Module: Sequel::Model::ClassMethods

Included in:
Sequel::Model
Defined in:
lib/sequel/model/base.rb

Overview

Class methods for Sequel::Model that implement basic model functionality.

  • All of the method names in Model::DATASET_METHODS have class methods created that call the Model's dataset with the method of the same name with the given arguments.

Instance Attribute Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Instance Attribute Details

#allowed_columnsObject (readonly)

Which columns should be the only columns allowed in a call to a mass assignment method (e.g. set) (default: not set, so all columns not otherwise restricted are allowed).



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 13

def allowed_columns
  @allowed_columns
end

#dataset_method_modulesObject (readonly)

Array of modules that extend this model's dataset. Stored so that if the model's dataset is changed, it will be extended with all of these modules.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 18

def dataset_method_modules
  @dataset_method_modules
end

#default_set_fields_optionsObject

The default options to use for Model#set_fields. These are merged with the options given to set_fields.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 22

def default_set_fields_options
  @default_set_fields_options
end

#fast_instance_delete_sqlObject (readonly)

SQL string fragment used for faster DELETE statement creation when deleting/destroying model instances, or nil if the optimization should not be used. For internal use only.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 26

def fast_instance_delete_sql
  @fast_instance_delete_sql
end

#instance_datasetObject (readonly)

The dataset that instance datasets (#this) are based on. Generally a naked version of the model's dataset limited to one row. For internal use only.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 30

def instance_dataset
  @instance_dataset
end

#pluginsObject (readonly)

Array of plugin modules loaded by this class

Sequel::Model.plugins
# => [Sequel::Model, Sequel::Model::Associations]


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 36

def plugins
  @plugins
end

#primary_keyObject (readonly)

The primary key for the class. Sequel can determine this automatically for many databases, but not all, so you may need to set it manually. If not determined automatically, the default is :id.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 41

def primary_key
  @primary_key
end

#raise_on_save_failureObject

Whether to raise an error instead of returning nil on a failure to save/create/save_changes/update/destroy due to a validation failure or a before_* hook returning false (default: true).



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 46

def raise_on_save_failure
  @raise_on_save_failure
end

#raise_on_typecast_failureObject

Whether to raise an error when unable to typecast data for a column (default: true). This should be set to false if you want to use validations to display nice error messages to the user (e.g. most web applications). You can use the validates_schema_types validation (from the validation_helpers plugin) in connection with this setting to check for typecast failures during validation.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 54

def raise_on_typecast_failure
  @raise_on_typecast_failure
end

#require_modificationObject

Whether to raise an error if an UPDATE or DELETE query related to a model instance does not modify exactly 1 row. If set to false, Sequel will not check the number of rows modified (default: true).



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 59

def require_modification
  @require_modification
end

#simple_pkObject

Should be the literal primary key column name if this Model's table has a simple primary key, or nil if the model has a compound primary key or no primary key.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 63

def simple_pk
  @simple_pk
end

#simple_tableObject

Should be the literal table name if this Model's dataset is a simple table (no select, order, join, etc.), or nil otherwise. This and simple_pk are used for an optimization in Model.[].



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 67

def simple_table
  @simple_table
end

#strict_param_settingObject

Whether new/set/update and their variants should raise an error if an invalid key is used. A key is invalid if no setter method exists for that key or the access to the setter method is restricted (e.g. due to it being a primary key field). If set to false, silently skip any key where the setter method doesn't exist or access to it is restricted.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 74

def strict_param_setting
  @strict_param_setting
end

#typecast_empty_string_to_nilObject

Whether to typecast the empty string ('') to nil for columns that are not string or blob. In most cases the empty string would be the way to specify a NULL SQL value in string form (nil.to_s == ''), and an empty string would not usually be typecast correctly for other types, so the default is true.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 81

def typecast_empty_string_to_nil
  @typecast_empty_string_to_nil
end

#typecast_on_assignmentObject

Whether to typecast attribute values on assignment (default: true). If set to false, no typecasting is done, so it will be left up to the database to typecast the value correctly.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 86

def typecast_on_assignment
  @typecast_on_assignment
end

#use_after_commit_rollbackObject

Whether to enable the after_commit and after_rollback hooks when saving/destroying instances. On by default, can be turned off for performance reasons or when using prepared transactions (which aren't compatible with after commit/rollback).



