Autumn: A Ruby IRC Bot Framework

Version 3.1.5 (May 3, 2009)

Author

Tim Morgan (riscfuture@gmail.com)

Copyright

Copyright ©2007-2009 Tim Morgan

License

Distributed under the same terms as Ruby. Portions of this code are copyright ©2004 David Heinemeier Hansson; please see libs/inheritable_attributes.rb for more information.

Autumn is a full-featured framework on top of which IRC bots (called “leaves”) can be quickly and easily built. It features a very Ruby-like approach to bot-writing, a complete framework for loading and daemonizing your bots, multiple environment contexts, a database-backed model, and painless logging support.

Requirements

Autumn requires RubyGems (www.rubygems.org) and the Daemons and Facets* gems, as well as some of the gems spun off from Facets. Install RubyGems then run sudo gem install daemons facets anise english in a command line in order to run Autumn.

If you wish to use a database backend for your bot, you will need the DataMapper gem. To install, see the DataMapper website (www.datamapper.org).

The included example bot Scorekeeper requires the DataMapper gem. It can optionally use the Chronic gem to enhance its textual date parsing. The other example bot, Insulter, is much simpler and can run under any Autumn configuration.

If you wish to install all possible dependencies, use rake setup

Directory Structure

An Autumn installation is like a Ruby on Rails installation: There is a certain directory structure where your files go. A lot of files and folders will seem confusing to people who have never used Autumn before, but bear with me. In a bit I will explain in detail what all of this stuff is. For now, here is an overview you can consult for future reference:

  • config/ - Configuration files and season definitions

    • global.yml - Universal settings that apply to every season

    • seasons/ - Contains directories for each season (see “Seasons”)

      • testing/ - Example season

        • database.yml - Example database configuration file

        • leaves.yml - Example bot configuration file

        • season.yml - Season configuration

        • stems.yml - Example IRC configuration file

  • doc/ - HTML documentation generated by RDoc

    • leaves/ - Autumn leaves documentation

  • leaves/ - Autumn leaves. Each subdirectory contains all the code and data for a leaf.

    • insulter/ - Very simple example leaf

      • See the scorekeeper directory

    • scorekeeper/ - Database-backed, full-featured example leaf

      • config.yml - Optional leaf-global configuration options

      • controller.rb - The leaf's controller object

      • data/ - Optional directory for data storage (not used by Autumn)

      • helpers/ - Modules that extend the controller and views

      • models/ - Active record-type database objects

      • tasks - Additional rake tasks for this leaf

      • views/ - ERb views for each of the leaf's commands

  • log/ - Directory where (most) Autumn logs are written (see the “Logs” section)

  • Rakefile - Contains the rake tasks used to control Autumn (see the “Tasks” section)

  • README - This file

  • README.textile - Textile-formatted readme

  • script/ - Helper scripts for controlling Autumn

    • destroy - Destroys Autumn objects

    • generate - Creates Autumn objects

  • shared/ - Shared code libraries available to all leaves

  • tmp/ - Temporary files, such as PID files

Configuring Autumn for Your First Launch

Before you can run Autumn and try out the example leaves, you'll need to set up a few things. Here are the steps:

Creating your bot's tree

To create a new tree, change to a directory where you want your bot to run from, then use autumn create PROJECT to create the directory (PROJECT should be replaced with your bot's name) with the structure outlined above.

Configure Your Testing Season

In Autumn, your leaves run in an environment, called a “season.” Each season has different leaves and different settings for those leaves. By default, Autumn comes with a season called “testing” already set up for you. You can edit that season or create a new one with script/generate season [season name]. The files for your season are stored in the config/seasons directory.

First, edit the stems.yml file. This file stores information about your IRC connection. Edit it to connect to an IRC server of your choosing. For more information, see “Stems” below.

Next, edit the database.yml file. As mentioned previously, Scorekeeper requires the DataMapper gem because it uses a persistent store. By default it's set up to use a SQLite 3 database, but you can use PostgreSQL or MySQL if you'd like. If you'd prefer not to install any of these database solutions, delete the database.yml file and remove the Scorekeeper leaf from the leaves.yml and stems.yml files.

If you do choose to set up a database, you will have to run rake db:migrate after your database.yml file is configured and your database is created.

Lastly, view the leaves.yml file. You shouldn't have to make any changes to this file, but it's a good idea to look at it to see how leaves are configured. You can do the same with the season.yml file. See “Seasons” and “Leaves” below for more.

Starting the Server

Run the shell command autumn start to start the server. After a short while, your leaf should appear in the channel you specified. You can type “!points Coolguy +5” and then “!points” to get started using Scorekeeper, or “!insult” to play with Insulter. Have some fun, and when you're satisfied, stop the server by typing “!quit”.

