Module: RGeo::Geographic

Defined in:
lib/rgeo/geographic.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/factory.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/spherical_math.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/proj4_projector.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/projected_window.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/spherical_feature_classes.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/projected_feature_methods.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/spherical_feature_methods.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/simple_mercator_projector.rb,
lib/rgeo/geographic/projected_feature_classes.rb

Overview

The Geographic implementation actually comprises a suite of implementations with one common feature: they represent geographic latitude/longitude coordinates measured in degrees. The "x" coordinate corresponds to longitude, and the "y" coordinate to latitude. Thus, coordinates are often expressed in reverse (i.e. long-lat) order. e.g.

location = geographic_factory.point(long, lat)

Some geographic implementations include a secondary factory that represents a projection. For these implementations, you can quickly transform data between lat/long coordinates and the projected coordinate system, and most calculations are done in the projected coordinate system. For implementations that do not include this secondary projection factory, calculations are done on the sphereoid. See the various class methods of Geographic for more information on the behaviors of the factories they generate.

Defined Under Namespace

Modules: ProjectedGeometryMethods, ProjectedLineStringMethods, ProjectedNCurveMethods, ProjectedNSurfaceMethods, SphericalGeometryMethods, SphericalLineStringMethods, SphericalMath Classes: Factory, Proj4Projector, ProjectedGeometryCollectionImpl, ProjectedLineImpl, ProjectedLineStringImpl, ProjectedLinearRingImpl, ProjectedMultiLineStringImpl, ProjectedMultiPointImpl, ProjectedMultiPolygonImpl, ProjectedPointImpl, ProjectedPolygonImpl, ProjectedWindow, SimpleMercatorProjector, SphericalGeometryCollectionImpl, SphericalLineImpl, SphericalLineStringImpl, SphericalLinearRingImpl, SphericalMultiLineStringImpl, SphericalMultiPointImpl, SphericalMultiPolygonImpl, SphericalPointImpl, SphericalPolygonImpl

Class Method Summary collapse

Class Method Details

._coordsys_4055Object

:nodoc:



477
478
479
480
481
482
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 477

def _coordsys_4055  # :nodoc:
  unless defined?(@coordsys_4055)
    @coordsys_4055 = CoordSys::CS.create_from_wkt('GEOGCS["Popular Visualisation CRS",DATUM["Popular_Visualisation_Datum",SPHEROID["Popular Visualisation Sphere",6378137,0,AUTHORITY["EPSG","7059"]],TOWGS84[0,0,0,0,0,0,0],AUTHORITY["EPSG","6055"]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0,AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],UNIT["degree",0.01745329251994328,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9122"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","4055"]]')
  end
  @coordsys_4055
end

._coordsys_4326Object

:nodoc:



493
494
495
496
497
498
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 493

def _coordsys_4326  # :nodoc:
  unless defined?(@coordsys_4326)
    @coordsys_4326 = CoordSys::CS.create_from_wkt('GEOGCS["WGS 84",DATUM["WGS_1984",SPHEROID["WGS 84",6378137,298.257223563,AUTHORITY["EPSG","7030"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","6326"]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0,AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],UNIT["degree",0.01745329251994328,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9122"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","4326"]]')
  end
  @coordsys_4326
end

._proj4_4055Object

:nodoc:



469
470
471
472
473
474
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 469

def _proj4_4055  # :nodoc:
  unless defined?(@proj4_4055)
    @proj4_4055 = CoordSys::Proj4.create('+proj=longlat +a=6378137 +b=6378137 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +no_defs')
  end
  @proj4_4055
end

._proj4_4326Object

:nodoc:



485
486
487
488
489
490
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 485

def _proj4_4326  # :nodoc:
  unless defined?(@proj4_4326)
    @proj4_4326 = CoordSys::Proj4.create('+proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defs')
  end
  @proj4_4326
end

.projected_factory(opts_ = {}) ⇒ Object

Creates and returns a geographic factory that includes a projection specified by a Proj4 coordinate system. Like all geographic factories, this one creates features using latitude- longitude values. However, calculations such as intersections are done in the projected coordinate system, and size and distance calculations report results in the projected units. Thus, this factory actually includes two factories representing different coordinate systems: the main factory representing the geographic lat-long coordinate system, and an auxiliary "projection factory" representing the projected coordinate system.

