The CUPS module

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Table of Contents

  1. Description
  2. Setup
  3. Usage - A quick start guide
  4. Reference - The documentation of all features available
  5. Limitations
  6. Contributing - Guidelines for users and developers

Description

This module installs, configures, and manages the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) service.

It provides Puppet types to install, configure, and manage CUPS printer queues and classes.

Key design goals include locale independence and test driven development.

Setup

What cups affects

  • The CUPS packages will be installed.

  • The CUPS service will be enabled and launched.

  • The files in /etc/cups/ will be modified using CUPS command line utilities.

  • The entire content of the file /etc/cups/cupsd.conf will be managed by the module.

  • The file /etc/cups/lpoptions will be deleted. See the section on limitations for details.

Setup Requirements

This module is written for and tested on Linux systems with

  • Puppet 4 or 5

  • CUPS ~> 1.5 or ~> 2.x

Beginning with CUPS

First you need to install this module. One way to do this is

puppet module install leoarnold-cups

All resources in this module require the CUPS daemon to be installed and configured in a certain way. To ensure these preconditions you should include the main cups class wherever you use this module:

# General inclusion
include '::cups'

# OR

# Explicit class configuration
# (May only be defined once per catalog)
class { '::cups':
  # Your settings custom here
}

See the section on the cups class for details. Adding printer or class resources is described in the section on usage.

Usage

In this section, you will learn the straightforward way to set up CUPS queues from scratch. If the queues are already installed on the node, you can easily obtain a manifest with their current configuration by running

  puppet resource cups_queue

and adjust it following the instructions on configuring queues.

Managing Printers

There are several ways to set up a printer queue in CUPS. This section provides the minimal manifest for each method.

Note These minimal manifests will NOT update or change the PPD file on already existing queues, as CUPS does not provide a robust way to determine how a given queue was installed. See however the section on changing the driver for a workaround.

If you are unsure which way to choose, we recommend to set up the printer using the tools provided by your operating system (or the CUPS web interface), then take the corresponding PPD file from /etc/cups/ppd/ and use the ppd method.

Minimal printer manifests:

  • Creating a local raw printer:

    include '::cups'
    
    cups_queue { 'MinimalRaw':
    ensure => 'printer',
    uri    => 'lpd://192.168.2.105/binary_p1' # Replace with your printer's URI
    }
    

    To configure this queue see the section on setting the usual options or the cups_queue type reference.

  • Using a suitable model from the output of the command lpinfo -m on the node:

    include '::cups'
    
    cups_queue { 'MinimalModel':
    ensure => 'printer',
    model  => 'drv:///sample.drv/generic.ppd',
    uri    => 'lpd://192.168.2.105/binary_p1' # Replace with your printer's URI
    }
    

    To configure this queue see the section on setting the usual options or the cups_queue type reference.

  • Using a custom PPD file:

    include '::cups'
    
    cups_queue { 'MinimalPPD':
    ensure => 'printer',
    ppd    => '/usr/share/cups/model/myprinter.ppd',
    uri    => 'lpd://192.168.2.105/binary_p1' # Replace with your printer's URI
    }
    

    To configure this queue see the section on setting the usual options or the type reference.

    In a master-agent setting, you could transfer the PPD file to the client using a file resource

    file { '/usr/share/cups/model/myprinter.ppd':
    ensure => 'file',
    source => 'puppet:///modules/myModule/myprinter.ppd'
    }
    

    which will automatically be required by Cups_queue['MinimalPPD'].

Changing the driver

When a printer queue is already present and managed using a PPD file, it is generally hard to tell which model or PPD file was used to install the queue. Nevertheless it might become necessary to change the model or update the PPD file without changing the queue name, e.g. because the PPD file contains some login credentials.

This module introduces a way to update the driver (i.e. force a reinstall) through syncing the make_and_model property, which defaults to

  • the NickName (fallback ModelName) value from the printer's PPD file in /etc/cups/ppd/ if the printer was installed using a PPD file or a model.

  • Local Raw Printer for raw print queues.