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 91

def use_after_commit_rollback
  @use_after_commit_rollback
end

#use_transactionsObject

Whether to use a transaction by default when saving/deleting records (default: true). If you are sending database queries in before_* or after_* hooks, you shouldn't change the default setting without a good reason.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 96

def use_transactions
  @use_transactions
end

Instance Method Details

#[](*args) ⇒ Object

Returns the first record from the database matching the conditions. If a hash is given, it is used as the conditions. If another object is given, it finds the first record whose primary key(s) match the given argument(s). If no object is returned by the dataset, returns nil.

Artist[1] # SELECT * FROM artists WHERE id = 1
# => #<Artist {:id=>1, ...}>

Artist[:name=>'Bob'] # SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (name = 'Bob') LIMIT 1
# => #<Artist {:name=>'Bob', ...}>


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 108

def [](*args)
  args = args.first if args.size <= 1
  args.is_a?(Hash) ? dataset[args] : (primary_key_lookup(args) unless args.nil?)
end

#call(values) ⇒ Object

Initializes a model instance as an existing record. This constructor is used by Sequel to initialize model instances when fetching records. Requires that values be a hash where all keys are symbols. It probably should not be used by external code.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 117

def call(values)
  o = allocate
  o.instance_variable_set(:@values, values)
  o
end

#clear_setter_methods_cacheObject

Clear the setter_methods cache



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 124

def clear_setter_methods_cache
  @setter_methods = nil
end

#columnsObject

Returns the columns in the result set in their original order. Generally, this will use the columns determined via the database schema, but in certain cases (e.g. models that are based on a joined dataset) it will use Dataset#columns to find the columns.

Artist.columns
# => [:id, :name]


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 135

def columns
  @columns || set_columns(dataset.naked.columns)
end

#create(values = {}, &block) ⇒ Object

Creates instance using new with the given values and block, and saves it.

Artist.create(:name=>'Bob')
# INSERT INTO artists (name) VALUES ('Bob')

Artist.create do |a|
  a.name = 'Jim'
end # INSERT INTO artists (name) VALUES ('Jim')


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 147

def create(values = {}, &block)
  new(values, &block).save
end

#datasetObject

Returns the dataset associated with the Model class. Raises an Error if there is no associated dataset for this class. In most cases, you don't need to call this directly, as Model proxies many dataset methods to the underlying dataset.

Artist.dataset.all # SELECT * FROM artists


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 157

def dataset
  @dataset || raise(Error, "No dataset associated with #{self}")
end

#dataset=(ds) ⇒ Object

Alias of set_dataset



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 162

def dataset=(ds)
  set_dataset(ds)
end

#dataset_module(mod = nil) ⇒ Object

Extend the dataset with a module, similar to adding a plugin with the methods defined in DatasetMethods. This is the recommended way to add methods to model datasets.

If an argument, it should be a module, and is used to extend the underlying dataset. Otherwise an anonymous module is created, and if a block is given, it is module_evaled, allowing you do define dataset methods directly using the standard ruby def syntax. Returns the module given or the anonymous module created.

# Usage with existing module
Artist.dataset_module Sequel::ColumnsIntrospection

# Usage with anonymous module
Artist.dataset_module do
  def foo
    :bar
  end
end
Artist.dataset.foo
# => :bar
Artist.foo
# => :bar

Any anonymous modules created are actually instances of Sequel::Model::DatasetModule (a Module subclass), which allows you to call the subset method on them:

Artist.dataset_module do
  subset :released, Sequel.identifier(release_date) > Sequel::CURRENT_DATE
end

Any public methods in the dataset module will have class methods created that call the method on the dataset, assuming that the class method is not already defined.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 200

def dataset_module(mod = nil)
  if mod
    raise Error, "can't provide both argument and block to Model.dataset_module" if block_given?
    dataset_extend(mod)
    mod
  else
    @dataset_module ||= DatasetModule.new(self)
    @dataset_module.module_eval(&Proc.new) if block_given?
    dataset_extend(@dataset_module)
    @dataset_module
  end
end

#dbObject

Returns the database associated with the Model class. If this model doesn't have a database associated with it, assumes the superclass's database, or the first object in Sequel::DATABASES. If no Sequel::Database object has been created, raises an error.