This implementation is intended for advanced GIS applications requiring greater control over the projection being used.

Options

When creating a projected implementation, you must provide enough information to construct a Proj4 specification for the projection. Generally, this means you will provide either the projection's factory itself (via the :projection_factory option), in which case the factory must include a Proj4 coordinate system; or, alternatively, you should provide the Proj4 coordinate system and let this method construct a projection factory for you (which it will do using the preferred Cartesian factory generator). If you choose this second method, you may provide the proj4 directly via the :projection_proj4 option, or indirectly by providing both an :srid and a :srs_database to use to look up the coordinate system.

Following are detailed descriptions of the various options you can pass to this method.

:projection_factory

Specify an existing Cartesian factory to use for the projection. This factory must have a non-nil Proj4. If this is provided, any :projection_proj4, :projection_coord_sys, and :projection_srid are ignored.

:projection_proj4

Specify a Proj4 projection to use to construct the projection factory. This may be specified as a CoordSys::Proj4 object, or as a Proj4 string or hash representation.

:projection_coord_sys

Specify a OGC coordinate system for the projection. This may be specified as an RGeo::CoordSys::CS::GeographicCoordinateSystem object, or as a String in OGC WKT format. Optional.

:projection_srid

The SRID value to use for the projection factory. Defaults to the given projection coordinate system's authority code, or to 0 if no projection coordinate system is known.

:proj4

A proj4 projection for the geographic (lat-lon) factory. You may pass either an RGeo::CoordSys::Proj4 object, or a string or hash containing the Proj4 parameters. This coordinate system must be a geographic (lat/long) coordinate system. It defaults to the geographic part of the projection factory's coordinate system. Generally, you should leave it at the default unless you want the geographic coordinate system to be based on a different horizontal datum than the projection.

:coord_sys

An OGC coordinate system for the geographic (lat-lon) factory, which may be an RGeo::CoordSys::CS::GeographicCoordinateSystem object or a string in OGC WKT format. It defaults to the geographic system embedded in the projection coordinate system. Generally, you should leave it at the default unless you want the geographic coordinate system to be based on a different horizontal datum than the projection.

:srid

The SRID value to use for the main geographic factory. Defaults to the given geographic coordinate system's authority code, or to 0 if no geographic coordinate system is known.

:srs_database

Optional. If provided, the value should be an implementation of CoordSys::SRSDatabase::Interface. If both this and an SRID are provided, they are used to look up the proj4 and coord_sys objects from a spatial reference system database.

:has_z_coordinate

Support a Z coordinate. Default is false. Note: this is ignored if a :projection_factory is provided; in that case, the geographic factory's z-coordinate availability will match the projection factory's setting.

:has_m_coordinate

Support an M coordinate. Default is false. Note: this is ignored if a :projection_factory is provided; in that case, the geographic factory's m-coordinate availability will match the projection factory's setting.

:wkt_parser

Configure the parser for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKTParser.

:wkb_parser

Configure the parser for WKB. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKBParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBParser.

:wkt_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is {:convert_case => :upper}.

:wkb_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBGenerator.

If a :projection_factory is not provided, you may also provide options for configuring the projected Cartesian factory. For example, if GEOS is used for the projected factory, you may also set the :lenient_multi_polygon_assertions and :buffer_resolution options. See RGeo::Geos.factory for more details.



