Class: Hash

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/slice.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/json.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/except.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/blank.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/compact.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/to_query.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/deep_dup.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/deep_merge.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/to_param.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/conversions.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/reverse_merge.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/array/extract_options.rb,
activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/indifferent_access.rb

Class Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Class Method Details

+ (Object) from_trusted_xml(xml)

Builds a Hash from XML just like Hash.from_xml, but also allows Symbol and YAML.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/conversions.rb', line 115

def from_trusted_xml(xml)
  from_xml xml, []
end

+ (Object) from_xml(xml, disallowed_types = nil)

Returns a Hash containing a collection of pairs when the key is the node name and the value is its content

xml = <<-XML
  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <hash>
      <foo type="integer">1</foo>
      <bar type="integer">2</bar>
    </hash>
XML

hash = Hash.from_xml(xml)
# => {"hash"=>{"foo"=>1, "bar"=>2}}

DisallowedType is raised if the XML contains attributes with type="yaml" or type="symbol". Use Hash.from_trusted_xml to parse this XML.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/conversions.rb', line 110

def from_xml(xml, disallowed_types = nil)
  ActiveSupport::XMLConverter.new(xml, disallowed_types).to_h
end

Instance Method Details

- (Object) as_json(options = nil)

:nodoc:



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/json.rb', line 145

def as_json(options = nil) #:nodoc:
  # create a subset of the hash by applying :only or :except
  subset = if options
    if attrs = options[:only]
      slice(*Array(attrs))
    elsif attrs = options[:except]
      except(*Array(attrs))
    else
      self
    end
  else
    self
  end

  Hash[subset.map { |k, v| [k.to_s, options ? v.as_json(options.dup) : v.as_json] }]
end

- (Object) assert_valid_keys(*valid_keys)

Validate all keys in a hash match *valid_keys, raising ArgumentError on a mismatch. Note that keys are NOT treated indifferently, meaning if you use strings for keys but assert symbols as keys, this will fail.

{ name: 'Rob', years: '28' }.assert_valid_keys(:name, :age) # => raises "ArgumentError: Unknown key: :years. Valid keys are: :name, :age"
{ name: 'Rob', age: '28' }.assert_valid_keys('name', 'age') # => raises "ArgumentError: Unknown key: :name. Valid keys are: 'name', 'age'"
{ name: 'Rob', age: '28' }.assert_valid_keys(:name, :age)   # => passes, raises nothing


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 67

def assert_valid_keys(*valid_keys)
  valid_keys.flatten!
  each_key do |k|
    unless valid_keys.include?(k)
      raise ArgumentError.new("Unknown key: #{k.inspect}. Valid keys are: #{valid_keys.map(&:inspect).join(', ')}")
    end
  end
end

- (Object) compact

Returns a hash with non nil values.

hash = { a: true, b: false, c: nil}
hash.compact # => { a: true, b: false}
hash # => { a: true, b: false, c: nil}
{ c: nil }.compact # => {}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/compact.rb', line 8

def compact
  self.select { |_, value| !value.nil? }
end

- (Object) compact!

Replaces current hash with non nil values.

hash = { a: true, b: false, c: nil}
hash.compact! # => { a: true, b: false}
hash # => { a: true, b: false}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/compact.rb', line 17

def compact!
  self.reject! { |_, value| value.nil? }
end

- (Object) deep_dup

Returns a deep copy of hash.

hash = { a: { b: 'b' } }
dup  = hash.deep_dup
dup[:a][:c] = 'c'

hash[:a][:c] # => nil
dup[:a][:c]  # => "c"


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/deep_dup.rb', line 41

def deep_dup
  each_with_object(dup) do |(key, value), hash|
    hash[key.deep_dup] = value.deep_dup
  end
end

- (Object) deep_merge(other_hash, &block)

Returns a new hash with self and other_hash merged recursively.