Artist.db.transaction do # BEGIN
  Artist.create(:name=>'Bob')
  # INSERT INTO artists (name) VALUES ('Bob')
end # COMMIT

Raises:



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 223

def db
  return @db if @db
  @db = self == Model ? Sequel.synchronize{DATABASES.first} : superclass.db
  raise(Error, "No database associated with #{self}: have you called Sequel.connect or #{self}.db= ?") unless @db
  @db
end

#db=(db) ⇒ Object

Sets the database associated with the Model class. If the model has an associated dataset, sets the model's dataset to a dataset on the new database with the same options used by the current dataset. This can be used directly on Sequel::Model to set the default database to be used by subclasses, or to override the database used for specific models:

Sequel::Model.db = DB1
Artist.db = DB2

Note that you should not use this to change the model's database at runtime. If you have that need, you should look into Sequel's sharding support.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 244

def db=(db)
  @db = db
  set_dataset(db.dataset.clone(@dataset.opts)) if @dataset
end

#db_schemaObject

Returns the cached schema information if available or gets it from the database. This is a hash where keys are column symbols and values are hashes of information related to the column. See Database#schema.

Artist.db_schema
# {:id=>{:type=>:integer, :primary_key=>true, ...},
#  :name=>{:type=>:string, :primary_key=>false, ...}}


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 257

def db_schema
  @db_schema ||= get_db_schema
end

#def_column_alias(meth, column) ⇒ Object

Create a column alias, where the column methods have one name, but the underlying storage uses a different name.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 263

def def_column_alias(meth, column)
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  overridable_methods_module.module_eval do
    define_method(meth){self[column]}
    define_method("#{meth}="){|v| self[column] = v}
  end
end

#def_dataset_method(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

If a block is given, define a method on the dataset (if the model currently has an dataset) with the given argument name using the given block. Also define a class method on the model that calls the dataset method. Stores the method name and block so that it can be reapplied if the model's dataset changes.

If a block is not given, just define a class method on the model for each argument that calls the dataset method of the same argument name.

It is recommended that you define methods inside a block passed to #dataset_module instead of using this method, as #dataset_module allows you to use normal ruby def syntax.

# Add new dataset method and class method that calls it
Artist.def_dataset_method(:by_name){order(:name)}
Artist.filter(:name.like('A%')).by_name
Artist.by_name.filter(:name.like('A%'))

# Just add a class method that calls an existing dataset method
Artist.def_dataset_method(:server!)
Artist.server!(:server1)

Raises:



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 291

def def_dataset_method(*args, &block)
  raise(Error, "No arguments given") if args.empty?

  if block
    raise(Error, "Defining a dataset method using a block requires only one argument") if args.length > 1
    dataset_module{define_method(args.first, &block)}
  else
    args.each{|arg| def_model_dataset_method(arg)}
  end
end

#find(*args, &block) ⇒ Object

Finds a single record according to the supplied filter. You are encouraged to use Model.[] or Model.first instead of this method.

Artist.find(:name=>'Bob')
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (name = 'Bob') LIMIT 1

Artist.find{name > 'M'}
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (name > 'M') LIMIT 1


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 310

def find(*args, &block)
  filter(*args, &block).first
end

#find_or_create(cond, &block) ⇒ Object

Like find but invokes create with given conditions when record does not exist. Unlike find in that the block used in this method is not passed to find, but instead is passed to create only if find does not return an object.

Artist.find_or_create(:name=>'Bob')
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (name = 'Bob') LIMIT 1
# INSERT INTO artists (name) VALUES ('Bob')

Artist.find_or_create(:name=>'Jim'){|a| a.hometown = 'Sactown'}
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (name = 'Jim') LIMIT 1
# INSERT INTO artists (name, hometown) VALUES ('Jim', 'Sactown')


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 326

def find_or_create(cond, &block)
  find(cond) || create(cond, &block)
end

#implicit_table_nameObject

Returns the implicit table name for the model class, which is the demodulized, underscored, pluralized name of the class.

Artist.implicit_table_name # => :artists
Foo::ArtistAlias.implicit_table_name # => :artist_aliases


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 385

def implicit_table_name
  pluralize(underscore(demodulize(name))).to_sym
end

#include(mod) ⇒ Object

Clear the setter_methods cache when a module is included, as it may contain setter methods.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 332

def include(mod)
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  super
end

#inherited(subclass) ⇒ Object

If possible, set the dataset for the model subclass as soon as it is created. Also, make sure the inherited class instance variables are copied into the subclass.