Example: On the node, running puppet resource cups_queue Office returns

  cups_queue { 'Office':
    ensure         => 'printer',
    make_and_model => 'HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp Postscript (recommended)',
    # ...
  }

and you would like to

  • use a different model

    $ lpinfo -m | grep 4730mfp
    # ...
    drv:///hpcups.drv/hp-color_laserjet_4730mfp-pcl3.ppd HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp pcl3, hpcups 3.14.3
    postscript-hp:0/ppd/hplip/HP/hp-color_laserjet_4730mfp-ps.ppd HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp Postscript (recommended)
    # ...
    

    then you just need to adapt the manifest from above to

    cups_queue { 'Office':
    ensure         => 'printer',
    model          => 'drv:///hpcups.drv/hp-color_laserjet_4730mfp-pcl3.ppd',
    make_and_model => 'HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp pcl3, hpcups 3.14.3',
    # ...
    }
    
  • use a custom PPD file instead which contains the line

    *NickName: "HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp Postscript (MyCompany v2)"
    

    then you just need to adapt the manifest from above to

    cups_queue { 'Office':
    ensure         => 'printer',
    ppd            => '/usr/share/cups/model/hp4730v2.ppd',
    make_and_model => 'HP Color LaserJet 4730mfp Postscript (MyCompany v2)',
    # ...
    }
    
  • make it a raw queue. Then you just need to adapt the manifest from above to

    cups_queue { 'Office':
    ensure         => 'printer',
    make_and_model => 'Local Raw Printer',
    # ...
    }
    

Managing Classes

When defining a printer class, it is mandatory to also define its member printers in the same catalog:

  include '::cups'

  cups_queue { 'MinimalClass':
    ensure  => 'class',
    members => ['Office', 'Warehouse']
  }

  cups_queue { 'Office':
    ensure => 'printer',
    # ...
  }

  cups_queue { 'Warehouse':
    ensure => 'printer',
    # ...
  }

The Cups_queue['MinimalClass'] resource will automatically require its member resources Cups_queue['Office', 'Warehouse'].

Configuring queues

Once you have your minimal printer or class manifest, you will need to apply some configuration.

Job handling: In CUPS, newly installed queues are disabled and rejecting by default, which can lead to confusion at times. The corresponding cups_queue properties are:

  • accepting: Should incoming jobs be enqueued or rejected?

  • enabled: Should pending jobs be sent to the device or kept pending?

If you want your print queues to "just work", you should set both to true. This module does not set default values by itself, since it might be of disadvantage in a professional copy shop environment.

Most users will prefer to set both options to true for all queues using

   Cups_queue {
     accepting => true,
     enabled   => true
   }

Option defaults: Sometimes you need to set some default values for CUPS or vendor options of a print queue, e.g. to enable Duplex to save trees or because you use A4 paper instead of US Letter.

To see all vendor options and their possible values for the queue Office, you can use lpoptions:

  $ lpoptions -p Office -l
  PageSize/Media Size: *Letter Legal Executive Tabloid A3 A4 A5 B5 EnvISOB5 Env10 EnvC5 EnvDL EnvMonarch
  InputSlot/Media Source: *Default Upper Manual
  Duplex/2-Sided Printing: *None DuplexNoTumble DuplexTumble
  Option1/Duplexer: *False True

The asterisk (*) indicates the current value. Use this to adapt your manifest

  cups_queue { 'Office':
    # ...
    options => {
      'Duplex'   => 'DuplexNoTumble',
      'PageSize' => 'A4',
    }
  }

You only need to provide values for options you actually care about.

Access control: Of course you want your boss Mr. Lumbergh, the secretary Nina and every member of the workers' council to be able to print to the office printer from every node. But all others should be denied to use this printer.

Assuming they respectively have the user accounts lumbergh, nina, and the user group council, this can be achieved by:

  cups_queue { 'Office':
    # ...
    access => {
      'policy' => 'allow',
      'users'  => ['lumbergh', 'nina', '@council'],
    }
  }

Note that group names must be prefixed with an @ sign.