h1 = { x: { y: [4, 5, 6] }, z: [7, 8, 9] }
h2 = { x: { y: [7, 8, 9] }, z: 'xyz' }

h1.deep_merge(h2) # => {x: {y: [7, 8, 9]}, z: "xyz"}
h2.deep_merge(h1) # => {x: {y: [4, 5, 6]}, z: [7, 8, 9]}
h1.deep_merge(h2) { |key, old, new| Array.wrap(old) + Array.wrap(new) }
# => {:x=>{:y=>[4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]}, :z=>[7, 8, 9, "xyz"]}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/deep_merge.rb', line 11

def deep_merge(other_hash, &block)
  dup.deep_merge!(other_hash, &block)
end

- (Object) deep_merge!(other_hash, &block)

Same as deep_merge, but modifies self.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/deep_merge.rb', line 16

def deep_merge!(other_hash, &block)
  other_hash.each_pair do |k,v|
    tv = self[k]
    if tv.is_a?(Hash) && v.is_a?(Hash)
      self[k] = tv.deep_merge(v, &block)
    else
      self[k] = block && tv ? block.call(k, tv, v) : v
    end
  end
  self
end

- (Object) deep_stringify_keys

Returns a new hash with all keys converted to strings. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.

hash = { person: { name: 'Rob', age: '28' } }

hash.deep_stringify_keys
# => {"person"=>{"name"=>"Rob", "age"=>"28"}}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 111

def deep_stringify_keys
  deep_transform_keys{ |key| key.to_s }
end

- (Object) deep_stringify_keys!

Destructively convert all keys to strings. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 118

def deep_stringify_keys!
  deep_transform_keys!{ |key| key.to_s }
end

- (Object) deep_symbolize_keys

Returns a new hash with all keys converted to symbols, as long as they respond to to_sym. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.

hash = { 'person' => { 'name' => 'Rob', 'age' => '28' } }

hash.deep_symbolize_keys
# => {:person=>{:name=>"Rob", :age=>"28"}}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 130

def deep_symbolize_keys
  deep_transform_keys{ |key| key.to_sym rescue key }
end

- (Object) deep_symbolize_keys!

Destructively convert all keys to symbols, as long as they respond to to_sym. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 137

def deep_symbolize_keys!
  deep_transform_keys!{ |key| key.to_sym rescue key }
end

- (Object) deep_transform_keys(&block)

Returns a new hash with all keys converted by the block operation. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.

hash = { person: { name: 'Rob', age: '28' } }

hash.deep_transform_keys{ |key| key.to_s.upcase }
# => {"PERSON"=>{"NAME"=>"Rob", "AGE"=>"28"}}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 84

def deep_transform_keys(&block)
  result = {}
  each do |key, value|
    result[yield(key)] = value.is_a?(Hash) ? value.deep_transform_keys(&block) : value
  end
  result
end

- (Object) deep_transform_keys!(&block)

Destructively convert all keys by using the block operation. This includes the keys from the root hash and from all nested hashes.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 95

def deep_transform_keys!(&block)
  keys.each do |key|
    value = delete(key)
    self[yield(key)] = value.is_a?(Hash) ? value.deep_transform_keys!(&block) : value
  end
  self
end

- (Object) except(*keys)

Returns a hash that includes everything but the given keys. This is useful for limiting a set of parameters to everything but a few known toggles:

@person.update(params[:person].except(:admin))


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/except.rb', line 6

def except(*keys)
  dup.except!(*keys)
end

- (Object) except!(*keys)

Replaces the hash without the given keys.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/except.rb', line 11

def except!(*keys)
  keys.each { |key| delete(key) }
  self
end

- (Object) extract!(*keys)

Removes and returns the key/value pairs matching the given keys.

{ a: 1, b: 2, c: 3, d: 4 }.extract!(:a, :b) # => {:a=>1, :b=>2}
{ a: 1, b: 2 }.extract!(:a, :x)             # => {:a=>1}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/slice.rb', line 39

def extract!(*keys)
  keys.each_with_object(self.class.new) { |key, result| result[key] = delete(key) if has_key?(key) }
end

- (Boolean) extractable_options?