Sequel queries the database to get schema information as soon as a model class is created:

class Artist < Sequel::Model # Causes schema query
end


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 346

def inherited(subclass)
  super
  ivs = subclass.instance_variables.collect{|x| x.to_s}
  inherited_instance_variables.each do |iv, dup|
    next if ivs.include?(iv.to_s)
    if (sup_class_value = instance_variable_get(iv)) && dup
      sup_class_value = case dup
      when :dup
        sup_class_value.dup
      when :hash_dup
        h = {}
        sup_class_value.each{|k,v| h[k] = v.dup}
        h
      when Proc
        dup.call(sup_class_value)
      else
        raise Error, "bad inherited instance variable type: #{dup.inspect}"
      end
    end
    subclass.instance_variable_set(iv, sup_class_value)
  end
  unless ivs.include?("@dataset")
    if self == Model || !@dataset
      n = subclass.name
      unless n.nil? || n.empty?
        db
        subclass.set_dataset(subclass.implicit_table_name) rescue nil
      end
    elsif @dataset
      subclass.set_dataset(@dataset.clone, :inherited=>true) rescue nil
    end
  end
end

#load(values) ⇒ Object

Calls #call with the values hash. Only for backwards compatibility.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 390

def load(values)
  call(values)
end

#method_added(meth) ⇒ Object

Clear the setter_methods cache when a setter method is added



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 395

def method_added(meth)
  clear_setter_methods_cache if meth.to_s =~ SETTER_METHOD_REGEXP
  super
end

#no_primary_keyObject

Mark the model as not having a primary key. Not having a primary key can cause issues, among which is that you won't be able to update records.

Artist.primary_key # => :id
Artist.no_primary_key
Artist.primary_key # => nil


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 406

def no_primary_key
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  self.simple_pk = @primary_key = nil
end

#plugin(plugin, *args, &block) ⇒ Object

Loads a plugin for use with the model class, passing optional arguments to the plugin. If the plugin is a module, load it directly. Otherwise, require the plugin from either sequel/plugins/#plugin or sequel_#plugin, and then attempt to load the module using a the camelized plugin name under Sequel::Plugins.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 416

def plugin(plugin, *args, &block)
  m = plugin.is_a?(Module) ? plugin : plugin_module(plugin)
  unless @plugins.include?(m)
    @plugins << m
    m.apply(self, *args, &block) if m.respond_to?(:apply)
    extend(m::ClassMethods) if plugin_module_defined?(m, :ClassMethods)
    include(m::InstanceMethods) if plugin_module_defined?(m, :InstanceMethods)
    if plugin_module_defined?(m, :DatasetMethods)
      dataset_extend(m::DatasetMethods, :create_class_methods=>false)
    end
  end
  m.configure(self, *args, &block) if m.respond_to?(:configure)
end

#primary_key_hash(value) ⇒ Object

Returns primary key attribute hash. If using a composite primary key value such be an array with values for each primary key in the correct order. For a standard primary key, value should be an object with a compatible type for the key. If the model does not have a primary key, raises an Error.

Artist.primary_key_hash(1) # => {:id=>1}
Artist.primary_key_hash([1, 2]) # => {:id1=>1, :id2=>2}

Raises:



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 438

def primary_key_hash(value)
  raise(Error, "#{self} does not have a primary key") unless key = @primary_key
  case key
  when Array
    hash = {}
    key.each_with_index{|k,i| hash[k] = value[i]}
    hash
  else
    {key => value}
  end
end

#qualified_primary_key_hash(value, qualifier = table_name) ⇒ Object

Return a hash where the keys are qualified column references. Uses the given qualifier if provided, or the table_name otherwise. This is useful if you plan to join other tables to this table and you want the column references to be qualified.

Artist.filter(Artist.qualified_primary_key_hash(1))
# SELECT * FROM artists WHERE (artists.id = 1)


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 457

def qualified_primary_key_hash(value, qualifier=table_name)
  h = primary_key_hash(value)
  h.to_a.each{|k,v| h[SQL::QualifiedIdentifier.new(qualifier, k)] = h.delete(k)}
  h
end

#restrict_primary_keyObject

Restrict the setting of the primary key(s) when using mass assignment (e.g. set). Because this is the default, this only make sense to use in a subclass where the parent class has used unrestrict_primary_key.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 466

def restrict_primary_key
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  @restrict_primary_key = true
end

#restrict_primary_key?Boolean

Whether or not setting the primary key(s) when using mass assignment (e.g. set) is restricted, true by default.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 473

def restrict_primary_key?
  @restrict_primary_key
end

#set_allowed_columns(*cols) ⇒ Object

Set the columns to allow when using mass assignment (e.g. set). Using this means that any columns not listed here will not be modified. If you have any virtual setter methods (methods that end in =) that you want to be used during mass assignment, they need to be listed here as well (without the =).

It may be better to use a method such as set_only or set_fields that lets you specify the allowed fields per call.