If you'd like to daemonize your server, you can use the shell commands autumn start -D and autumn stop. For more information, see “Tasks” below (app: namespace).

Making Your Own Leaf

Making your own leaf using Autumn is easy. In this tutorial, I'll show you how to make a simple Fortune bot that responds to a few basic commands.

Step 1: Subclass Leaf

Create a new leaf by typing script/generate leaf fortune. This will create a fortune directory in the leaves directory, along with the bare bones of files needed within that directory. Edit the controller.rb file. First we'll create an array to hold our fortunes:

FORTUNES = [
  "You will make someone happy today.",
  "Someone you don't expect will be important to you today.",
  "Today will bring unexpected hardships."
]

As you can see, our 3 meager fortunes are stored in the FORTUNES class constant. Now, we'll want it to respond to the “!fortune” command, and all you have to do is create a method called fortune_command to make it work:

def fortune_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  FORTUNES.pick
end

The pick method is provided by Facets, so you may need to add a require 'facets/random' line at the top of your file. Our method returns a fortune at random, which is automatically transmitted to the channel or nick where the command was received.

Of course, any self-respecting fortune bot announces its presence when it starts up, so, in your Controller class, override the Autumn::Leaf#did_start_up method to display a cheerful greeting:

def did_start_up
  stems.message 'FortuneBot at your service! Type "!fortune" to get your fortune!'
end

…and that's it! You now have a fully functional fortune bot featuring – not two – but three unique and exciting fortunes!

(For more on that stems.message bit, see “Stems.”)

Step 2: Add the Leaf to Your Season

If you want, you can add the fortune bot to your leaves.yml and stems.yml files to try it out. Adding a leaf is easy; simply duplicate the structure used for another leaf's entry and change the values as appropriate. A typical two-leaf configuration will look like:

Scorekeeper:
  class: Scorekeeper
  respond_to_private_messages: false
Fortune:
  class: Fortune
  respond_to_private_messages: true

As you notice, each leaf instance is given a name. In this example the name happens to be the same as the leaf's type name, but you could run two copies of a leaf like so:

Fortune1:
  class: Fortune
Fortune2:
  class: Fortune

This doesn't make a whole lot of sense for our fortune bot, but for more complicated bots it can be useful.

We've created the leaf, but we have to add it to the stem for it to work. (Remember, a stem is an IRC connection and a leaf is a bot.) So, in your stems.yml file, add an entry for this leaf. Your new config will appear something like:

Example:
  nick: Scorekeeper
  leaves:
    - Scorekeeper
    - Fortune
  rejoin: true
  channel: somechannel
  server: irc.someserver.com

When you restart the server, the bot will come back online and will now also respond to the “!fortune” command. This is a helpful tutorial on how stems and leaves are separate. One leaf can have many stems, and one stem can have many leaves. You can combine these two entities however you need.

Step 3: Upgrade to ERb Views

You've already learned that for your [word]_command-type methods, the bot responds with whatever string your method returns. For more complicated commands, however, you may want to upgrade to full view abstraction, a la Ruby on Rails. This is what the views directory is for.

If you place a .txt.erb file in the views directory named after your command, it will be parsed by ERb and rendered as the result. You can pass variables to the ERb parser by using the Autumn::Leaf#var method. Let's upgrade our fortune_command method for that:

def fortune_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  var :fortune => FORTUNES.pick
end

We can then write a view, fortune.txt.erb, which will render the fortune:

<%= var :fortune %>

OK, so admittedly, this doesn't really get us anywhere, but for more complicated bots, this well help separate view and controller concerns.

For more information on view rendering, see the Autumn::Leaf#render method.

Seasons

Each time you start Autumn, the process launches in a certain season (a.k.a. environment context). This season is defined in the config/global.yml file. You can temporarily override it by setting the SEASON environment variable (e.g., SEASON=production autumn start).

It's important to realize that an season is just a name, nothing more. You can have as many seasons as you like, and name them anything that you like. Autumn will load the config files for the season you've indicated as active. Autumn doesn't really care if it's named “production” or “live” or “testing-on-jeffs-machine”; it's all the same to Autumn.

Your season's configuration is stored in the season.yml file within your season directory. Currently it supports one directive, logging. This sets the minimum log level (such as debug or warn). If the log level is set to debug, it also enables console output parroting. (See the “Logging” section.)

The power of seasons comes in custom configuration options. For instance, consider that you have a testing and production season. In your testing season, your season.yml file contains:

dont_http: true

and in production, it contains:

dont_http: false

Now, in your code, you might have a method like:

def scores_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  if options[:dont_http] then
    return "Some fake sports scores."
  else
    # go on the web and find real sports scores
  end
end

Standard Configuration Options

Global

System-wide configuration is done in the config/global.yml file. It supports by default the following directives:

season

The season to launch in.

log_history

The number of historical logfiles to keep (default 10).