By default, only instances of Hash itself are extractable. Subclasses of Hash may implement this method and return true to declare themselves as extractable. If a Hash is extractable, Array#extract_options! pops it from the Array when it is the last element of the Array.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/array/extract_options.rb', line 7

def extractable_options?
  instance_of?(Hash)
end

- (Object) reverse_merge(other_hash)

Merges the caller into other_hash. For example,

options = options.reverse_merge(size: 25, velocity: 10)

is equivalent to

options = { size: 25, velocity: 10 }.merge(options)

This is particularly useful for initializing an options hash with default values.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/reverse_merge.rb', line 12

def reverse_merge(other_hash)
  other_hash.merge(self)
end

- (Object) reverse_merge!(other_hash) Also known as: reverse_update

Destructive reverse_merge.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/reverse_merge.rb', line 17

def reverse_merge!(other_hash)
  # right wins if there is no left
  merge!( other_hash ){|key,left,right| left }
end

- (Object) slice(*keys)

Slice a hash to include only the given keys. This is useful for limiting an options hash to valid keys before passing to a method:

def search(criteria = {})
  criteria.assert_valid_keys(:mass, :velocity, :time)
end

search(options.slice(:mass, :velocity, :time))

If you have an array of keys you want to limit to, you should splat them:

valid_keys = [:mass, :velocity, :time]
search(options.slice(*valid_keys))


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/slice.rb', line 15

def slice(*keys)
  keys.map! { |key| convert_key(key) } if respond_to?(:convert_key, true)
  keys.each_with_object(self.class.new) { |k, hash| hash[k] = self[k] if has_key?(k) }
end

- (Object) slice!(*keys)

Replaces the hash with only the given keys. Returns a hash containing the removed key/value pairs.

{ a: 1, b: 2, c: 3, d: 4 }.slice!(:a, :b)
# => {:c=>3, :d=>4}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/slice.rb', line 25

def slice!(*keys)
  keys.map! { |key| convert_key(key) } if respond_to?(:convert_key, true)
  omit = slice(*self.keys - keys)
  hash = slice(*keys)
  hash.default      = default
  hash.default_proc = default_proc if default_proc
  replace(hash)
  omit
end

- (Object) stringify_keys

Returns a new hash with all keys converted to strings.

hash = { name: 'Rob', age: '28' }

hash.stringify_keys
# => { "name" => "Rob", "age" => "28" }


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 31

def stringify_keys
  transform_keys{ |key| key.to_s }
end

- (Object) stringify_keys!

Destructively convert all keys to strings. Same as stringify_keys, but modifies self.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 37

def stringify_keys!
  transform_keys!{ |key| key.to_s }
end

- (Object) symbolize_keys Also known as: to_options

Returns a new hash with all keys converted to symbols, as long as they respond to to_sym.

hash = { 'name' => 'Rob', 'age' => '28' }

hash.symbolize_keys
# => { name: "Rob", age: "28" }


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 48

def symbolize_keys
  transform_keys{ |key| key.to_sym rescue key }
end

- (Object) symbolize_keys! Also known as: to_options!

Destructively convert all keys to symbols, as long as they respond to to_sym. Same as symbolize_keys, but modifies self.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 55

def symbolize_keys!
  transform_keys!{ |key| key.to_sym rescue key }
end

- (Object) to_param(namespace = nil)

Returns a string representation of the receiver suitable for use as a URL query string:

{name: 'David', nationality: 'Danish'}.to_param
# => "name=David&nationality=Danish"

An optional namespace can be passed to enclose the param names:

{name: 'David', nationality: 'Danish'}.to_param('user')
# => "user[name]=David&user[nationality]=Danish"

The string pairs “key=value” that conform the query string are sorted lexicographically in ascending order.

