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Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web applications in Ruby with minimal effort:

```ruby # myapp.rb require ‘sinatra’

get ‘/’ do ‘Hello world!’ end ```

Install the gem:

shell gem install sinatra

And run with:

shell ruby myapp.rb

View at: http://localhost:4567

It is recommended to also run gem install thin, which Sinatra will pick up if available.

Table of Contents


In Sinatra, a route is an HTTP method paired with a URL-matching pattern. Each route is associated with a block:

```ruby get ‘/’ do .. show something .. end

post ‘/’ do .. create something .. end

put ‘/’ do .. replace something .. end

patch ‘/’ do .. modify something .. end

delete ‘/’ do .. annihilate something .. end

options ‘/’ do .. appease something .. end

link ‘/’ do .. affiliate something .. end

unlink ‘/’ do .. separate something .. end ```

Routes are matched in the order they are defined. The first route that matches the request is invoked.

Routes with trailing slashes are different from the ones without:

ruby get '/foo' do # Does not match "GET /foo/" end

Route patterns may include named parameters, accessible via the params hash:

ruby get '/hello/:name' do # matches "GET /hello/foo" and "GET /hello/bar" # params['name'] is 'foo' or 'bar' "Hello #{params['name']}!" end

You can also access named parameters via block parameters:

ruby get '/hello/:name' do |n| # matches "GET /hello/foo" and "GET /hello/bar" # params['name'] is 'foo' or 'bar' # n stores params['name'] "Hello #{n}!" end

Route patterns may also include splat (or wildcard) parameters, accessible via the params['splat'] array:

```ruby get ‘/say//to/’ do # matches /say/hello/to/world params[‘splat’] # => [“hello”, “world”] end

get ‘/download/.’ do # matches /download/path/to/file.xml params[‘splat’] # => [“path/to/file”, “xml”] end ```

Or with block parameters:

ruby get '/download/*.*' do |path, ext| [path, ext] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"] end

Route matching with Regular Expressions:

ruby get /\/hello\/([\w]+)/ do "Hello, #{params['captures'].first}!" end

Or with a block parameter:

ruby get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do |c| # Matches "GET /meta/hello/world", "GET /hello/world/1234" etc. "Hello, #{c}!" end

Route patterns may have optional parameters:

ruby get '/posts/:format?' do # matches "GET /posts/" and any extension "GET /posts/json", "GET /posts/xml" etc end

Routes may also utilize query parameters:

ruby get '/posts' do # matches "GET /posts?title=foo&author=bar" title = params['title'] author = params['author'] # uses title and author variables; query is optional to the /posts route end

By the way, unless you disable the path traversal attack protection (see below), the request path might be modified before matching against your routes.

You may customize the Mustermann options used for a given route by passing in a :mustermann_opts hash:

ruby get '\A/posts\z', :mustermann_opts => { :type => :regexp, :check_anchors => false } do # matches /posts exactly, with explicit anchoring "If you match an anchored pattern clap your hands!" end

It looks like a condition, but it isn’t one! These options will be merged into the global :mustermann_opts hash described below.


Routes may include a variety of matching conditions, such as the user agent:

```ruby get ‘/foo’, :agent => /Songbird (\d.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do “You’re using Songbird version #params[‘agent’][0]” end

get ‘/foo’ do # Matches non-songbird browsers end ```

Other available conditions are host_name and provides:

```ruby get ‘/’, :host_name => /^admin./ do “Admin Area, Access denied!” end

get ‘/’, :provides => ‘html’ do haml :index end

get ‘/’, :provides => [‘rss’, ‘atom’, ‘xml’] do builder :feed end ``` provides searches the request’s Accept header.

You can easily define your own conditions:

```ruby set(:probability) { |value| condition { rand <= value } }

get ‘/win_a_car’, :probability => 0.1 do “You won!” end

get ‘/win_a_car’ do “Sorry, you lost.” end ```

For a condition that takes multiple values use a splat:

```ruby set(:auth) do |*roles| # <- notice the splat here condition do unless logged_in? && roles.any? {|role| current_user.in_role? role } redirect “/login/”, 303 end end end

get “/my/account/”, :auth => [:user, :admin] do “Your Account Details” end

get “/only/admin/”, :auth => :admin do “Only admins are allowed here!” end ```

Return Values

The return value of a route block determines at least the response body passed on to the HTTP client, or at least the next middleware in the Rack stack. Most commonly, this is a string, as in the above examples. But other values are also accepted.

You can return any object that would either be a valid Rack response, Rack body object or HTTP status code:

  • An Array with three elements: [status (Fixnum), headers (Hash), response body (responds to #each)]
  • An Array with two elements: [status (Fixnum), response body (responds to #each)]
  • An object that responds to #each and passes nothing but strings to the given block
  • A Fixnum representing the status code

That way we can, for instance, easily implement a streaming example:

```ruby class Stream def each 100.times { |i| yield “#i\n” } end end

get(‘/’) { } ```

You can also use the stream helper method (described below) to reduce boiler plate and embed the streaming logic in the route.

Custom Route Matchers

As shown above, Sinatra ships with built-in support for using String patterns and regular expressions as route matches. However, it does not stop there. You can easily define your own matchers:

```ruby class AllButPattern Match =

def initialize(except) @except = except @captures =[]) end

def match(str) @captures unless @except === str end end

def all_but(pattern) end

get all_but(“/index”) do # … end ```

Note that the above example might be over-engineered, as it can also be expressed as:

ruby get // do pass if request.path_info == "/index" # ... end

Or, using negative look ahead:

ruby get %r{(?!/index)} do # ... end

Static Files

Static files are served from the ./public directory. You can specify a different location by setting the :public_folder option:

ruby set :public_folder, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/static'

Note that the public directory name is not included in the URL. A file ./public/css/style.css is made available as

Use the :static_cache_control setting (see below) to add Cache-Control header info.

Views / Templates

Each template language is exposed via its own rendering method. These methods simply return a string:

ruby get '/' do erb :index end

This renders views/index.erb.

Instead of a template name, you can also just pass in the template content directly:

ruby get '/' do code = "<%= %>" erb code end

Templates take a second argument, the options hash:

ruby get '/' do erb :index, :layout => :post end

This will render views/index.erb embedded in the views/post.erb (default is views/layout.erb, if it exists).

Any options not understood by Sinatra will be passed on to the template engine:

ruby get '/' do haml :index, :format => :html5 end

You can also set options per template language in general:

```ruby set :haml, :format => :html5

get ‘/’ do haml :index end ```

Options passed to the render method override options set via set.