In addition, the following options are available (but cannot be set in the yml file):

root

The root directory of the Autumn installation.

system_logger

The Autumn::LogFacade instance that records system messages.

Season

Season-specific configuration is done in the config/seasons//season.yml file. Currently it only supports one directive, logging, which takes log levels such as debug or warn.

Stem

Stem-specific configuration is done in the config/seasons//stems.yml file. It's important to note that stem and leaf configurations are completely independent of each other. (In other words, stem options do not override leaf options, nor vice versa.) Therefore, you generally won't add custom directives to the stems.yml file, because you generally won't be working with stems directly. The standard options are:

server

The address of the IRC server.

port

The IRC server port (default 6667).

local_ip

The IP address to connect on (for virtual hosting).

nick

The nick to request.

password

The nick's password, if it is registered.

channel

A channel to join.

channels

A list of channels to join.

leaf

The name of a leaf to run.

leaves

A list of leaves to run. (These are the names of leaf configurations in leaves.yml, not leaf subclasses.)

rejoin

If true, the stem will rejoin any channels it is kicked from.

server_password

The password for the IRC server, if necessary.

ssl

If true, the connection to the IRC server will be made over SSL.

server_type

The IRC server type. See resources/daemons for a list of valid server types. If you do not manually set this value, it will be guessed automatically.

case_sensitive_channel_names

If true, channel names will be compared with case sensitivity.

dont_ghost

If true, the stem will not try to GHOST a registered nick if it's taken.

ghost_without_password

If true, the stem will use the GHOST command without a password. Set this for servers that use some other form of nick authentication, such as hostname-based.

user

The username to send (optional).

name

The user's real name (optional).

throttle

If enabled, the stem will throttle large amounts of simultaneous messages.

throttle_rate

Sets the number of seconds that pass between consecutive PRIVMSG's when the leaf's output is throttled.

throttle_threshold

Sets the number of simultaneous messages that must be queued before the leaf begins throttling output.

nick_regex

The regular expression used to match nicknames in server messages. By default, it conforms to the RFC-1459 definition.

The channel and channels directives can also be used to specify a password for a password protected channel, like so:

channel:
  channelname: channelpassword

or

channels:
- channel1: password1
- channel2: password2

The port, server_type, and channel/channels options are set in the config file but not available in the options hash. They are accessed directly from attributes in the Stem instance, such as the channels attribute.

Leaf

Leaf-specific configuration is done in the config/seasons//leaves.yml file and the leaves//config.yml file, with the former taking precedence over the latter. As mentioned above, leaf and stem configurations are completely separate, so one does not override the other. The standard options are:

class

The type of the leaf. It must be a subdirectory in the leaves directory.

command_prefix

The text that must precede each command. Defaults to “!”.

respond_to_private_messages

If true, the leaf will parse commands in whispers, and respond over whispers to those commands.

database

A database connection to use (as defined in database.yml). By default Autumn will choose a connection named after your leaf.

formatter

The name of a module in Autumn::Formatting that will handle output formatting and colorization. This defaults to mIRC-style formatting.

In addition, the following options are available (but cannot be set in the yml file):

root

The root directory of the leaf installation.

The leaves.yml file is optional. When not included, each leaf in the leaves directory will be automatically instantiated once.

Custom Configuration Options

All configuration files support user-generated directives. You can set options at any level. Options at a more narrow level override those at a broader level.

Options are maintained and cataloged by the Autumn::Speciator singleton. You could access the singleton directly, but most objects have an options attribute providing simpler access to the Speciator.

For example, to access options in a leaf, all you do is call, for example, options[:my_custom_option]. my_custom_option can be set at the global, season, or leaf level.

Leaves

The Autumn::Leaf class has many tools to help you write your leaves. These include things like filters, helpers, loggers, and an easy to use IRC library. The Autumn::Leaf and Autumn::Stem class docs are the most thorough way of learning about each of these features, but I'll walk you through the basics here.

The Many Methods of Leaf

By subclassing Autumn::Leaf, you gain access to a number of neat utilities. These generally come in three classes: IRC commands that have already been written for you, utility methods you can call, and invoked methods you can override. Utility methods do things like add filters. Invoked methods are called when certain events happen, like when your leaf starts up or when a private message is received. You override them in your leaf to customize how it responds to these events.

Invoked methods

will_start_up, did_start_up, did_receive_channel_message, etc.

Utility methods

before_filter, database, etc.

IRC commands

quit_command, reload_command, autumn_command, etc.

See the class docs for more information on these methods.