This method is also aliased as to_query.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/to_param.rb', line 53

def to_param(namespace = nil)
  if empty?
    namespace ? nil.to_query(namespace) : ''
  else
    collect do |key, value|
      value.to_query(namespace ? "#{namespace}[#{key}]" : key)
    end.sort! * '&'
  end
end

- (Object) to_query



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/object/to_query.rb', line 31

alias_method :to_query, :to_param

- (Object) to_xml(options = {})

Returns a string containing an XML representation of its receiver:

{ foo: 1, bar: 2 }.to_xml
# =>
# <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
# <hash>
#   <foo type="integer">1</foo>
#   <bar type="integer">2</bar>
# </hash>

To do so, the method loops over the pairs and builds nodes that depend on the values. Given a pair key, value:

  • If value is a hash there's a recursive call with key as :root.

  • If value is an array there's a recursive call with key as :root, and key singularized as :children.

  • If value is a callable object it must expect one or two arguments. Depending on the arity, the callable is invoked with the options hash as first argument with key as :root, and key singularized as second argument. The callable can add nodes by using options[:builder].

    'foo'.to_xml(lambda { |options, key| options[:builder].b(key) })
    # => "<b>foo</b>"
  • If value responds to to_xml the method is invoked with key as :root.

    class Foo
      def to_xml(options)
        options[:builder].bar 'fooing!'
      end
    end
    
    { foo: Foo.new }.to_xml(skip_instruct: true)
    # =>
    # <hash>
    #   <bar>fooing!</bar>
    # </hash>
  • Otherwise, a node with key as tag is created with a string representation of value as text node. If value is nil an attribute “nil” set to “true” is added. Unless the option :skip_types exists and is true, an attribute “type” is added as well according to the following mapping:

    XML_TYPE_NAMES = {
      "Symbol"     => "symbol",
      "Fixnum"     => "integer",
      "Bignum"     => "integer",
      "BigDecimal" => "decimal",
      "Float"      => "float",
      "TrueClass"  => "boolean",
      "FalseClass" => "boolean",
      "Date"       => "date",
      "DateTime"   => "dateTime",
      "Time"       => "dateTime"
    }

By default the root node is “hash”, but that's configurable via the :root option.

The default XML builder is a fresh instance of Builder::XmlMarkup. You can configure your own builder with the :builder option. The method also accepts options like :dasherize and friends, they are forwarded to the builder.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/conversions.rb', line 74

def to_xml(options = {})
  require 'active_support/builder' unless defined?(Builder)

  options = options.dup
  options[:indent]  ||= 2
  options[:root]    ||= 'hash'
  options[:builder] ||= Builder::XmlMarkup.new(indent: options[:indent])

  builder = options[:builder]
  builder.instruct! unless options.delete(:skip_instruct)

  root = ActiveSupport::XmlMini.rename_key(options[:root].to_s, options)

  builder.tag!(root) do
    each { |key, value| ActiveSupport::XmlMini.to_tag(key, value, options) }
    yield builder if block_given?
  end
end

- (Object) transform_keys

Returns a new hash with all keys converted using the block operation.

hash = { name: 'Rob', age: '28' }

hash.transform_keys{ |key| key.to_s.upcase }
# => {"NAME"=>"Rob", "AGE"=>"28"}


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 8

def transform_keys
  result = {}
  each_key do |key|
    result[yield(key)] = self[key]
  end
  result
end

- (Object) transform_keys!

Destructively convert all keys using the block operations. Same as transform_keys but modifies self.



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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/keys.rb', line 18

def transform_keys!
  keys.each do |key|
    self[yield(key)] = delete(key)
  end
  self
end

- (Object) with_indifferent_access Also known as: nested_under_indifferent_access

Returns an ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess out of its receiver:

{ a: 1 }.with_indifferent_access['a'] # => 1


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# File 'activesupport/lib/active_support/core_ext/hash/indifferent_access.rb', line 8

def with_indifferent_access
  ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess.new_from_hash_copying_default(self)
end