Available Options:

List of locals passed to the document. Handy with partials. Example: erb "<%= foo %>", :locals => {:foo => "bar"}
String encoding to use if uncertain. Defaults to settings.default_encoding.
Views folder to load templates from. Defaults to settings.views.
Whether to use a layout (true or false). If it's a Symbol, specifies what template to use. Example: erb :index, :layout => !request.xhr?
Content-Type the template produces. Default depends on template language.
Scope to render template under. Defaults to the application instance. If you change this, instance variables and helper methods will not be available.
Template engine to use for rendering the layout. Useful for languages that do not support layouts otherwise. Defaults to the engine used for the template. Example: set :rdoc, :layout_engine => :erb
Special options only used for rendering the layout. Example: set :rdoc, :layout_options => { :views => 'views/layouts' }

Templates are assumed to be located directly under the ./views directory. To use a different views directory:

ruby set :views, settings.root + '/templates'

One important thing to remember is that you always have to reference templates with symbols, even if they’re in a subdirectory (in this case, use: :'subdir/template' or 'subdir/template'.to_sym). You must use a symbol because otherwise rendering methods will render any strings passed to them directly.

Literal Templates

ruby get '/' do haml '%div.title Hello World' end

Renders the template string. You can optionally specify :path and :line for a clearer backtrace if there is a filesystem path or line associated with that string:

ruby get '/' do haml '%div.title Hello World', :path => 'examples/file.haml', :line => 3 end

Available Template Languages

Some languages have multiple implementations. To specify what implementation to use (and to be thread-safe), you should simply require it first:

ruby require 'rdiscount' # or require 'bluecloth' get('/') { markdown :index }

Haml Templates

Dependency haml
File Extension .haml
Example haml :index, :format => :html5

Erb Templates

Dependency erubis or erb (included in Ruby)
File Extensions .erb, .rhtml or .erubis (Erubis only)
Example erb :index

Builder Templates

Dependency builder
File Extension .builder
Example builder { |xml| xml.em "hi" }

It also takes a block for inline templates (see example).

Nokogiri Templates

Dependency nokogiri
File Extension .nokogiri
Example nokogiri { |xml| xml.em "hi" }

It also takes a block for inline templates (see example).

Sass Templates

Dependency sass
File Extension .sass
Example sass :stylesheet, :style => :expanded

SCSS Templates

Dependency sass
File Extension .scss
Example scss :stylesheet, :style => :expanded

Less Templates

Dependency less
File Extension .less
Example less :stylesheet

Liquid Templates

Dependency liquid
File Extension .liquid
Example liquid :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }

Since you cannot call Ruby methods (except for yield) from a Liquid template, you almost always want to pass locals to it.

Markdown Templates

Dependency Anyone of: RDiscount, RedCarpet, BlueCloth, kramdown, maruku
File Extensions .markdown, .mkd and .md
Example markdown :index, :layout_engine => :erb

It is not possible to call methods from Markdown, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:

ruby erb :overview, :locals => { :text => markdown(:introduction) }

Note that you may also call the markdown method from within other templates:

ruby %h1 Hello From Haml! %p= markdown(:greetings)

Since you cannot call Ruby from Markdown, you cannot use layouts written in Markdown. However, it is possible to use another rendering engine for the template than for the layout by passing the :layout_engine option.

Textile Templates

Dependency RedCloth
File Extension .textile
Example textile :index, :layout_engine => :erb

It is not possible to call methods from Textile, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:

ruby erb :overview, :locals => { :text => textile(:introduction) }

Note that you may also call the textile method from within other templates:

ruby %h1 Hello From Haml! %p= textile(:greetings)

Since you cannot call Ruby from Textile, you cannot use layouts written in Textile. However, it is possible to use another rendering engine for the template than for the layout by passing the :layout_engine option.

RDoc Templates

Dependency RDoc
File Extension .rdoc
Example rdoc :README, :layout_engine => :erb

It is not possible to call methods from RDoc, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:

ruby erb :overview, :locals => { :text => rdoc(:introduction) }

Note that you may also call the rdoc method from within other templates:

ruby %h1 Hello From Haml! %p= rdoc(:greetings)

Since you cannot call Ruby from RDoc, you cannot use layouts written in RDoc. However, it is possible to use another rendering engine for the template than for the layout by passing the :layout_engine option.

AsciiDoc Templates

Dependency Asciidoctor
File Extension .asciidoc, .adoc and .ad
Example asciidoc :README, :layout_engine => :erb

Since you cannot call Ruby methods directly from an AsciiDoc template, you almost always want to pass locals to it.

Radius Templates

Dependency Radius
File Extension .radius
Example radius :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }

Since you cannot call Ruby methods directly from a Radius template, you almost always want to pass locals to it.

Markaby Templates

Dependency Markaby
File Extension .mab
Example markaby { h1 "Welcome!" }

It also takes a block for inline templates (see example).

RABL Templates

Dependency Rabl
File Extension .rabl
Example rabl :index

Slim Templates

Dependency Slim Lang
File Extension .slim
Example slim :index

Creole Templates

Dependency Creole
File Extension .creole
Example creole :wiki, :layout_engine => :erb

It is not possible to call methods from Creole, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:

ruby erb :overview, :locals => { :text => creole(:introduction) }

Note that you may also call the creole method from within other templates:

ruby %h1 Hello From Haml! %p= creole(:greetings)

Since you cannot call Ruby from Creole, you cannot use layouts written in Creole. However, it is possible to use another rendering engine for the template than for the layout by passing the :layout_engine option.