In addition, your leaf is designated as a listener for its Autumn::Stem instances. In short, this means if you want even finer control over the IRC connection, you can implement listener methods. See the Autumn::Stem#add_listener method for examples of such methods.

Finally, your leaf can implement methods that are broadcast by listener plugins. An example of such a plugin is the Autumn::CTCP class, which is included in all stems by default. Visit its class docs to learn more about how to send and receive CTCP requests.

Filters

Filters are methods that are run either before or after a command is executed. In the former case, they can also prevent the command from being run. This is useful for authentication, for instance: A filter could determine if someone is authorized to run a command, and prevent the command from being run if not.

Use filters to save yourself the effort of rewriting code that will run before or after a command is executed. Filter methods are named [word]_filter and they are added to the filter chain using the before_filter and after_filter methods (like in Ruby on Rails). As an example, imagine you wanted your bot to say something after each command:

class Controller > Autumn::Leaf
  after_filter :outro

  private

  def outro_filter(stem, channel, sender, command, msg, opts)
    stem.message "This has been a production of OutroBot!", channel
  end
end

The result of this is that after each command, the leaf will make a dramatic exit. (Why did I use after_filter and not before_filter? Because as I said earlier, a before_filter can stop the command from being executed; the only way we know for sure that the command was executed – and therefore should be outroed – is to use an after_filter.)

I made the outro_filter method private because I felt it shouldn't be exposed to other classes; this is not a requirement of the filter framework, though.

Now let's say you wanted to prevent the command from being run in some cases. The most obvious application of this feature is authentication. Autumn already includes a robust authentication module, but for the sake of example, let's pretend you wanted to do your own authentication in your leaf. So, you write a before_filter to determine if the user is authenticated. before_filters have return values; if they return false, the filter chain is halted and the command is suppressed. If you want to have your leaf display some sort of message (like “Nice try!”), you need to include that in your filter.

As an example, here's a simple form of authentication that just checks a person's nick:

class Controller < Autumn::Leaf
  before_filter :authenticate, :only => :quit, :admin => 'Yournick'

  def authenticate_filter(stem, channel, sender, command, msg, opts)
    sender == opts[:admin]
  end
end

I'm introducing you to three new features with this sample:

  • You can use the :only option to limit your filter to certain commands. Note that you specify the command name as a symbol, not the method name (which would be quit_command in this case).

  • You can pass your own options to before_filter and after_filter; they are passed through to your method via the last parameter, opts.

  • The return value of a before_filter is used to determine if the command should be run. So be careful that your method does not return nil or false unless you really mean for the command to be suppressed.

Both of these examples use the parameters sent to your filter method. They are, in order:

  1. the Autumn::Stem instance that received the command,

  2. the name of the channel to which the command was sent (or nil if it was a private message),

  3. the sender hash,

  4. the name of the command that was typed, as a symbol,

  5. any additional parameters after the command (same as the msg parameter in the [word]_command methods),

  6. the custom options that were given to before_filter or after_filter.

There are two built-in options that you can specify for before_filter and after_filter, and those are only and except. They work just like in Rails: The only option limits the filter to running only on the given command or list of commands, and the except option prevents the filter from being run on the given command or list. All other options are passed to the filter for you to use.

Filters are run in the order they are added to the filter chain. Therefore, a superclass's filters will run before a subclass's filters, and filters added later in a class definition will be run after those added earlier.

If you subclass one of your leaves, it inherits your superclass's filters. The Autumn::Leaf superclass does not have any filters by default, though by default new leaves come with a simple authentication filter that checks the user's privilege level.

Authentication

You don't need to write a before_filter as shown above, because Autumn already includes a robust authentication module. The Autumn::Authentication module includes the Base class and four different subclasses of it. Each of these subclasses handles a different type of authentication. You can choose the authentication strategy you want on a leaf-by-leaf basis or for a whole season.

To specify the kind of authentication you want, you must add an authentication directive to your config. If you want to set it for an individual leaf, add it to the leaves.yml file. If you want all leaves to have the same authentication strategy, add it to the season.yml or global.yml file.

The authentication directive should be a hash that, at a minimum, includes a key called type. This is the snake_cased name of subclass in Autumn::Authentication that you wish to use. As an example, here is an entry for an Administrator bot in a leaves.yml file, with ops-based authentication.

Administrator:
  class: Administrator
  authentication:
    type: op

This will instantiate the Autumn::Authentication::Op class for use with the Administrator bot.

Other authentication strategies may require additional information. For instance, if you want to used nick-based authentication, your leaves.yml file might look like:

Administrator:
  class: Administrator
  authentication:
    type: nick
    nick: MyNick

See the class docs for each subclass in Autumn::Authentication for more info on how you should set up your configs.