355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 355

def projected_factory(opts_={})
  unless CoordSys::Proj4.supported?
    raise Error::UnsupportedOperation, "Proj4 is not supported because the proj4 library was not found at install time."
  end
  db_ = opts_[:srs_database]
  if (projection_factory_ = opts_[:projection_factory])
    # Get the projection coordinate systems from the given factory
    projection_proj4_ = projection_factory_.proj4
    unless projection_proj4_
      raise ::ArgumentError, 'The :projection_factory does not have a proj4.'
    end
    projection_coord_sys_ = projection_factory_.coord_sys
    if projection_coord_sys_ && !projection_coord_sys_.kind_of?(CoordSys::CS::ProjectedCoordinateSystem)
      raise ::ArgumentError, 'The :projection_factory\'s coord_sys is not a ProjectedCoordinateSystem.'
    end
    # Determine geographic coordinate system. First check parameters.
    proj4_ = opts_[:proj4]
    coord_sys_ = opts_[:coord_sys]
    srid_ = opts_[:srid]
    # Lookup srid from srs database if needed
    if (!proj4_ || !coord_sys_) && srid_ && db_
      entry_ = db_.get(srid_.to_i)
      if entry_
        proj4_ ||= entry_.proj4
        coord_sys_ ||= entry_.coord_sys
      end
    end
    # Fall back to getting the values from the projection.
    proj4_ ||= projection_proj4_.get_geographic || _proj4_4326
    coord_sys_ ||= projection_coord_sys_.geographic_coordinate_system if projection_coord_sys_
    srid_ ||= coord_sys_.authority_code if coord_sys_
    srid_ ||= 4326
    # Now we should have all the coordinate system info.
    factory_ = Geographic::Factory.new('Projected',
      :proj4 => proj4_,
      :coord_sys => coord_sys_,
      :srid => srid_.to_i,
      :has_z_coordinate => projection_factory_.property(:has_z_coordinate),
      :has_m_coordinate => projection_factory_.property(:has_m_coordinate),
      :wkt_parser => opts_[:wkt_parser], :wkt_generator => opts_[:wkt_generator],
      :wkb_parser => opts_[:wkb_parser], :wkb_generator => opts_[:wkb_generator])
    projector_ = Geographic::Proj4Projector.create_from_existing_factory(factory_,
      projection_factory_)
  else
    # Determine projection coordinate system. First check the parameters.
    projection_proj4_ = opts_[:projection_proj4]
    projection_coord_sys_ = opts_[:projection_coord_sys]
    projection_srid_ = opts_[:projection_srid]
    # Check the case where we need to look up a srid from an srs database.
    if (!projection_proj4_ || !projection_coord_sys_) && projection_srid_ && db_
      entry_ = db_.get(projection_srid_.to_i)
      if entry_
        projection_proj4_ ||= entry_.proj4
        projection_coord_sys_ ||= entry_.coord_sys
      end
    end
    # A projection proj4 is absolutely required.
    unless projection_proj4_
      raise ::ArgumentError, 'Unable to determine the Proj4 for the projected coordinate system.'
    end
    # Check the projection coordinate systems, and parse if needed.
    if projection_proj4_.kind_of?(::String) || projection_proj4_.kind_of?(::Hash)
      actual_projection_proj4_ = CoordSys::Proj4.create(projection_proj4_)
      unless actual_projection_proj4_
        raise ::ArgumentError, "Bad proj4 syntax: #{projection_proj4_.inspect}"
      end
      projection_proj4_ = actual_projection_proj4_
    end
    if projection_coord_sys_ && !projection_coord_sys_.kind_of?(CoordSys::CS::ProjectedCoordinateSystem)
      raise ::ArgumentError, 'The :projection_coord_sys is not a ProjectedCoordinateSystem.'
    end
    projection_srid_ ||= projection_coord_sys_.authority_code if projection_coord_sys_
    # Determine geographic coordinate system. First check parameters.
    proj4_ = opts_[:proj4]
    coord_sys_ = opts_[:coord_sys]
    srid_ = opts_[:srid]
    # Lookup srid from srs database if needed
    if (!proj4_ || !coord_sys_) && srid_ && db_
      entry_ = db_.get(srid_.to_i)
      if entry_
        proj4_ ||= entry_.proj4
        coord_sys_ ||= entry_.coord_sys
      end
    end
    # Fall back to getting the values from the projection.
    proj4_ ||= projection_proj4_.get_geographic || _proj4_4326
    coord_sys_ ||= projection_coord_sys_.geographic_coordinate_system if projection_coord_sys_
    srid_ ||= coord_sys_.authority_code if coord_sys_
    srid_ ||= 4326
    # Now we should have all the coordinate system info.
    factory_ = Geographic::Factory.new('Projected',
      :proj4 => proj4_,
      :coord_sys => coord_sys_,
      :srid => srid_.to_i,
      :has_z_coordinate => opts_[:has_z_coordinate],
      :has_m_coordinate => opts_[:has_m_coordinate],
      :wkt_parser => opts_[:wkt_parser], :wkt_generator => opts_[:wkt_generator],
      :wkb_parser => opts_[:wkb_parser], :wkb_generator => opts_[:wkb_generator])
    projector_ = Geographic::Proj4Projector.create_from_proj4(factory_,
      projection_proj4_,
      :srid => projection_srid_,
      :coord_sys => projection_coord_sys_,
      :buffer_resolution => opts_[:buffer_resolution],
      :lenient_multi_polygon_assertions => opts_[:lenient_multi_polygon_assertions],
      :has_z_coordinate => opts_[:has_z_coordinate],
      :has_m_coordinate => opts_[:has_m_coordinate],
      :wkt_parser => opts_[:wkt_parser], :wkt_generator => opts_[:wkt_generator],
      :wkb_parser => opts_[:wkb_parser], :wkb_generator => opts_[:wkb_generator])
  end
  factory_._set_projector(projector_)
  factory_
end