MediaWiki Templates

Dependency WikiCloth
File Extension .mediawiki and .mw
Example mediawiki :wiki, :layout_engine => :erb

It is not possible to call methods from MediaWiki markup, nor to pass locals to it. You therefore will usually use it in combination with another rendering engine:

ruby erb :overview, :locals => { :text => mediawiki(:introduction) }

Note that you may also call the mediawiki method from within other templates:

ruby %h1 Hello From Haml! %p= mediawiki(:greetings)

Since you cannot call Ruby from MediaWiki, you cannot use layouts written in MediaWiki. However, it is possible to use another rendering engine for the template than for the layout by passing the :layout_engine option.

CoffeeScript Templates

Dependency CoffeeScript and a way to execute javascript
File Extension .coffee
Example coffee :index

Stylus Templates

Dependency Stylus and a way to execute javascript
File Extension .styl
Example stylus :index

Before being able to use Stylus templates, you need to load stylus and stylus/tilt first:

```ruby require ‘sinatra’ require ‘stylus’ require ‘stylus/tilt’

get ‘/’ do stylus :example end ```

Yajl Templates

Dependency yajl-ruby
File Extension .yajl
Example yajl :index, :locals => { :key => 'qux' }, :callback => 'present', :variable => 'resource'

The template source is evaluated as a Ruby string, and the resulting json variable is converted using #to_json:

ruby json = { :foo => 'bar' } json[:baz] = key

The :callback and :variable options can be used to decorate the rendered object:

javascript var resource = {"foo":"bar","baz":"qux"}; present(resource);

WLang Templates

Dependency WLang
File Extension .wlang
Example wlang :index, :locals => { :key => 'value' }

Since calling ruby methods is not idiomatic in WLang, you almost always want to pass locals to it. Layouts written in WLang and yield are supported, though.

Accessing Variables in Templates

Templates are evaluated within the same context as route handlers. Instance variables set in route handlers are directly accessible by templates:

ruby get '/:id' do @foo = Foo.find(params['id']) haml '%h1=' end

Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:

ruby get '/:id' do foo = Foo.find(params['id']) haml '%h1=', :locals => { :bar => foo } end

This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within other templates.

Templates with yield and nested layouts

A layout is usually just a template that calls yield. Such a template can be used either through the :template option as described above, or it can be rendered with a block as follows:

ruby erb :post, :layout => false do erb :index end

This code is mostly equivalent to erb :index, :layout => :post.

Passing blocks to rendering methods is most useful for creating nested layouts:

ruby erb :main_layout, :layout => false do erb :admin_layout do erb :user end end

This can also be done in fewer lines of code with:

ruby erb :admin_layout, :layout => :main_layout do erb :user end

Currently, the following rendering methods accept a block: erb, haml, liquid, slim , wlang. Also the general render method accepts a block.

Inline Templates

Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:

```ruby require ‘sinatra’

get ‘/’ do haml :index end


@@ layout %html = yield

@@ index %div.title Hello world. ```

NOTE: Inline templates defined in the source file that requires sinatra are automatically loaded. Call enable :inline_templates explicitly if you have inline templates in other source files.

Named Templates

Templates may also be defined using the top-level template method:

```ruby template :layout do “%html\n =yield\n” end

template :index do ‘%div.title Hello World!’ end

get ‘/’ do haml :index end ```

If a template named “layout” exists, it will be used each time a template is rendered. You can individually disable layouts by passing :layout => false or disable them by default via set :haml, :layout => false:

ruby get '/' do haml :index, :layout => !request.xhr? end

Associating File Extensions

To associate a file extension with a template engine, use Tilt.register. For instance, if you like to use the file extension tt for Textile templates, you can do the following:

ruby Tilt.register :tt, Tilt[:textile]

Adding Your Own Template Engine

First, register your engine with Tilt, then create a rendering method:

```ruby Tilt.register :myat, MyAwesomeTemplateEngine

helpers do def myat(*args) render(:myat, *args) end end

get ‘/’ do myat :index end ```

Renders ./views/index.myat. See to learn more about Tilt.

Using Custom Logic for Template Lookup

To implement your own template lookup mechanism you can write your own #find_template method:

```ruby configure do set :views [ ‘./views/a’, ‘./views/b’ ] end

def find_template(views, name, engine, &block) Array(views).each do |v| super(v, name, engine, &block) end end ```


Before filters are evaluated before each request within the same context as the routes will be and can modify the request and response. Instance variables set in filters are accessible by routes and templates:

```ruby before do @note = ‘Hi!’ request.path_info = ‘/foo/bar/baz’ end

get ‘/foo/*’ do @note #=> ‘Hi!’ params[‘splat’] #=> ‘bar/baz’ end ```

After filters are evaluated after each request within the same context as the routes will be and can also modify the request and response. Instance variables set in before filters and routes are accessible by after filters:

ruby after do puts response.status end

Note: Unless you use the body method rather than just returning a String from the routes, the body will not yet be available in the after filter, since it is generated later on.

Filters optionally take a pattern, causing them to be evaluated only if the request path matches that pattern:

```ruby before ‘/protected/*’ do authenticate! end

after ‘/create/:slug’ do |slug| session[:last_slug] = slug end ```

Like routes, filters also take conditions:

```ruby before :agent => /Songbird/ do # … end

after ‘/blog/*’, :host_name => ‘’ do # … end ```


Use the top-level helpers method to define helper methods for use in route handlers and templates:

```ruby helpers do def bar(name) “#namebar” end end

get ‘/:name’ do bar(params[‘name’]) end ```

Alternatively, helper methods can be separately defined in a module:

```ruby module FooUtils def foo(name) “#namefoo” end end

module BarUtils def bar(name) “#namebar” end end

helpers FooUtils, BarUtils ```

The effect is the same as including the modules in the application class.