Changing the policy to deny would deny all users, but allow everybody else. Furthermore, you can unset all restrictions by using

  cups_queue { 'Office':
    # ...
    access => {
      'policy' => 'allow',
      'users'  => ['all'],
    }
  }

because all is interpreted by CUPS as a wildcard, not as an account name.

Configuring CUPS

Now that you have created manifest for all your queues, you may want to set the default destination.

  class { '::cups'
    default_queue => 'Office',
  }

This will require the resource Cups_queue['Office'] to be defined in the catalog.

To find out about all options available for Class['::cups'] see the section below.

Automatic dependencies

For your convenience, this module establishes many resource dependencies automatically. For example, on a Debian system the manifest

class { '::cups':
  default_queue => 'Warehouse'
}

cups_queue { 'GroundFloor':
  ensure  => 'class',
  members => ['Office', 'Warehouse']
}

cups_queue { 'Office':
  ensure => 'printer',
  # ...
}

cups_queue { 'Warehouse':
  ensure => 'printer',
  # ...
}

by default generates the dependencies

                     Class['cups']
                    /             \
Cups_queue['Office']               Cups_queue['Warehouse']
                    \             /                       \
               Cups_queue['GroundFloor']                   Class['cups::queues::default']

Using Hiera

Make sure your Puppet setup includes the ::cups class on the relevant nodes. Configuration is straightforward:

---
cups::default_queue: Warehouse
cups::web_interface: true

Beyond that you can also create cups_queue resources using Hiera. Just replace a manifest like

class { 'cups':
  default_queue => 'Warehouse',
  web_interface => true
}

cups_queue { 'MinimalClass':
  ensure  => 'class',
  members => ['Office', 'Warehouse']
}

cups_queue { 'Office':
  ensure => 'printer',
  uri    => 'socket://office.initech.com',
}

cups_queue { 'Warehouse':
  ensure => 'printer',
  uri    => 'socket://warehouse.initech.com',
}

with the Hiera data

---
cups::default_queue: Warehouse
cups::web_interface: true
cups::resources:
  GroundFloor:
    ensure: class
    members:
      - Office
      - Warehouse
  Office:
    ensure: printer
    uri: socket://office.initech.com
  Warehouse:
    ensure: printer
    uri: socket://warehouse.initech.com

Reference

Classes

Types

Class: cups

Installs, configures, and manages the CUPS service.

Attributes
  • default_queue: The name of the default destination for all print jobs. Requires the catalog to contain a cups_queue resource with the same name.

  • listen: Which adresses to the CUPS daemon should listen to. Accepts (an array of) strings. Defaults to ['localhost:631', '/var/run/cups/cups.sock']. Note that the cupsd.conf directive Port 631 is equivalent to Listen *:631. Warning: For this module to work, it is mandatory that CUPS is listening on localhost:631.

  • package_ensure: Whether CUPS packages should be present or absent. Defaults to present.

  • package_manage: Whether to manage package installation at all. Defaults to true.

  • package_names: A name or an array of names of all packages needed to be installed in order to run CUPS and provide ipptool. OS dependent defaults apply.

  • papersize: Sets the system's default /etc/papersize. See man papersize for supported values.

  • purge_unmanaged_queues: Setting true will remove all queues from the node which do not match a cups_queue resource in the current catalog. Defaults to false.

  • resources: This attribute is intended for use with Hiera or any other ENC (see the example above).

  • service_enable: Whether the CUPS services should be enabled to run at boot. Defaults to true.

  • service_ensure: Whether the CUPS services should be running or stopped. Defaults to running.

  • service_manage: Whether to manage services at all. Defaults to true.

  • service_names: A name or an array of names of all CUPS services to be managed. OS dependent defaults apply.

  • web_interface: Boolean value to enable or disable the server's web interface.

Type: cups_queue

Installs and manages CUPS print queues.

Attributes
  • name: (mandatory) Queue names may contain any printable character except SPACES, TABS, (BACK)SLASHES, QUOTES, COMMAS or "#". We recommend to use only ASCII characters because the node's shell might not support Unicode.