.simple_mercator_factory(opts_ = {}) ⇒ Object

Creates and returns a geographic factory that is designed for visualization applications that use Google or Bing maps, or any other visualization systems that use the same projection. It includes a projection factory that matches the projection used by those mapping systems.

Like all geographic factories, this one creates features using latitude-longitude values. However, calculations such as intersections are done in the projected coordinate system, and size and distance calculations report results in the projected units.

The behavior of the simple_mercator factory could also be obtained using a projected_factory with appropriate Proj4 specifications. However, the simple_mercator implementation is done without actually requiring the Proj4 library. The projections are simple enough to be implemented in pure ruby.

About the coordinate system

Many popular visualization technologies, such as Google and Bing maps, actually use two coordinate systems. The first is the standard WSG84 lat-long system used by the GPS and represented by EPSG 4326. Most API calls and input-output in these mapping technologies utilize this coordinate system. The second is a Mercator projection based on a "sphericalization" of the WGS84 lat-long system. This projection is the basis of the map's screen and tiling coordinates, and has been assigned EPSG 3785.

This factory represents both coordinate systems. The main factory produces data in the lat-long system and reports SRID 4326, and the projected factory produces data in the projection and reports SRID 3785. Latitudes are restricted to the range (-85.05112877980659, 85.05112877980659), which conveniently results in a square projected domain.

Options

You may use the following options when creating a simple_mercator factory:

:has_z_coordinate

Support a Z coordinate. Default is false.

:has_m_coordinate

Support an M coordinate. Default is false.

:wkt_parser

Configure the parser for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKTParser.

:wkb_parser

Configure the parser for WKB. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKBParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBParser.

:wkt_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is {:convert_case => :upper}.

:wkb_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBGenerator.

You may also provide options understood by the underlying projected Cartesian factory. For example, if GEOS is used for the projected factory, you may also set the :lenient_multi_polygon_assertions and :buffer_resolution options. See RGeo::Geos.factory for more details.



