Fog::Openstack

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This is the plugin Gem to talk to OpenStack clouds via fog.

The main maintainers for the OpenStack sections are @dhague, @Ladas, @seanhandley, @mdarby and @jjasghar. Please send CC them on pull requests.

Supported OpenStack APIs

See the list of supported OpenStack projects.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'fog-openstack'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install fog-openstack

Usage

Initial Setup

Require the gem:

require "fog/openstack"

Checklist:

  • Before you can do anything with an OpenStack cloud, you need to authenticate yourself with the identity service, "Keystone".
  • All following examples assume that @connection_params is a hash of valid connection information for an OpenStack cloud.
  • The :openstack_username and :openstack_api_key keys must map to a valid user/password combination in Keystone.
  • If you don't know what domain your user belongs to, chances are it's the default domain. By default, all users are a member of the default domain unless otherwise specified.

Connection parameters:

@connection_params = {
  openstack_auth_url:     "http://devstack.test:5000/v3/auth/tokens",
  openstack_username:     "admin",
  openstack_api_key:      "password",
  openstack_project_name: "admin",
  openstack_domain_id:    "default"
}

If you're using Keystone V2, you don't need to supply domain details but ensure the openstack_auth_url parameter references the correct endpoint.

@connection_params = {
  openstack_auth_url:     "http://devstack.test:5000/v2.0/tokens",
  openstack_username:     "admin",
  openstack_api_key:      "password",
  openstack_project_name: "admin"
}

If you're not sure whether your OpenStack cloud uses Keystone V2 or V3 then you can find out by logging into the dashboard (Horizon) and navigating to "Access & Security" under the "Project" section. Select "API Access" and find the line for the Identity Service. If the endpoint has "v3" in it, you're on Keystone V3, if it has "v2" then (surprise) you're on Keystone V2.

If you need a version of OpenStack to test against, get youself a copy of DevStack.

Networking Gotcha

Note that tenants (aka projects) in OpenStack usually require that you create a default gateway router in order to allow external access to your instances.

The exception is if you're using Nova (and not Neutron) for your instance networking. If you're using Neutron, you'll want to set up your default gateway before you try to give instances public addresses (aka floating IPs).

Compute (Nova)

Initialise a connection to the compute service:

compute = Fog::Compute::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

Get a list of available images for use with booting new instances:

p compute.images
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Images
#     filters={},
#     server=nil
#     [
#                   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Image
#         id="57a67f8a-7bae-4578-b684-b9b4dcd48d7f",
#         ...
#       >    
#     ]
#   >

List available flavors so we can decide how powerful to make this instance:

p compute.flavors
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Flavors
#     [
#                   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Flavor
#         id="1",
#         name="m1.tiny",
#         ram=512,
#         disk=1,
#         vcpus=1,
#         ...
#       >, 
#                   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Flavor
#         id="2",
#         name="m1.small",
#         ram=2048,
#         disk=20,
#         vcpus=1,
#         ...
#       >,
#       ...

Now we know the id numbers of a valid image and a valid flavor, we can instantiate an instance:

flavor   = compute.flavors[0]
image    = compute.images[0]
instance = compute.servers.create name: 'test',
                                  image_ref: image.id,
                                  flavor_ref: flavor.id

# Optionally, wait for the instance to provision before continuing
instance.wait_for { ready? }
# => {:duration=>17.359134}

p instance
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Server
#     id="63633125-26b5-4fe1-a909-0f44d1ab3337",
#     instance_name=nil,
#     addresses={"public"=>[{"OS-EXT-IPS-MAC:mac_addr"=>"fa:16:3e:f4:75:ab", "version"=>4, "addr"=>"1.2.3.4", "OS-EXT-IPS:type"=>"fixed"}]},
#     flavor={"id"=>"2"},
#     host_id="f5ea01262720d02e886508bc4fa994782c516557d232c72aeb79638e",
#     image={"id"=>"57a67f8a-7bae-4578-b684-b9b4dcd48d7f"},
#     name="test",
#     personality=nil,
#     progress=0,
#     accessIPv4="",
#     accessIPv6="",
#     availability_zone="nova",
#     user_data_encoded=nil,
#     state="ACTIVE",
#     created=2016-03-07 08:07:36 UTC,
#     updated=2016-03-07 08:07:52 UTC,
#     tenant_id="06a9a90c60074cdeae5f7fdd0048d9ac"
#     ...
#   >

And destroy it when we're done:

instance.destroy
# => true

You'll probably need your instances to be accessible via SSH. Learn more about SSH keypairs.