  • ensure: mandatory - Specifies whether this queue should be a class, a printer or absent.

  • access: Manages queue access control. Takes a hash with keys policy and users. The allow policy restricts access to the users provided, while the deny policy lets everybody submit jobs except the specified users. The users are provided as a non-empty array of Unix group names (prefixed with an @) and Unix user names.

  • accepting: Boolean value specifying whether the queue should accept print jobs or reject them.

  • description: A short informative description of the queue.

  • enabled: Boolean value specifying whether the queue should be running or stopped.

  • held: A held queue will print all jobs in print or pending, but all new jobs will be held. Setting false will release them.

  • location: A short information where to find the hard copies.

  • options: A hash of options (as keys) and their target value. Almost every option you can set with lpadmin -p [queue_name] -o key=value is supported here. Use puppet resource cups_queue [queue_name] on the node for a list of all supported options for the given queue, and lpoptions -p [queue_name] -l to see a list of available values for the most commonly used printer specific options.

  • shared: Boolean value specifying whether to share this queue on the network. Default is false.

Class-only attributes
  • members: mandatory - A non-empty array with the names of CUPS queues. The class will be synced to contain only these members in the given order. If the catalog contains cups_queue resources for these queues, they will be required automatically.
Printers-only attributes
  • make_and_model: This value is used for driver updates and changes. Matches the NickName (fallback ModelName) value from the printer's PPD file if the printer was installed using a PPD file or a model, and Local System V Printer or Local Raw Printer otherwise.

  • model: A supported printer model. Use lpinfo -m on the node to list all models available.

  • ppd: The absolute path to a PPD file on the node. If the catalog contains a file resource with this path as title, it will automatically be required. The recommended location for your PPD files is /usr/share/cups/model/ or /usr/local/share/cups/model/.

  • uri: The device URI of the printer. Use lpinfo -v on the node to scan for printer URIs.

Limitations

Evince (aka Document Viewer)

Setting papersize => 'a4' only modifies /etc/papersize, but Evince uses the environment variable LC_PAPER to determine your preferred paper size, as Patrick Min figured out.

On Debian and Ubuntu, you can set a global default value for LC_PAPER using the manifest

augeas { 'papersize':
  context => '/files/etc/default/locale',
  changes => 'set LC_PAPER \'"es_ES.UTF-8"\'' # Change to your locale
}

Option defaults

Sometimes it may be necessary to modify the default values for some queue options to ensure an intuitive user experience, e.g. to enable the use of an optional duplex unit. For historic reasons there are two ways to set default values for all users:

  • Daemon defaults are set using sudo lpadmin and will affect all jobs from both local and remote hosts. The CUPS daemon saves them frequently - but not immediately - to /etc/cups/classes.conf, /etc/cups/printers.conf, and the PPD files in /etc/cups/ppd/.

  • Local defaults are set using sudo lpoptions and will only affect jobs from the local host, overriding the daemon defaults for these jobs. The values are saved to the file /etc/cups/lpoptions.

Hence there is no robust way to determine the current daemon defaults when used in conjunction with local defaults. If local defaults aren't used, the command lpoptions -p [queue_name] -l will return the daemon defaults.

In order to provide a stable and idempotent way for Puppet to set default option values for all jobs sent to a queue, this module will disable the use of local defaults by deleting the file /etc/cups/lpoptions.

Contributing

There are several ways to contribute for both users and developers:

  • This module is striving for the "Puppet approved" badge. If you like this module, please show your appreciation by giving it a positive rating in the Puppet Forge and spreading the news in your favorite way.

  • Want to suggesting a new feature, point out a flaw in the documentation or report a bug? Please open a GitHub issue using the suggested skeleton from the contribution guidelines.

  • Developers might want to submit a GitHub pull request. It is highly recommended to open an issue first and discuss changes with the maintainer. See the contribution guidelines for our quality standards and legal requirements.

Thank you for your interest in the CUPS module.