locale when replacing Latin characters:

# config/locales/de.yml
de:
  i18n:
    transliterate:
      rule:
        

This functionality was in fact taken from earlier versions of FriendlyId.

Gotchas: Common Problems

FriendlyId uses a before_validation callback to generate and set the slug. This means that if you create two model instances before saving them, it's possible they will generate the same slug, and the second save will fail.

This can happen in two fairly normal cases: the first, when a model using nested attributes creates more than one record for a model that uses friendly_id. The second, in concurrent code, either in threads or multiple processes.

To solve the nested attributes issue, I recommend simply avoiding them when creating more than one nested record for a model that uses FriendlyId. See this Github issue for discussion.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: Configuration

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

.included(model_class) ⇒ Object

Sets up behavior and configuration options for FriendlyId's slugging feature.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 243

def self.included(model_class)
  model_class.friendly_id_config.instance_eval do
    self.class.send :include, Configuration
    self.slug_generator_class     ||= SlugGenerator
    defaults[:slug_column]        ||= 'slug'
    defaults[:sequence_separator] ||= '-'
  end
  model_class.before_validation :set_slug
  model_class.after_validation :unset_slug_if_invalid
end

Instance Method Details

#apply_slug_limit(candidate, uuid) ⇒ Object (private)

Private: Apply slug limit to candidate.

candidate - the String with candidate. uuid - the String with UUID.

Return the String with truncated candidate.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 334

def apply_slug_limit(candidate, uuid)
  return candidate unless candidate && friendly_id_config.slug_limit

  candidate[0...candidate_limit(uuid)]
end

#candidate_limit(uuid) ⇒ Object (private)

Private: Get max length of candidate.

uuid - the String with UUID.

Returns the Integer with max length.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 346

def candidate_limit(uuid)
  [
    friendly_id_config.slug_limit - uuid.size - friendly_id_config.sequence_separator.size,
    0
  ].max
end

#normalize_friendly_id(value) ⇒ Object

Process the given value to make it suitable for use as a slug.

This method is not intended to be invoked directly; FriendlyId uses it internally to process strings into slugs.

However, if FriendlyId's default slug generation doesn't suit your needs, you can override this method in your model class to control exactly how slugs are generated.

Example

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
  extend FriendlyId
  friendly_id :name_and_location

  def name_and_location
    "#{name} from #{location}"
  end

  # Use default slug, but upper case and with underscores
  def normalize_friendly_id(string)
    super.upcase.gsub("-", "_")
  end
end

bob = Person.create! :name => "Bob Smith", :location => "New York City"
bob.friendly_id #=> "BOB_SMITH_FROM_NEW_YORK_CITY"

More Resources

You might want to look into Babosa[https://github.com/norman/babosa], which is the slugging library used by FriendlyId prior to version 4, which offers some specialized functionality missing from Active Support.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 290

def normalize_friendly_id(value)
  value = value.to_s.parameterize
  value = value[0...friendly_id_config.slug_limit] if friendly_id_config.slug_limit
  value
end

#resolve_friendly_id_conflict(candidates) ⇒ Object

Public: Resolve conflicts.

This method adds UUID to first candidate and truncates (if slug_limit is set).

Examples:

resolve_friendly_id_conflict(['12345']) # => '12345-xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx'

FriendlyId.defaults { |config| config.slug_limit = 40 } resolve_friendly_id_conflict(['12345']) # => '123-xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx'

candidates - the Array with candidates.

Returns the String with new slug.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 320

def resolve_friendly_id_conflict(candidates)
  uuid = SecureRandom.uuid
  [
    apply_slug_limit(candidates.first, uuid),
    uuid
  ].compact.join(friendly_id_config.sequence_separator)
end

#scope_for_slug_generatorObject (private)



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 364

def scope_for_slug_generator
  scope = self.class.base_class.unscoped
  scope = scope.friendly unless scope.respond_to?(:exists_by_friendly_id?)
  primary_key_name = self.class.primary_key
  scope.where(self.class.base_class.arel_table[primary_key_name].not_eq(send(primary_key_name)))
end

#set_slug(normalized_slug = nil) ⇒ Object (private)

Sets the slug.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 355

def set_slug(normalized_slug = nil)
  if should_generate_new_friendly_id?
    candidates = FriendlyId::Candidates.new(self, normalized_slug || send(friendly_id_config.base))
    slug = slug_generator.generate(candidates) || resolve_friendly_id_conflict(candidates)
    send "#{friendly_id_config.slug_column}=", slug
  end
end

#should_generate_new_friendly_id?Boolean

Whether to generate a new slug.

You can override this method in your model if, for example, you only want slugs to be generated once, and then never updated.



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 300

def should_generate_new_friendly_id?
  send(friendly_id_config.slug_column).nil? && !send(friendly_id_config.base).nil?
end

#slug_generatorObject (private)



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 372

def slug_generator
  friendly_id_config.slug_generator_class.new(scope_for_slug_generator, friendly_id_config)
end

#unset_slug_if_invalidObject (private)



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# File 'lib/friendly_id/slugged.rb', line 377

def unset_slug_if_invalid
  if errors.present? && attribute_changed?(friendly_id_config.query_field.to_s)
    diff = changes[friendly_id_config.query_field]
    send "#{friendly_id_config.slug_column}=", diff.first
  end
end