Persistent Stores

If you would like to use a persistent store for your leaf, you should install the DataMapper gem and a DataObjects gem for your database of choice (MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite). DataMapper works almost identically to ActiveRecord, so if you have any Rails programming experience, you should be able to dive right in.

Once you've got DataMapper installed, you should create one or more database connections in your config/seasons//database.yml file. A sample database connection looks like:

connection_name:
  adapter: mysql
  host: localhost
  username: root
  password: pass
  database: database_name

or, in a smaller syntax:

connection_name: mysql://root@pass:localhost/database_name

If you are using the “sqlite3” adapter, the database option is the path to the file where the data should be written (example: leaves/fortune/data/my_database.db). You can name your connection however you want, but you should name it after either your leaf or your leaf subclass. (More on this below.)

You should also create DataMapper model classes for each of your model objects. You can place them within your leaf's models directory. This works almost exactly the same as the app/models directory in Rails.

Once your database, data models, and leaves have been configured, you can use the rake db:migrate task to automatically populate your database.

Now, unlike Rails, Autumn supports multiple database connections. Two leaves can use two different database connections, or share the same database connection. Because of this, it's important to understand how to manage your connections. Autumn tries to do this for you by guessing which connection belongs to which leaf, based on their names.

For example, imagine you have a leaf named “Fortune” and an instance of that leaf in leaves.yml named “MyFortune”. If you name your database connection either “Fortune” or “MyFortune” (or “fortune” or “my_fortune”), it will automatically be associated with that leaf. What this means is that for the leaf's command methods (such as about_command) and invoked methods (such as did_receive_private_message), the database connection will already be set for you, and you can start using your DataMapper objects just like ActiveRecord objects.

If, on the other hand, you either named your database connection differently from your leaf or subclass name or you are writing a method outside of the normal flow of leaf methods (for instance, one that is directly called by a Stem, or a different listener), you will need to call the database method and pass it a block containing your code.

This is terribly confusing, so let me give you an example. Let's assume you've got a fortune bot running a leaf named “FortuneLeaf”, so your leaves.yml configuration is:

FortuneBot:
  class: FortuneLeaf

And you have a database connection for that leaf, named after the leaf's class:

fortune_leaf:
  adapter: sqlite3
  database: leaves/fortune_leaf/data/development.db

Let's further assume you have a simple DataMapper object:

class Fortune
  include DataMapper::Resource
  property :id, Integer, :serial => true
  property :text, String
end

Now, if we wanted to write a “!fortune” command, it would appear something like this:

def fortune_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  fortunes = Fortune.all
  fortunes[rand(fortunes.size)].text
end

Autumn automatically knows to execute this DataMapper code in the correct database context. It knows this because your leaf's name is FortuneLeaf, and your database context is named the same.

But what if you wanted to use that connection for other leaves too, so you named it something like “local_database”? Now, Autumn won't be able to guess that you want to use that DB context, so you have to specify it manually:

def fortune_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  database(:local_database) do
    fortunes = Fortune.all
    return fortunes[rand(fortunes.size)].text
  end
end

If that is too tedious, you can specify the database connection manually in the leaves.yml file:

FortuneBot:
  class: FortuneLeaf
  database: local_database

OK, now onto the second special case. Imagine you want your fortune bot to also send a fortune in response to a CTCP VERSION request. So, you'd implement a method like so:

def ctcp_version_request(handler, stem, sender, arguments)
  fortune = random_fortune # Loads a random fortune
  send_ctcp_reply stem, sender[:nick], 'VERSION', fortune.text
end

This will break – why? Because the ctcp_version_request method is in the realm of the Autumn::CTCP class, not the Autumn::Leaf class. (You can see this by investigating the CTCP class docs; it shows you what methods you can implement for CTCP support.) Basically, the CTCP class calls your method directly, giving the Autumn::Leaf class no chance to set up the database first. So to fix it, make a call to database first:

def ctcp_version_request(handler, stem, sender, arguments)
  fortune = database { random_fortune }
  send_ctcp_reply stem, sender[:nick], 'VERSION', fortune.text
end

This will execute those methods in the scope of the database connection guessed by Autumn::Leaf. Of course, you can manually pass in a connection name if necessary.

Another important note: You will need to make a call to @database@ in any child threads your leaf creates. The database context is not automatically carried over to such threads.

Your Leaf's Module; or, “What Do I Do About Namespace Conflicts?”

So, if you have two database-backed leaves, it's entirely likely that both of them will use some sort of DataMapper resource named Channel, or something similar. You can't define the class Channel twice in two different ways, so how do you deal with this?

The answer is: It's already dealt with for you. Go ahead and define the class twice. Or three times.