Allow TCP traffic through port 22:

security_group = compute.security_groups.create name:  "Test SSH",
                                                description: "Allow access to port 22"
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::SecurityGroup
#     id="e5d53d00-b3f9-471a-b90f-985694b966ed",
#     name="Test SSH",
#     description="Allow access to port 22",
#     security_group_rules=    <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::SecurityGroupRules
#       [

#       ]
#     >,
#     tenant_id="06a9a90c60074cdeae5f7fdd0048d9ac"
#   >

compute.security_group_rules.create parent_group_id: security_group.id,
                                    ip_protocol:     "tcp",
                                    from_port:       22,
                                    to_port:         22

key_pair = compute.key_pairs.create name:       "My Public Key",
                                    public_key: "/full/path/to/ssh.pub"
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::KeyPair
#     name="My Public Key",
#     ...
#     user_id="20746f49211e4037a91269df6a3fbf7b",
#     id=nil
#   >

Now create a new server using the security group and keypair we created:

instance = compute.servers.create name:            "Test 2",
                                  image_ref:       image.id,
                                  flavor_ref:      flavor.id,
                                  key_name:        key_pair.name,
                                  security_groups: security_group
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Server
#     id="e18ebdfb-e5f5-4a45-929f-4cc9926dc2c7",
#     name="Test 2",
#     state="ACTIVE",
#     tenant_id="06a9a90c60074cdeae5f7fdd0048d9ac",
#     key_name="My Public Key",
#   >
# (some data omitted for brevity)

Finally, assign a floating IP address to make this instance sit under a world-visible public IP address:

pool_name = compute.addresses.get_address_pools[0]['name']
floating_ip_address = compute.addresses.create pool: pool_name
instance.associate_address floating_ip_address.ip

p floating_ip_address
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Address
#     id="54064324-ce7d-448d-9753-94497b29dc91",
#     ip="1.2.3.4",
#     pool="external",
#     fixed_ip="192.168.0.96",
#     instance_id="e18ebdfb-e5f5-4a45-929f-4cc9926dc2c7"
#   >

Now you can SSH into the instance:

$ ssh cirros@1.2.3.4
The authenticity of host '1.2.3.4 (1.2.3.4)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:cB0L/owUtcHsMhFhsuSZXxK4oRg/uqP/6IriUomQnQQ.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '1.2.3.4' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
$ pwd
/home/cirros

Volume (Cinder)

Create and attach a volume to a running instance:

compute = Fog::Compute::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

volume = compute.volumes.create name:        "Test",
                                description: "Testing",
                                size:        1
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Volume
#     id="4a212986-c6b6-4a93-8319-c6a98e347750",
#     name="Test",
#     description="Testing",
#     size=1,
#     availability_zone="Production",
#     created_at="2016-03-07T13:40:43.914063",
#     attachments=[{}]
#   >

flavor   = compute.flavors[3]
image    = compute.images[0]
instance = compute.servers.create name:       "test",
                                  image_ref:  image.id,
                                  flavor_ref: flavor.id
instance.wait_for { ready? }

volume.reload

instance.attach_volume(volume.id, "/dev/vdb")

Detach volume and create a snapshot:

instance.detach_volume(volume.id)
volume.reload

compute.snapshots.create volume_id:   volume.id,
                         name:        "test",
                         description: "test"
# =>   <Fog::Compute::OpenStack::Snapshot
#     id="7a8c9192-25ee-4364-be91-070b7a6d9855",
#     name="test",
#     description="test",
#     volume_id="4a212986-c6b6-4a93-8319-c6a98e347750",
#     status="creating",
#     size=1,
#     created_at="2016-03-07T13:47:11.543814"
#   >

Destroy a volume:

volume.destroy
# => true

Image (Glance)

Download Glance image:


image = Fog::Image::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

image_out = File.open("/tmp/cirros-image-download", 'wb')

streamer = lambda do |chunk, _, _|
  image_out.write chunk
end

image.download_image(image.images.first.id, response_block: streamer)

Create Glance image from file or URL:


cirros_location = "http://download.cirros-cloud.net/0.3.4/cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-disk.img"
image_out = File.open("/tmp/cirros-image-#{SecureRandom.hex}", 'wb')

streamer = lambda do |chunk, _, _|
  image_out.write chunk
end

Excon.get cirros_location, response_block: streamer
image_out.close

image_handle = image.images.create name:             "cirros",
                                   disk_format:      "qcow2",
                                   container_format: "bare"