Using Sessions

A session is used to keep state during requests. If activated, you have one session hash per user session:

```ruby enable :sessions

get ‘/’ do “value = “ « session[:value].inspect end

get ‘/:value’ do session[‘value’] = params[‘value’] end ```

Session Secret Security

To improve security, the session data in the cookie is signed with a session secret using HMAC-SHA1. This session secret should optimally be a cryptographically secure random value of an appropriate length which for HMAC-SHA1 is greater than or equal to 64 bytes (512 bits, 128 hex characters). You would be advised not to use a secret that is less than 32 bytes of randomness (256 bits, 64 hex characters). It is therefore very important that you don’t just make the secret up, but instead use a secure random number generator to create it. Humans are extremely bad at generating random values.

By default, a 32 byte secure random session secret is generated for you by Sinatra, but it will change with every restart of your application. If you have multiple instances of your application, and you let Sinatra generate the key, each instance would then have a different session key which is probably not what you want.

For better security and usability it’s recommended that you generate a secure random secret and store it in an environment variable on each host running your application so that all of your application instances will share the same secret. You should periodically rotate this session secret to a new value. Here are some examples of how you might create a 64 byte secret and set it:

Session Secret Generation

text $ ruby -e "require 'securerandom'; puts SecureRandom.hex(64)" 99ae8af...snip...ec0f262ac

Session Secret Generation (Bonus Points)

Use the sysrandom gem to prefer use of system RNG facilities to generate random values instead of userspace OpenSSL which MRI Ruby currently defaults to:

```text $ gem install sysrandom Building native extensions. This could take a while… Successfully installed sysrandom-1.x 1 gem installed

$ ruby -e “require ‘sysrandom/securerandom’; puts SecureRandom.hex(64)” 99ae8af…snip…ec0f262ac ```

Session Secret Environment Variable

Set a SESSION_SECRET environment variable for Sinatra to the value you generated. Make this value persistent across reboots of your host. Since the method for doing this will vary across systems this is for illustrative purposes only:

bash # echo "export SESSION_SECRET=99ae8af...snip...ec0f262ac" >> ~/.bashrc

Session Secret App Config

Setup your app config to fail-safe to a secure random secret if the SESSION_SECRET environment variable is not available.

For bonus points use the sysrandom gem here as well:

ruby require 'securerandom' # -or- require 'sysrandom/securerandom' set :session_secret, ENV.fetch('SESSION_SECRET') { SecureRandom.hex(64) }

Session Config

If you want to configure it further, you may also store a hash with options in the sessions setting:

ruby set :sessions, :domain => ''

To share your session across other apps on subdomains of, prefix the domain with a . like this instead:

ruby set :sessions, :domain => ''

Choosing Your Own Session Middleware

Note that enable :sessions actually stores all data in a cookie. This might not always be what you want (storing lots of data will increase your traffic, for instance). You can use any Rack session middleware in order to do so, one of the following methods can be used:

ruby enable :sessions set :session_store, Rack::Session::Pool

Or to set up sessions with a hash of options:

ruby set :sessions, :expire_after => 2592000 set :session_store, Rack::Session::Pool

Another option is to not call enable :sessions, but instead pull in your middleware of choice as you would any other middleware.

It is important to note that when using this method, session based protection will not be enabled by default.

The Rack middleware to do that will also need to be added:

ruby use Rack::Session::Pool, :expire_after => 2592000 use Rack::Protection::RemoteToken use Rack::Protection::SessionHijacking

See ‘Configuring attack protection’ for more information.


To immediately stop a request within a filter or route use:

ruby halt

You can also specify the status when halting:

ruby halt 410

Or the body:

ruby halt 'this will be the body'

Or both:

ruby halt 401, 'go away!'

With headers:

ruby halt 402, {'Content-Type' => 'text/plain'}, 'revenge'

It is of course possible to combine a template with halt:

ruby halt erb(:error)


A route can punt processing to the next matching route using pass:

```ruby get ‘/guess/:who’ do pass unless params[‘who’] == ‘Frank’ ‘You got me!’ end

get ‘/guess/*’ do ‘You missed!’ end ```

The route block is immediately exited and control continues with the next matching route. If no matching route is found, a 404 is returned.

Triggering Another Route

Sometimes pass is not what you want, instead you would like to get the result of calling another route. Simply use call to achieve this:

```ruby get ‘/foo’ do status, headers, body = call env.merge(“PATH_INFO” => ‘/bar’) [status, headers,] end

get ‘/bar’ do “bar” end ```

Note that in the example above, you would ease testing and increase performance by simply moving "bar" into a helper used by both /foo and /bar.

If you want the request to be sent to the same application instance rather than a duplicate, use call! instead of call.

Check out the Rack specification if you want to learn more about call.

Setting Body, Status Code and Headers

It is possible and recommended to set the status code and response body with the return value of the route block. However, in some scenarios you might want to set the body at an arbitrary point in the execution flow. You can do so with the body helper method. If you do so, you can use that method from there on to access the body:

```ruby get ‘/foo’ do body “bar” end

after do puts body end ```

It is also possible to pass a block to body, which will be executed by the Rack handler (this can be used to implement streaming, see “Return Values”).

Similar to the body, you can also set the status code and headers:

ruby get '/foo' do status 418 headers \ "Allow" => "BREW, POST, GET, PROPFIND, WHEN", "Refresh" => "Refresh: 20;" body "I'm a tea pot!" end

Like body, headers and status with no arguments can be used to access their current values.

Streaming Responses

Sometimes you want to start sending out data while still generating parts of the response body. In extreme examples, you want to keep sending data until the client closes the connection. You can use the stream helper to avoid creating your own wrapper:

ruby get '/' do stream do |out| out << "It's gonna be legen -\n" sleep 0.5 out << " (wait for it) \n" sleep 1 out << "- dary!\n" end end

This allows you to implement streaming APIs, Server Sent Events, and can be used as the basis for WebSockets. It can also be used to increase throughput if some but not all content depends on a slow resource.

Note that the streaming behavior, especially the number of concurrent requests, highly depends on the web server used to serve the application. Some servers might not even support streaming at all. If the server does not support streaming, the body will be sent all at once after the block passed to stream finishes executing. Streaming does not work at all with Shotgun.

If the optional parameter is set to keep_open, it will not call close on the stream object, allowing you to close it at any later point in the execution flow. This only works on evented servers, like Thin and Rainbows. Other servers will still close the stream:

```ruby # long polling

set :server, :thin connections = []

get ‘/subscribe’ do # register a client’s interest in server events stream(:keep_open) do |out| connections « out # purge dead connections connections.reject!(&:closed?) end end

post ‘/:message’ do connections.each do |out| # notify client that a new message has arrived out « params[‘message’] « “\n”

# indicate client to connect again
out.close   end

# acknowledge “message received” end ```

It’s also possible for the client to close the connection when trying to write to the socket. Because of this, it’s recommended to check out.closed? before trying to write.