The longer explanation is: Secretly, behind the scenes, all your leaf code is being cleverly loaded into a module named after your leaf. So, when, in your controller.rb code, it says class Controller < Autumn::Leaf, you should read it as class MyLeafName::Controller < Autumn::Leaf. When you define your model with class Channel, it's really read as class MyLeafName::Channel.

Don't worry about table names or associations or anything, either. Just go ahead and use it as if it weren't in a module. The libs/datamapper_hacks.rb file has all the necessary code changes to make this bit of trickery work.

Using Support Modules

Helper modules placed in your leaf's helpers directory will automatically be loaded and included in your leaf controller and views. To create a helper module, place Ruby files to be loaded into the helpers directory. Make sure your helper modules' names end with the word “Helper”.

For instance, if your leaf's name is “Fortune”, and you needed two helpers, a database helper and a network helper, you could create two modules named DatabaseHelper and NetworkHelper. Any modules named in this fashion and placed in the helpers subdirectory will be loaded and appended to the controller and its views automatically.

Debugging Your Leaf

If you make a simple code change to your leaf, you can reload it without having to restart the whole process. See the Autumn::Leaf#reload_command documentation for more information on when and how you can reload your leaf's code.

If an error occurs on a live production instance, it will be logged to the log file for your season. You can inspect the log file to determine what went wrong.

If the error happens before the logger is available, oftentimes it will appear in the autumn.output or autumn.log files. These files are generated by the daemon library and note any uncaught exceptions or standard outs. They are in the tmp directory.

The most tricky of errors can happen before the process is daemonized. If your process is quitting prematurely, and you don't see anything in either log file, consider running autumn start, allowing you to see any exceptions for yourself.

Unfortunately, it's still possible that the bug might not appear when you do this, but only appear when the process is daemonized. In this situation, I'd recommend installing rdebug (sudo gem install rdebug) and stepping through the code to figure out what's going wrong. In particular, make sure you step into the Foliater's start_stems method, when it creates the new threads. It's possible your exception will rear its head once you step into that line of code.

Stems

Autumn::Stem is a full-featured IRC client library, written from the ground up for Autumn. It makes extensive use of implicit protocols, meaning that most features are accessed by implementing the methods you feel are necessary.

Most of the time, you will only work with stems indirectly via leaves. For instance, if you want an “!opped” command that returns true if the sender is an operator, it would look like this:

def opped_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  stem.channel_members[reply_to][sender[:nick]] == :operator ? "You are opped." : "You are not opped."
end

Let's break this down. In order to figure out if someone is opped or not, we need three pieces of information: their nick, the channel they are in, and the IRC server they are connected to.

The stem parameter contains the Autumn::Stem instance that received this message. It is our link to that server. Through it we can perform IRC actions and make requests.

Autumn::Stem includes an attribute channel_members, a hash of channels mapped to their members. The channel that received the message is passed via the reply_to parameter. So we call channel_members[reply_to] and we receive a hash of member names to their privilege levels. The sender parameter contains information about the person who sent the command, including their nick. So we use their nick to resolve their privilege level.

Complicated? Sure it is. That's the price we pay for separating stems from leaves. But what if you, like probably 90% of the people out there who use Autumn, only have one stem? Why should you have to call the same damn stem each and every time?

Fortunately, your pleas are not in vain. For leaves that run off only one stem, the stem's methods are rolled right into the leaf. So, that “!opped” command method becomes:

def opped_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  channel_members[reply_to][sender[:nick]] == :operator ? "You are opped." : "You are not opped."
end

OK, so it's not like a world-class improvement, but it helps.

The primary thing your leaf will probably do with a Stem instance is use it to send messages, like so:

def about_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  stem.message "I am a pretty awesome bot!", reply_to
end

Fortunately, if you just return a string, Autumn::Leaf will automatically send it for you, simplifying our method:

def about_command(stem, sender, reply_to, msg)
  "I am a pretty awesome bot!"
end

You would still interact with the stem directly if you wanted to do something like announce your leaf's presence to everyone. To do this, you'd have to send a message to every channel of every stem the leaf is a listener for:

stems.each { |stem| stem.channels.each { |channel| stem.message "Hello!", channel } }

But! Autumn::Stem#message will automatically send a message to every channel if you don't specify any channels, simplifying our code to:

stems.each { |stem| stem.message "Hello!" }

It gets even better. You can call methods on the stems array as if it were a stem itself! This simplifies the line significantly:

stems.message "Hello!"

Pretty nifty, huh? This also works for functions as well as methods; for instance, the Autumn::Stem#ready? function, which returns true if a stem is ready:

stems.ready? #=> [ true, true, false, true ] (for example)

The nitty-gritty of stems

The section above dealt with stems as they relate to leaves. But when would you need to deal with a stem directly? Generally, never. However, if you find that Autumn::Leaf doesn't have what you need, you may have to turn to Autumn::Stem to get the functionality you are looking for. So let's take a look at how Stem works.