# => <Fog::Image::OpenStack::V2::Image
#      id="67c4d02c-5601-4619-bd14-d2f7f96a046c",
#      name="cirros",
#      visibility="private",
#      tags=[],
#      self="/v2/images/67c4d02c-5601-4619-bd14-d2f7f96a046c",
#      size=nil,
#      disk_format="qcow2",
#      container_format="bare",
#      id="67c4d02c-5601-4619-bd14-d2f7f96a046c",
#      checksum=nil,
#      self="/v2/images/67c4d02c-5601-4619-bd14-d2f7f96a046c",
#      file="/v2/images/67c4d02c-5601-4619-bd14-d2f7f96a046c/file",
#      min_disk=0,
#      created_at="2016-10-31T03:38:28Z",
#      updated_at="2016-10-31T03:38:28Z",
#      protected=false,
#      status="queued",
#      min_ram=0,
#      owner="6b9ec8080b8443c5afe2267a39b9bf74",
#      properties=nil,
#      metadata=nil,
#      location=nil,
#      network_allocated=nil,
#      base_image_ref=nil,
#      image_type=nil,
#      instance_uuid=nil,
#      user_id=nil
#    >


image_handle.upload_data File.binread(image_out.path)

Destroy image:

cirros = image.images.get("4beedb46-e32f-4ef3-a87b-7f1234294dc1")
cirros.destroy

Identity (Keystone)

List domains (Keystone V3 only):

identity = Fog::Identity::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

identity.domains
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Domains
#     [
#                   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Domain
#         id="default",
#         description="",
#         enabled=true,
#         name="Default",
#       >    
#     ]
#   >

List projects (aka tenants):

identity.projects
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Projects
#     [
#                   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Project
#         id="008e5537d3424295a03560abc923693c",
#         domain_id="default",
#         description="Project 1",
#         enabled=true,
#         name="project_1",
#       >, 
#        ...
#        ]

# On Keystone V2
identity.tenants
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V2::Tenants
#     [ ... ]

List users:

identity.users
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Users
#     [ ... ]

Create/destroy new user:

project_id = identity.projects[0].id

user = identity.users.create name: "test",
                             project_id: project_id,
                             email: "test@test.com",
                             password: "test"
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::User
#     id="474a59153ebd4e709938e5e9b614dc57",
#     default_project_id=nil,
#     description=nil,
#     domain_id="default",
#     email="test@test.com",
#     enabled=true,
#     name="test",
#     password="test"
#   >

user.destroy
# => true

Create/destroy new tenant:


project = identity.projects.create name: "test",
                                   description: "test"
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Project
#     id="423559128a7249f2973cdb7d5d581c4d",
#     domain_id="default",
#     description="test",
#     enabled=true,
#     name="test",
#     parent_id=nil,
#     subtree=nil,
#     parents=nil
#   >

project.destroy
# => true

Grant user role on tenant and revoke it:

role = identity.roles.select{|role| role.name == "_member_"}[0]
# =>   <Fog::Identity::OpenStack::V3::Role
#     id="9fe2ff9ee4384b1894a90878d3e92bab",
#     name="_member_",
#   >

project.grant_role_to_user(role.id, user.id)

project.revoke_role_from_user(role.id, user.id)

Networking (Neutron)

Set up a project's public gateway (needed for external access):


identity  = Fog::Identity::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

tenants = identity.projects.select do |project|
  project.name == @connection_params[:openstack_project_name]
end

tenant_id = tenants[0].id

neutron = Fog::Network::OpenStack.new(@connection_params)

network = neutron.networks.create name:      "default",
                                  tenant_id: tenant_id

subnet  = network.subnets.create  name:            "default",
                                  cidr:            "192.168.0.0/24",
                                  network_id:      network.id,
                                  ip_version:      4,
                                  dns_nameservers: ["8.8.8.8", "8.8.4.4"],
                                  tenant_id:       tenant_id

external_network = neutron.networks.select(&:router_external)[0]

router = neutron.routers.create   name:                  'default',
                                  tenant_id:             tenant_id,
                                  external_gateway_info: external_network.id

neutron.add_router_interface router.id, subnet.id

Further Reading

Development

After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake spec to run the tests. You can also run bin/console for an interactive prompt that will allow you to experiment.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to rubygems.org.

Contributing

Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at https://github.com/fog/fog-openstack. This project is intended to be a safe, welcoming space for collaboration, and contributors are expected to adhere to the Contributor Covenant code of conduct.

License

The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.