In the request scope, the logger helper exposes a Logger instance:

ruby get '/' do "loading data" # ... end

This logger will automatically take your Rack handler’s logging settings into account. If logging is disabled, this method will return a dummy object, so you do not have to worry about it in your routes and filters.

Note that logging is only enabled for Sinatra::Application by default, so if you inherit from Sinatra::Base, you probably want to enable it yourself:

ruby class MyApp < Sinatra::Base configure :production, :development do enable :logging end end

To avoid any logging middleware to be set up, set the logging setting to nil. However, keep in mind that logger will in that case return nil. A common use case is when you want to set your own logger. Sinatra will use whatever it will find in env['rack.logger'].

Mime Types

When using send_file or static files you may have mime types Sinatra doesn’t understand. Use mime_type to register them by file extension:

ruby configure do mime_type :foo, 'text/foo' end

You can also use it with the content_type helper:

ruby get '/' do content_type :foo "foo foo foo" end

Generating URLs

For generating URLs you should use the url helper method, for instance, in Haml:

ruby %a{:href => url('/foo')} foo

It takes reverse proxies and Rack routers into account, if present.

This method is also aliased to to (see below for an example).

Browser Redirect

You can trigger a browser redirect with the redirect helper method:

ruby get '/foo' do redirect to('/bar') end

Any additional parameters are handled like arguments passed to halt:

ruby redirect to('/bar'), 303 redirect '', 'wrong place, buddy'

You can also easily redirect back to the page the user came from with redirect back:

```ruby get ‘/foo’ do “do something” end

get ‘/bar’ do do_something redirect back end ```

To pass arguments with a redirect, either add them to the query:

ruby redirect to('/bar?sum=42')

Or use a session:

```ruby enable :sessions

get ‘/foo’ do session[:secret] = ‘foo’ redirect to(‘/bar’) end

get ‘/bar’ do session[:secret] end ```

Cache Control

Setting your headers correctly is the foundation for proper HTTP caching.

You can easily set the Cache-Control header like this:

ruby get '/' do cache_control :public "cache it!" end

Pro tip: Set up caching in a before filter:

ruby before do cache_control :public, :must_revalidate, :max_age => 60 end

If you are using the expires helper to set the corresponding header, Cache-Control will be set automatically for you:

ruby before do expires 500, :public, :must_revalidate end

To properly use caches, you should consider using etag or last_modified. It is recommended to call those helpers before doing any heavy lifting, as they will immediately flush a response if the client already has the current version in its cache:

ruby get "/article/:id" do @article = Article.find params['id'] last_modified @article.updated_at etag @article.sha1 erb :article end

It is also possible to use a weak ETag:

ruby etag @article.sha1, :weak

These helpers will not do any caching for you, but rather feed the necessary information to your cache. If you are looking for a quick reverse-proxy caching solution, try rack-cache:

```ruby require “rack/cache” require “sinatra”

use Rack::Cache

get ‘/’ do cache_control :public, :max_age => 36000 sleep 5 “hello” end ```

Use the :static_cache_control setting (see below) to add Cache-Control header info to static files.

According to RFC 2616, your application should behave differently if the If-Match or If-None-Match header is set to *, depending on whether the resource requested is already in existence. Sinatra assumes resources for safe (like get) and idempotent (like put) requests are already in existence, whereas other resources (for instance post requests) are treated as new resources. You can change this behavior by passing in a :new_resource option:

ruby get '/create' do etag '', :new_resource => true Article.create erb :new_article end

If you still want to use a weak ETag, pass in a :kind option:

ruby etag '', :new_resource => true, :kind => :weak

Sending Files

To return the contents of a file as the response, you can use the send_file helper method:

ruby get '/' do send_file 'foo.png' end

It also takes options:

ruby send_file 'foo.png', :type => :jpg

The options are:

File name to be used in the response, defaults to the real file name.
Value for Last-Modified header, defaults to the file's mtime.
Value for Content-Type header, guessed from the file extension if missing.
Value for Content-Disposition header, possible values: nil (default), :attachment and :inline
Value for Content-Length header, defaults to file size.
Status code to be sent. Useful when sending a static file as an error page. If supported by the Rack handler, other means than streaming from the Ruby process will be used. If you use this helper method, Sinatra will automatically handle range requests.

Accessing the Request Object

The incoming request object can be accessed from request level (filter, routes, error handlers) through the request method:

ruby # app running on get '/foo' do t = %w[text/css text/html application/javascript] request.accept # ['text/html', '*/*'] request.accept? 'text/xml' # true request.preferred_type(t) # 'text/html' request.body # request body sent by the client (see below) request.scheme # "http" request.script_name # "/example" request.path_info # "/foo" request.port # 80 request.request_method # "GET" request.query_string # "" request.content_length # length of request.body request.media_type # media type of request.body # "" request.get? # true (similar methods for other verbs) request.form_data? # false request["some_param"] # value of some_param parameter. [] is a shortcut to the params hash. request.referrer # the referrer of the client or '/' request.user_agent # user agent (used by :agent condition) request.cookies # hash of browser cookies request.xhr? # is this an ajax request? request.url # "" request.path # "/example/foo" request.ip # client IP address # false (would be true over ssl) request.forwarded? # true (if running behind a reverse proxy) request.env # raw env hash handed in by Rack end

Some options, like script_name or path_info, can also be written:

```ruby before { request.path_info = “/” }

get “/” do “all requests end up here” end ```

The request.body is an IO or StringIO object:

ruby post "/api" do request.body.rewind # in case someone already read it data = JSON.parse "Hello #{data['name']}!" end