226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 226

def simple_mercator_factory(opts_={})
  factory_ = Geographic::Factory.new('Projected',
    :proj4 => _proj4_4326,
    :coord_sys => _coordsys_4326,
    :srid => 4326,
    :has_z_coordinate => opts_[:has_z_coordinate],
    :has_m_coordinate => opts_[:has_m_coordinate])
  projector_ = Geographic::SimpleMercatorProjector.new(factory_,
    :buffer_resolution => opts_[:buffer_resolution],
    :lenient_multi_polygon_assertions => opts_[:lenient_multi_polygon_assertions],
    :has_z_coordinate => opts_[:has_z_coordinate],
    :has_m_coordinate => opts_[:has_m_coordinate])
  factory_._set_projector(projector_)
  factory_
end

.spherical_factory(opts_ = {}) ⇒ Object

Creates and returns a geographic factory that does not include a a projection, and which performs calculations assuming a spherical earth. In other words, geodesics are treated as great circle arcs, and geometric calculations are handled accordingly. Size and distance calculations report results in meters. This implementation is thus ideal for everyday calculations on the globe in which good accuracy is desired, but in which it is not deemed necessary to perform the complex ellipsoidal calculations needed for greater precision.

The maximum error is about 0.5 percent, for objects and calculations that span a significant percentage of the globe, due to distortion caused by rotational flattening of the earth. For calculations that span a much smaller area, the error can drop to a few meters or less.

Limitations

This implementation does not implement some of the more advanced geometric operations. In particular:

  • Relational operators such as Feature::Geometry#intersects? are not implemented for most types.

  • Relational constructors such as Feature::Geometry#union are not implemented for most types.

  • Buffer, convex hull, and envelope calculations are not implemented for most types. Boundaries are available except for GeometryCollection.

  • Length calculations are available, but areas are not. Distances are available only between points.

  • Equality and simplicity evaluation are implemented for some but not all types.

  • Assertions for polygons and multipolygons are not implemented.

Unimplemented operations will return nil if invoked.

Options

You may use the following options when creating a spherical factory:

:has_z_coordinate

Support a Z coordinate. Default is false.

:has_m_coordinate

Support an M coordinate. Default is false.

:proj4

Provide the coordinate system in Proj4 format. You may pass either an RGeo::CoordSys::Proj4 object, or a string or hash containing the Proj4 parameters. This coordinate system must be a geographic (lat/long) coordinate system. The default is the "popular visualization CRS" (EPSG 4055), represented by "+proj=longlat +a=6378137 +b=6378137 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +no_defs". Has no effect if Proj4 is not available.

:coord_sys

Provide a coordinate system in OGC format, either as an object (one of the CoordSys::CS classes) or as a string in WKT format. This coordinate system must be a GeographicCoordinateSystem. The default is the "popular visualization CRS" (EPSG 4055).

:srid

The SRID that should be returned by features from this factory. Default is 4055, indicating EPSG 4055, the "popular visualization crs". You may alternatively wish to set the srid to 4326, indicating the WGS84 crs, but note that that value implies an ellipsoidal datum, not a spherical datum.

:srs_database

Optional. If provided, the value should be an implementation of CoordSys::SRSDatabase::Interface. If both this and an SRID are provided, they are used to look up the proj4 and coord_sys objects from a spatial reference system database.

:wkt_parser

Configure the parser for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKTParser.

:wkb_parser

Configure the parser for WKB. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKBParser.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBParser.

:wkt_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is {:convert_case => :upper}.

:wkb_generator

Configure the generator for WKT. The value is a hash of configuration parameters for WKRep::WKTGenerator.new. Default is the empty hash, indicating the default configuration for WKRep::WKBGenerator.



133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
# File 'lib/rgeo/geographic/interface.rb', line 133

def spherical_factory(opts_={})
  proj4_ = opts_[:proj4]
  coord_sys_ = opts_[:coord_sys]
  srid_ = opts_[:srid]
  if (!proj4_ || !coord_sys_) && srid_ && (db_ = opts_[:srs_database])
    entry_ = db_.get(srid_.to_i)
    if entry_
      proj4_ ||= entry_.proj4
      coord_sys_ ||= entry_.coord_sys
    end
  end
  srid_ ||= coord_sys_.authority_code if coord_sys_
  Geographic::Factory.new('Spherical',
    :has_z_coordinate => opts_[:has_z_coordinate],
    :has_m_coordinate => opts_[:has_m_coordinate],
    :proj4 => proj4_ || _proj4_4055,
    :coord_sys => coord_sys_ || _coordsys_4055,
    :srid => (srid_ || 4055).to_i)
end