A stem interacts with interested parties via the listener protocol. Your leaf signals its interest to a stem by calling Autumn::Stem#add_listener. When a leaf or any other object becomes a stem's listener, that stem then invokes methods on the listener whenever an IRC event occurs.

Let's take a simple example. Assume you wanted to build a basic textual IRC client using Stem. You'd first want to indicate that your client is a listener:

class MyClient
  def initialize(stem)
    @stem = stem
    @stem.add_listener self
  end
end

Now the stem will send method calls to your MyClient instance every time an IRC event occurs. None of these methods are required – you can implement as few or as many as you want. The different methods that Stem will send are documented in the Autumn::Stem#add_listener method docs. One very important method is the irc_privmsg_event method. Let's implement it:

def irc_privmsg_event(stem, sender, arguments)
  puts "#{arguments[:channel]} <#{sender[:nick]}> #{arguments[:message]}"
end

Now we've got the most important part of our IRC client done – receiving messages.

You can also send IRC events using stem. It's simple: Every IRC command (such as JOIN and PRIVMSG and MODE) has a corresponding method in Stem (such as join and privmsg and mode). These methods aren't in the API docs because they're implemented using method_missing. Their arguments are exactly the same as the arguments the IRC command expects, and in the same order.

So how do we send a message? Well according to RFC-1459, the basic IRC spec, the PRIVMSG command takes two arguments: a list of receivers, and the text to be sent. So, we know our method call should look something like this:

@stem.privmsg recipient, message

Astute readers will note that the spec shows a list of recipients, and indeed, you can call the method like so:

@stem.privmsg [ recipient1, recipient2 ], message

That's the basics of how Autumn::Stem works, but there's one other thing worth mentioning, and that's listener plugins. The details are in the Autumn::Stem#add_listener method docs, but the short of it is that these are special listeners that bestow their powers onto other listeners.

The best example of this is the Autumn::CTCP class. This class is indeed a Stem listener: It listens to PRIVMSG events from the stem, and checks them to see if they are CTCP requests. However, it also gives you, the author of another listener (such as your leaf) the ability to implement methods according to its protocol.

For example, say you wanted to respond to CTCP VERSION requests with your own version information. You do it like so:

def ctcp_version_request(handler, stem, sender, arguments)
  send_ctcp_reply stem, sender[:nick], 'VERSION', "AwesomeBot 2.0 by Sancho Sample"
end

What's going on here? Because the Autumn::CTCP class is a listener plugin, it is sending its own method calls as well as implementing Stem's method calls. One such call is the ctcp_version_request method, which you can see in the CTCP class docs. Somewhere deep in the annals of Autumn::Foliater, there is some code similar to the following:

ctcp = Autumn::CTCP.new
stem.add_listener ctcp

Thus, every stem comes pre-fab with a CTCP listener plugin. That plugin is intercepting PRIVMSG events and checking if they're CTCP requests. If they are, it is invoking methods, such as ctcp_version_request, in all of the stem's other listeners, among which is your leaf. Hopefully you understand how this all fits together.

The lesson to take home here is two-fold: Firstly, if you'd like CTCP support in your leaf, know that it's the Autumn::CTCP class that is providing the method calls to your leaf, not the Autumn::Stem class. Secondly, this should hopefully give you some ideas should you want to write your own listener plugin to enhance Stem's functionality.

Autumn's Logging

Autumn uses Ruby's Logger class to log; however, it uses Autumn::LogFacade to prepend additional information to each log entry. The LogFacade class has the exact same external API as Logger, so you can use it like a typical Ruby or Ruby on Rails logger. Many objects (such as Leaf and Stem) include a logger attribute:

logger.debug "Debug statement"
logger.fatal $!

See the LogFacade class docs for details.

Tasks

The included Rakefile contains a number of useful tasks to help you develop and deploy your leaves. You can always get a list of tasks by typing rake --tasks. The various commands you can run are:

Application tasks:

  • rake app:start - Starts the Autumn daemon in the background.

  • rake app:stop - Stops the Autumn daemon.

  • rake app:restart - Reloads the Autumn daemons.

  • rake app:run - Starts the Autumn daemon in the foreground.

  • rake app:zap - Forces the daemon to a stopped state. Use this command if your daemon is not running but autumn start -D thinks it still is.

Database tasks:

  • LEAF=[leaf name] rake db:migrate - Creates all the tables for a leaf, as specified by the leaf's model objects.

Documentation tasks:

  • rake doc:api - Generates HTML documentation for Autumn, found in the doc/api directory.