You can use the attachment helper to tell the browser the response should be stored on disk rather than displayed in the browser:

ruby get '/' do attachment "store it!" end

You can also pass it a file name:

ruby get '/' do attachment "info.txt" "store it!" end

Dealing with Date and Time

Sinatra offers a time_for helper method that generates a Time object from the given value. It is also able to convert DateTime, Date and similar classes:

ruby get '/' do pass if > time_for('Dec 23, 2016') "still time" end

This method is used internally by expires, last_modified and akin. You can therefore easily extend the behavior of those methods by overriding time_for in your application:

```ruby helpers do def time_for(value) case value when :yesterday then - 246060 when :tomorrow then + 246060 else super end end end

get ‘/’ do last_modified :yesterday expires :tomorrow “hello” end ```

Looking Up Template Files

The find_template helper is used to find template files for rendering:

ruby find_template settings.views, 'foo', Tilt[:haml] do |file| puts "could be #{file}" end

This is not really useful. But it is useful that you can actually override this method to hook in your own lookup mechanism. For instance, if you want to be able to use more than one view directory:

```ruby set :views, [‘views’, ‘templates’]

helpers do def find_template(views, name, engine, &block) Array(views).each { |v| super(v, name, engine, &block) } end end ```

Another example would be using different directories for different engines:

```ruby set :views, :sass => ‘views/sass’, :haml => ‘templates’, :default => ‘views’

helpers do def find_template(views, name, engine, &block) _, folder = views.detect { |k,v| engine == Tilt[k] } folder ||= views[:default] super(folder, name, engine, &block) end end ```

You can also easily wrap this up in an extension and share with others!

Note that find_template does not check if the file really exists but rather calls the given block for all possible paths. This is not a performance issue, since render will use break as soon as a file is found. Also, template locations (and content) will be cached if you are not running in development mode. You should keep that in mind if you write a really crazy method.


Run once, at startup, in any environment:

```ruby configure do # setting one option set :option, ‘value’

# setting multiple options set :a => 1, :b => 2

# same as set :option, true enable :option

# same as set :option, false disable :option

# you can also have dynamic settings with blocks set(:css_dir) { File.join(views, ‘css’) } end ```

Run only when the environment (APP_ENV environment variable) is set to :production:

ruby configure :production do ... end

Run when the environment is set to either :production or :test:

ruby configure :production, :test do ... end

You can access those options via settings:

```ruby configure do set :foo, ‘bar’ end

get ‘/’ do # => true # => ‘bar’ … end ```

Configuring attack protection

Sinatra is using Rack::Protection to defend your application against common, opportunistic attacks. You can easily disable this behavior (which will open up your application to tons of common vulnerabilities):

ruby disable :protection

To skip a single defense layer, set protection to an options hash:

ruby set :protection, :except => :path_traversal You can also hand in an array in order to disable a list of protections:

ruby set :protection, :except => [:path_traversal, :session_hijacking]

By default, Sinatra will only set up session based protection if :sessions have been enabled. See ‘Using Sessions’. Sometimes you may want to set up sessions “outside” of the Sinatra app, such as in the or with a separate Rack::Builder instance. In that case you can still set up session based protection by passing the :session option:

ruby set :protection, :session => true

Available Settings

If disabled, Sinatra will allow relative redirects, however, Sinatra will no longer conform with RFC 2616 (HTTP 1.1), which only allows absolute redirects.
Enable if your app is running behind a reverse proxy that has not been set up properly. Note that the url helper will still produce absolute URLs, unless you pass in false as the second parameter.
Disabled by default.
Mime types the content_type helper will automatically add the charset info to. You should add to it rather than overriding this option: settings.add_charset << "application/foobar"
Path to the main application file, used to detect project root, views and public folder and inline templates.
IP address to bind to (default: or localhost if your `environment` is set to development). Only used for built-in server.
Encoding to assume if unknown (defaults to "utf-8").
Display errors in the log.
Current environment. Defaults to ENV['APP_ENV'], or "development" if not available.
Use the logger.
Places a lock around every request, only running processing on request per Ruby process concurrently.
Enabled if your app is not thread-safe. Disabled by default.
Use _method magic to allow put/delete forms in browsers that don't support it.
A default hash of options to pass to when compiling routing paths.
Port to listen on. Only used for built-in server.
Whether or not to insert request.script_name into redirects if no absolute path is given. That way redirect '/foo' would behave like redirect to('/foo'). Disabled by default.
Whether or not to enable web attack protections. See protection section above.
Alias for public_folder. See below.
Path to the folder public files are served from. Only used if static file serving is enabled (see static setting below). Inferred from app_file setting if not set.
Disables logs generated by Sinatra's start and stop commands. false by default.
Whether or not to reload templates between requests. Enabled in development mode.
Path to project root folder. Inferred from app_file setting if not set.
Raise exceptions (will stop application). Enabled by default when environment is set to "test", disabled otherwise.
If enabled, Sinatra will handle starting the web server. Do not enable if using rackup or other means.
Is the built-in server running now? Do not change this setting!
Server or list of servers to use for built-in server. Order indicates priority, default depends on Ruby implementation.
Enable cookie-based sessions support using Rack::Session::Cookie. See 'Using Sessions' section for more information.
The Rack session middleware used. Defaults to Rack::Session::Cookie. See 'Using Sessions' section for more information.
Show a stack trace in the browser when an exception happens. Enabled by default when environment is set to "development", disabled otherwise.
Can also be set to :after_handler to trigger app-specified error handling before showing a stack trace in the browser.
Whether Sinatra should handle serving static files.
Disable when using a server able to do this on its own.
Disabling will boost performance.
Enabled by default in classic style, disabled for modular apps.
When Sinatra is serving static files, set this to add Cache-Control headers to the responses. Uses the cache_control helper. Disabled by default.
Use an explicit array when setting multiple values: set :static_cache_control, [:public, :max_age => 300]
If set to true, will tell Thin to use EventMachine.defer for processing the request.
Whether Sinatra should handle system signals.
Path to the views folder. Inferred from app_file setting if not set.
Whether or not to set the X-Cascade header if no route matches. Defaults to true.


There are three predefined environments: "development", "production" and "test". Environments can be set through the APP_ENV environment variable. The default value is "development". In the "development" environment all templates are reloaded between requests, and special not_found and error handlers display stack traces in your browser. In the "production" and "test" environments, templates are cached by default.

To run different environments, set the APP_ENV environment variable:

shell APP_ENV=production ruby my_app.rb

You can use predefined methods: development?, test? and production? to check the current environment setting:

ruby get '/' do if settings.development? "development!" else "not development!" end end

Error Handling

Error handlers run within the same context as routes and before filters, which means you get all the goodies it has to offer, like haml, erb, halt, etc.

Not Found

When a Sinatra::NotFound exception is raised, or the response’s status code is 404, the not_found handler is invoked:

ruby not_found do 'This is nowhere to be found.' end


The error handler is invoked any time an exception is raised from a route block or a filter. But note in development it will only run if you set the show exceptions option to :after_handler:

ruby set :show_exceptions, :after_handler

The exception object can be obtained from the sinatra.error Rack variable:

ruby error do 'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + env['sinatra.error'].message end

Custom errors:

ruby error MyCustomError do 'So what happened was...' + env['sinatra.error'].message end

Then, if this happens:

ruby get '/' do raise MyCustomError, 'something bad' end

You get this:

So what happened was... something bad

Alternatively, you can install an error handler for a status code:

