Ruby gem to manage read/unread status of ActiveRecord objects - and it's fast.

Build Status


  • Manages unread records for anything you want users to read (like messages, documents, comments etc.)
  • Supports mark as read to mark a single record as read
  • Supports mark all as read to mark all records as read in a single step
  • Gives you a scope to get the unread records for a given user
  • Needs only one additional database table
  • Most important: Great performance


  • Ruby 1.8.7 or 1.9.x
  • Rails 2.3.x, 3.0.x, 3.1.x (tested with SQLite and MySQL)
  • Needs a timestamp field in your models (e.g. created_at) with a database index on it


Step 1: Add this to your Gemfile:

gem 'unread'

and run


Step 2: Add this migration:

class CreateReadMarks < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def self.up
    create_table :read_marks, :force => true do |t|
      t.integer  :readable_id
      t.integer  :user_id,       :null => false
      t.string   :readable_type, :null => false, :limit => 20
      t.datetime :timestamp
    add_index :read_marks, [:user_id, :readable_type, :readable_id]

  def self.down
    drop_table :read_marks

and run the migration:

rake db:migrate


class User < ActiveRecord::Base

class Message < ActiveRecord::Base
  acts_as_readable :on => :created_at

message1 = Message.create!
message2 = Message.create!

# => [ message1, message2 ]

message1.mark_as_read! :for => current_user
# => [ message2 ]

Message.mark_as_read! :all, :for => current_user
# => [ ]

# Optional: Cleaning up unneeded markers
# Do this in a cron job once a day.

How does it work?

The main idea of this gem is to manage a list of read items for every reader after a certain timestamp.

The gem defines a scope doing a LEFT JOIN to this list, so your app can get the unread items in a performant manner. Of course, other scopes can be combined.

It will be ensured that the list of read items will not grow up too much:

  • If a user uses "mark all as read", his list gets deleted and the timestamp is set to the current time.
  • If a user never uses "mark all as read", the list will grow and grow with each item he reads. But there is help: Your app can use a cleanup method which removes unnecessary list items.

Overall, this gem can be used for large data. Please have a look at the generated SQL queries, here is an example:

# Assuming we have a user who has marked all messages as read on 2010-10-20 08:50
current_user = User.find(42) 

# Get the unread messages for this user

# => 
#     SELECT messages.* 
#     FROM messages
#     LEFT JOIN read_marks ON read_marks.readable_type = 'Message'
#                         AND read_marks.readable_id = messages.id
#                         AND read_marks.user_id = 42
#                         AND read_marks.timestamp >= messages.created_at 
#     WHERE read_marks.id IS NULL 
#     AND messages.created_at > '2010-10-20 08:50:00'

Hint: You should add a database index on messages.created_at.

Similar tools

There are two other gems/plugins doing a similar job:

Unfortunately, both of them have a lack of performance, because they calculate the unread records doing a find(:all), which should be avoided for a large amount of records. This gem is based on a timestamp algorithm and therefore it's very fast.

Copyright (c) 2010,2011 Georg Ledermann, released under the MIT license