  • rake doc:leaves - Generates HTML documentation for your leaves, found in the doc/leaves directory.

  • rake doc:clear - Removes all HTML documentation.

Logging tasks:

  • rake log:clear - Clears the log files for all seasons.

  • rake log:errors - Prints a list of error-level log messages for the current season, and uncaught exceptions in all seasons.

Custom leaf tasks

You can define your own leaf-specific tasks in the tasks subdirectory within your leaf's directory. Any .rake files there will be loaded by rake. The tasks will be added within a task-group named after your leaf. Use Scorekeeper as an example: If you type rake --tasks, you'll see one other task, rake scorekeeper:scores. The “scores” task is defined in the leaves/scorekeeper/tasks/stats.rake file, and placed in the “scorekeeper” task group by Autumn.

Also, if you open that file up, you'll notice that you have to refer to your leaf's classes by their full names, including the leaf module. (See “Your Leaf's Module” if you're confused.)

Scripts

Autumn includes some scripts to help you control it.

script/console

Bootstraps an IRb console with the Autumn environment configured. Stems and leaves are accessile from the Foliater instance. DataMapper models can be used. Does not start any stems (in other words, no actual server login occurs).

Usage: script/console <options>

where <options> may contain:

--irb

Invoke a different Ruby terminal.

You can alter the season by setting the SEASON environment variable.

autumn start|stop|status|restart PROJECT [options]

The autumn binary can be used to control an Autumn daemon. Starts, stops, shows status of and manages the daemon. PROJECT is the path to the base of your autumn bot

start

start an instance of the application

stop

stop all instances of the application

restart

stop all instances and restart them afterwards

run

start the application and stay on top

where [options] are

-D, --daemonize

Daemonize the bot

-m, --monitor

Try to restart from crashes in daemon mode

Common options:

-h, --help

Show help

script/destroy

Destroys the files for leaves, seasons, and other objects of the Autumn framework.

Usage: script/destroy <options> <object> <name>

<object>

The object type to destroy. Valid types are “leaf” and “season”.

<name>

The name of the object to destroy. For example, you can call “script/destroy leaf Scorekeeper” to remove a leaf named Scorekeeper.

--help, -h

Displays this usage information.

--vcs, -c

Remove any created files or directories from the project's version control system. (Autodetects CVS, Git, and Subversion.)

script/generate

Generates template files for leaves, seasons, and other Autumn objects.

Usage: script/generate <options> <template> <name>

<template>

The template to create. Valid templates are “leaf” and “season”.

<name>

The name to give the created template. For example, you can call “script/generate leaf Scorekeeper” to create a leaf named Scorekeeper.

--help, -h

Displays this usage information.

--vcs, -c

Add any created files or directories to the project's version control system. (Autodetects CVS, Git, and Subversion.)

autumn start

Runs Autumn from the command line. This script will not exit until all leaves have exited. You can set the SEASON environment variable to override the season.

Thread Safety

Autumn is a multi-threaded IRC client. When a message is received, a new thread is spawned to process the message. In this thread, the message will be parsed, and all listener hooks will be invoked, including your leaf's methods. The thread will terminate once the message has been fully processed and all methods invoked.

I have made every effort to ensure that Autumn::Stem and Autumn::Leaf are thread-safe, as well as other relevant support classes such as Autumn::CTCP. It is now in your hands to ensure your leaves are thread-safe! This basically means recognizing that, while your leaf is churning away at whatever command it received, things can and will change in the background. If your command requires your leaf to have operator privileges, write your code under the assumption that operator could be taken from your leaf in the middle of executing the command. Write data in critical blocks, use transactions in your database calls … you know the deal. Don't assume things will be the same between one line of code and the next.

If you require thread synchronization at the expense of performance, you can use the :stem_sync annotation. See the Autumn::Stem class docs under “Synchronous Methods” for more information.

Getting Ready for Deployment

There's only a few things you need to do once your leaf is ready to greet the Real World:

  1. Create a new production season. Configure your stems, leaves, and database as necessary for your production environment.

  2. In config/global.yml, set the season to your production season.

  3. If desired, user autumn start -m to set the :monitor option to true. This will spawn a monitor process that will relaunch Autumn if it crashes.

Other Information

Please see github.com/RISCfuture/autumn/wikis/known-bugs for a list of known bugs, and github.com/RISCfuture/autumn/wikis/version-history for complete version history.

*Why do you require Facets?, I hear you ask. Facets doesn't add any super awesome new features to Ruby like Daemons or DataMapper does. It does, however, improve code reuse, and I'm a big fan of that. Why should a million different Ruby projects all write the same Symbol#to_proc method or the same Hash#symbolize_keys method? I use Facets because that job has already been done, and staying DRY means staying DRY between codebases, not just within them.