```ruby error 403 do ‘Access forbidden’ end

get ‘/secret’ do 403 end ```

Or a range:

ruby error 400..510 do 'Boom' end

Sinatra installs special not_found and error handlers when running under the development environment to display nice stack traces and additional debugging information in your browser.

Rack Middleware

Sinatra rides on Rack, a minimal standard interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack’s most interesting capabilities for application developers is support for “middleware” – components that sit between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.

Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level use method:

```ruby require ‘sinatra’ require ‘my_custom_middleware’

use Rack::Lint use MyCustomMiddleware

get ‘/hello’ do ‘Hello World’ end ```

The semantics of use are identical to those defined for the Rack::Builder DSL (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the use method accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:

ruby use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password| username == 'admin' && password == 'secret' end

Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging, debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses many of these components automatically based on configuration so you typically don’t have to use them explicitly.

You can find useful middleware in rack, rack-contrib, or in the Rack wiki.


Sinatra tests can be written using any Rack-based testing library or framework. Rack::Test is recommended:

```ruby require ‘my_sinatra_app’ require ‘minitest/autorun’ require ‘rack/test’

class MyAppTest < Minitest::Test include Rack::Test::Methods

def app Sinatra::Application end

def test_my_default get ‘/’ assert_equal ‘Hello World!’, last_response.body end

def test_with_params get ‘/meet’, :name => ‘Frank’ assert_equal ‘Hello Frank!’, last_response.body end

def test_with_user_agent get ‘/’, {}, ‘HTTP_USER_AGENT’ => ‘Songbird’ assert_equal “You’re using Songbird!”, last_response.body end end ```

Note: If you are using Sinatra in the modular style, replace Sinatra::Application above with the class name of your app.

Sinatra::Base - Middleware, Libraries, and Modular Apps

Defining your app at the top-level works well for micro-apps but has considerable drawbacks when building reusable components such as Rack middleware, Rails metal, simple libraries with a server component, or even Sinatra extensions. The top-level assumes a micro-app style configuration (e.g., a single application file, ./public and ./views directories, logging, exception detail page, etc.). That’s where Sinatra::Base comes into play:

```ruby require ‘sinatra/base’

class MyApp < Sinatra::Base set :sessions, true set :foo, ‘bar’

get ‘/’ do ‘Hello world!’ end end ```

The methods available to Sinatra::Base subclasses are exactly the same as those available via the top-level DSL. Most top-level apps can be converted to Sinatra::Base components with two modifications:

  • Your file should require sinatra/base instead of sinatra; otherwise, all of Sinatra’s DSL methods are imported into the main namespace.
  • Put your app’s routes, error handlers, filters, and options in a subclass of Sinatra::Base.

Sinatra::Base is a blank slate. Most options are disabled by default, including the built-in server. See Configuring Settings for details on available options and their behavior. If you want behavior more similar to when you define your app at the top level (also known as Classic style), you can subclass Sinatra::Application:

```ruby require ‘sinatra/base’

class MyApp < Sinatra::Application get ‘/’ do ‘Hello world!’ end end ```

Modular vs. Classic Style

Contrary to common belief, there is nothing wrong with the classic style. If it suits your application, you do not have to switch to a modular application.

The main disadvantage of using the classic style rather than the modular style is that you will only have one Sinatra application per Ruby process. If you plan to use more than one, switch to the modular style. There is no reason you cannot mix the modular and the classic styles.

If switching from one style to the other, you should be aware of slightly different default settings:

Setting Classic Modular Modular
app_file file loading sinatra file subclassing Sinatra::Base file subclassing Sinatra::Application
run $0 == app_file false false
logging true false true
method_override true false true
inline_templates true false true
static true File.exist?(public_folder) true

Serving a Modular Application

There are two common options for starting a modular app, actively starting with run!:

```ruby # my_app.rb require ‘sinatra/base’

class MyApp < Sinatra::Base # … app code here …

# start the server if ruby file executed directly run! if app_file == $0 end ```

Start with:

shell ruby my_app.rb

Or with a file, which allows using any Rack handler:

ruby # (run with rackup) require './my_app' run MyApp


shell rackup -p 4567

Using a Classic Style Application with a

Write your app file:

```ruby # app.rb require ‘sinatra’

get ‘/’ do ‘Hello world!’ end ```

And a corresponding

ruby require './app' run Sinatra::Application

When to use a

A file is recommended if:

  • You want to deploy with a different Rack handler (Passenger, Unicorn, Heroku, …).
  • You want to use more than one subclass of Sinatra::Base.
  • You want to use Sinatra only for middleware, and not as an endpoint.

There is no need to switch to a simply because you switched to the modular style, and you don’t have to use the modular style for running with a

Using Sinatra as Middleware

Not only is Sinatra able to use other Rack middleware, any Sinatra application can in turn be added in front of any Rack endpoint as middleware itself. This endpoint could be another Sinatra application, or any other Rack-based application (Rails/Hanami/Roda/…):

```ruby require ‘sinatra/base’

class LoginScreen < Sinatra::Base enable :sessions

get(‘/login’) { haml :login }

post(‘/login’) do if params[‘name’] == ‘admin’ && params[‘password’] == ‘admin’ session[‘user_name’] = params[‘name’] else redirect ‘/login’ end end end

class MyApp < Sinatra::Base # middleware will run before filters use LoginScreen

before do unless session[‘user_name’] halt “Access denied, please login.” end end

get(‘/’) { “Hello #session[‘user_name’].” } end ```

Dynamic Application Creation

Sometimes you want to create new applications at runtime without having to assign them to a constant. You can do this with

ruby require 'sinatra/base' my_app = { get('/') { "hi" } }!

It takes the application to inherit from as an optional argument:

```ruby # (run with rackup) require ‘sinatra/base’

controller = do enable :logging helpers MyHelpers end

map(‘/a’) do run { get(‘/’) { ‘a’ } } end

map(‘/b’) do run { get(‘/’) { ‘b’ } } end ```

This is especially useful for testing Sinatra extensions or using Sinatra in your own library.