Artist.set_allowed_columns(:name, :hometown)
Artist.set(:name=>'Bob', :hometown=>'Sactown') # No Error
Artist.set(:name=>'Bob', :records_sold=>30000) # Error


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 488

def set_allowed_columns(*cols)
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  @allowed_columns = cols
end

#set_dataset(ds, opts = OPTS) ⇒ Object

Sets the dataset associated with the Model class. ds can be a Symbol, LiteralString, SQL::Identifier, SQL::QualifiedIdentifier, SQL::AliasedExpression (all specifying a table name in the current database), or a Dataset. If a dataset is used, the model's database is changed to the database of the given dataset. If a dataset is not used, a dataset is created from the current database with the table name given. Other arguments raise an Error. Returns self.

This changes the row_proc of the dataset to return model objects and extends the dataset with the dataset_method_modules. It also attempts to determine the database schema for the model, based on the given dataset.

Artist.set_dataset(:tbl_artists)
Artist.set_dataset(DB[:artists])

Note that you should not use this to change the model's dataset at runtime. If you have that need, you should look into Sequel's sharding support.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 513

def set_dataset(ds, opts=OPTS)
  inherited = opts[:inherited]
  @dataset = convert_input_dataset(ds)
  @require_modification = Sequel::Model.require_modification.nil? ? @dataset.provides_accurate_rows_matched? : Sequel::Model.require_modification
  if inherited
    self.simple_table = superclass.simple_table
    @columns = @dataset.columns rescue nil
  else
    @dataset_method_modules.each{|m| @dataset.extend(m)} if @dataset_method_modules
  end
  @dataset.model = self if @dataset.respond_to?(:model=)
  check_non_connection_error{@db_schema = (inherited ? superclass.db_schema : get_db_schema)}
  reset_instance_dataset
  self
end

#set_primary_key(key) ⇒ Object

Sets the primary key for this model. You can use either a regular or a composite primary key. To not use a primary key, set to nil or use no_primary_key. On most adapters, Sequel can automatically determine the primary key to use, so this method is not needed often.

class Person < Sequel::Model
  # regular key
  set_primary_key :person_id
end

class Tagging < Sequel::Model
  # composite key
  set_primary_key [:taggable_id, :tag_id]
end


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 543

def set_primary_key(key)
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  if key.is_a?(Array)
    if key.length < 2
      key = key.first
    else
      key = key.dup.freeze
    end
  end
  self.simple_pk = if key && !key.is_a?(Array)
    (@dataset || db).literal(key)
  end
  @primary_key = key
end

#setter_methodsObject

Cache of setter methods to allow by default, in order to speed up new/set/update instance methods.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 559

def setter_methods
  @setter_methods ||= get_setter_methods
end

#subset(name, *args, &block) ⇒ Object

Sets up a dataset method that returns a filtered dataset. Sometimes thought of as a scope, and like most dataset methods, they can be chained. For example:

Topic.subset(:joes, :username.like('%joe%'))
Topic.subset(:popular){num_posts > 100}
Topic.subset(:recent){created_on > Date.today - 7}

Allows you to do:

Topic.joes.recent.popular

to get topics with a username that includes joe that have more than 100 posts and were created less than 7 days ago.

Both the args given and the block are passed to Dataset#filter.

This method creates dataset methods that do not accept arguments. To create dataset methods that accept arguments, you should use define a method directly inside a #dataset_module block.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 585

def subset(name, *args, &block)
  dataset_module.subset(name, *args, &block)
end

#table_nameObject

Returns name of primary table for the dataset. If the table for the dataset is aliased, returns the aliased name.

Artist.table_name # => :artists
Sequel::Model(:foo).table_name # => :foo
Sequel::Model(:foo___bar).table_name # => :bar


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 595

def table_name
  dataset.first_source_alias
end

#unrestrict_primary_keyObject

Allow the setting of the primary key(s) when using the mass assignment methods. Using this method can open up security issues, be very careful before using it.

Artist.set(:id=>1) # Error
Artist.unrestrict_primary_key
Artist.set(:id=>1) # No Error


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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 605

def unrestrict_primary_key
  clear_setter_methods_cache
  @restrict_primary_key = false
end

#with_pk(pk) ⇒ Object

Return the model instance with the primary key, or nil if there is no matching record.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 611

def with_pk(pk)
  primary_key_lookup(pk)
end

#with_pk!(pk) ⇒ Object

Return the model instance with the primary key, or raise NoMatchingRow if there is no matching record.



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# File 'lib/sequel/model/base.rb', line 616

def with_pk!(pk)
  with_pk(pk) || raise(NoMatchingRow)
end