This also makes using Sinatra as middleware extremely easy:

```ruby require ‘sinatra/base’

use Sinatra do get(‘/’) { … } end

run RailsProject::Application ```

Scopes and Binding

The scope you are currently in determines what methods and variables are available.

Application/Class Scope

Every Sinatra application corresponds to a subclass of Sinatra::Base. If you are using the top-level DSL (require 'sinatra'), then this class is Sinatra::Application, otherwise it is the subclass you created explicitly. At class level you have methods like get or before, but you cannot access the request or session objects, as there is only a single application class for all requests.

Options created via set are methods at class level:

```ruby class MyApp < Sinatra::Base # Hey, I’m in the application scope! set :foo, 42 foo # => 42

get ‘/foo’ do # Hey, I’m no longer in the application scope! end end ```

You have the application scope binding inside:

  • Your application class body
  • Methods defined by extensions
  • The block passed to helpers
  • Procs/blocks used as value for set
  • The block passed to

You can reach the scope object (the class) like this:

  • Via the object passed to configure blocks (configure { |c| ... })
  • settings from within the request scope

Request/Instance Scope

For every incoming request, a new instance of your application class is created, and all handler blocks run in that scope. From within this scope you can access the request and session objects or call rendering methods like erb or haml. You can access the application scope from within the request scope via the settings helper:

```ruby class MyApp < Sinatra::Base # Hey, I’m in the application scope! get ‘/define_route/:name’ do # Request scope for ‘/define_route/:name’ @value = 42

settings.get("/#{params['name']}") do
  # Request scope for "/#{params['name']}"
  @value # => nil (not the same request)

"Route defined!"   end end ```

You have the request scope binding inside:

  • get, head, post, put, delete, options, patch, link and unlink blocks
  • before and after filters
  • helper methods
  • templates/views

Delegation Scope

The delegation scope just forwards methods to the class scope. However, it does not behave exactly like the class scope, as you do not have the class binding. Only methods explicitly marked for delegation are available, and you do not share variables/state with the class scope (read: you have a different self). You can explicitly add method delegations by calling Sinatra::Delegator.delegate :method_name.

You have the delegate scope binding inside:

  • The top level binding, if you did require "sinatra"
  • An object extended with the Sinatra::Delegator mixin

Have a look at the code for yourself: here’s the Sinatra::Delegator mixin being extending the main object.

Command Line

Sinatra applications can be run directly:

shell ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-q] [-e ENVIRONMENT] [-p PORT] [-o HOST] [-s HANDLER]

Options are:

-h # help -p # set the port (default is 4567) -o # set the host (default is -e # set the environment (default is development) -s # specify rack server/handler (default is thin) -q # turn on quiet mode for server (default is off) -x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)


Paraphrasing from this StackOverflow answer by Konstantin

Sinatra doesn’t impose any concurrency model, but leaves that to the underlying Rack handler (server) like Thin, Puma or WEBrick. Sinatra itself is thread-safe, so there won’t be any problem if the Rack handler uses a threaded model of concurrency. This would mean that when starting the server, you’d have to specify the correct invocation method for the specific Rack handler. The following example is a demonstration of how to start a multi-threaded Thin server:

```ruby # app.rb

require ‘sinatra/base’

class App < Sinatra::Base get ‘/’ do “Hello, World” end end!


To start the server, the command would be:

shell thin --threaded start


The following Ruby versions are officially supported:

Ruby 2.2
2.2 is fully supported and recommended. There are currently no plans to drop official support for it.
Rubinius is officially supported (Rubinius >= 2.x). It is recommended to gem install puma.
The latest stable release of JRuby is officially supported. It is not recommended to use C extensions with JRuby. It is recommended to gem install trinidad.

Versions of Ruby prior to 2.2.2 are no longer supported as of Sinatra 2.0.

We also keep an eye on upcoming Ruby versions.

The following Ruby implementations are not officially supported but still are known to run Sinatra:

  • Older versions of JRuby and Rubinius
  • Ruby Enterprise Edition
  • MacRuby, Maglev, IronRuby
  • Ruby 1.9.0 and 1.9.1 (but we do recommend against using those)

Not being officially supported means if things only break there and not on a supported platform, we assume it’s not our issue but theirs.

We also run our CI against ruby-head (future releases of MRI), but we can’t guarantee anything, since it is constantly moving. Expect upcoming 2.x releases to be fully supported.

Sinatra should work on any operating system supported by the chosen Ruby implementation.

If you run MacRuby, you should gem install control_tower.

Sinatra currently doesn’t run on Cardinal, SmallRuby, BlueRuby or any Ruby version prior to 2.2.

The Bleeding Edge

If you would like to use Sinatra’s latest bleeding-edge code, feel free to run your application against the master branch, it should be rather stable.

We also push out prerelease gems from time to time, so you can do a

shell gem install sinatra --pre

to get some of the latest features.

With Bundler

If you want to run your application with the latest Sinatra, using Bundler is the recommended way.

First, install bundler, if you haven’t:

shell gem install bundler

Then, in your project directory, create a Gemfile:

```ruby source ‘’ gem ‘sinatra’, :github => ‘sinatra/sinatra’

other dependencies

gem ‘haml’ # for instance, if you use haml ```

Note that you will have to list all your application’s dependencies in the Gemfile. Sinatra’s direct dependencies (Rack and Tilt) will, however, be automatically fetched and added by Bundler.

Now you can run your app like this:

shell bundle exec ruby myapp.rb


Sinatra follows Semantic Versioning, both SemVer and SemVerTag.

Further Reading