Class: ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLAdapter

Inherits:
AbstractAdapter show all
Defined in:
activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb

Overview

The PostgreSQL adapter works both with the native C (ruby.scripting.ca/postgres/) and the pure Ruby (available both as gem and from rubyforge.org/frs/?group_id=234&release_id=1944) drivers.

Options:

  • :host - Defaults to “localhost”.

  • :port - Defaults to 5432.

  • :username - Defaults to nothing.

  • :password - Defaults to nothing.

  • :database - The name of the database. No default, must be provided.

  • :schema_search_path - An optional schema search path for the connection given as a string of comma-separated schema names. This is backward-compatible with the :schema_order option.

  • :encoding - An optional client encoding that is used in a SET client_encoding TO <encoding> call on the connection.

  • :min_messages - An optional client min messages that is used in a SET client_min_messages TO <min_messages> call on the connection.

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: StatementPool, TableDefinition

Constant Summary

ADAPTER_NAME =
'PostgreSQL'
NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES =
{
  :primary_key => "serial primary key",
  :string      => { :name => "character varying", :limit => 255 },
  :text        => { :name => "text" },
  :integer     => { :name => "integer" },
  :float       => { :name => "float" },
  :decimal     => { :name => "decimal" },
  :datetime    => { :name => "timestamp" },
  :timestamp   => { :name => "timestamp" },
  :time        => { :name => "time" },
  :date        => { :name => "date" },
  :binary      => { :name => "bytea" },
  :boolean     => { :name => "boolean" },
  :xml         => { :name => "xml" },
  :tsvector    => { :name => "tsvector" }
}

Instance Attribute Summary

Attributes inherited from AbstractAdapter

#visitor

Attributes included from QueryCache

#query_cache, #query_cache_enabled

Class Method Summary collapse

Instance Method Summary collapse

Methods inherited from AbstractAdapter

#case_sensitive_modifier, #current_savepoint_name, #decrement_open_transactions, #increment_open_transactions, #open_transactions, #prefetch_primary_key?, #raw_connection, #requires_reloading?, #supports_bulk_alter?, #supports_count_distinct?, #transaction_joinable=, #verify!

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Callbacks

#run_callbacks

Methods included from ActiveSupport::Concern

#append_features, extended, #included

Methods included from QueryCache

#cache, #clear_query_cache, dirties_query_cache, #disable_query_cache!, #enable_query_cache!, included, #select_all, #uncached

Methods included from DatabaseLimits

#column_name_length, #columns_per_multicolumn_index, #columns_per_table, #in_clause_length, #indexes_per_table, #joins_per_query, #sql_query_length, #table_name_length

Methods included from Quoting

#quoted_false, #quoted_true

Methods included from DatabaseStatements

#add_limit_offset!, #add_transaction_record, #case_sensitive_equality_operator, #delete, #empty_insert_statement_value, #exec_insert, #insert, #insert_fixture, #join_to_update, #limited_update_conditions, #reset_sequence!, #sanitize_limit, #select_all, #select_one, #select_value, #select_values, #to_sql, #transaction, #update

Methods included from SchemaStatements

#add_column_options!, #add_index, #add_timestamps, #assume_migrated_upto_version, #change_table, #column_exists?, #create_table, #drop_table, #dump_schema_information, #index_exists?, #index_name, #index_name_exists?, #initialize_schema_migrations_table, #remove_column, #remove_index, #remove_timestamps, #structure_dump, #table_alias_for

Constructor Details

#initialize(connection, logger, connection_parameters, config) ⇒ PostgreSQLAdapter

Initializes and connects a PostgreSQL adapter.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 293

def initialize(connection, logger, connection_parameters, config)
  super(connection, logger)
  @connection_parameters, @config = connection_parameters, config

  # @local_tz is initialized as nil to avoid warnings when connect tries to use it
  @local_tz = nil
  @table_alias_length = nil

  connect
  @statements = StatementPool.new @connection,
                                  config.fetch(:statement_limit) { 1000 }

  if postgresql_version < 80200
    raise "Your version of PostgreSQL (#{postgresql_version}) is too old, please upgrade!"
  end

  @local_tz = execute('SHOW TIME ZONE', 'SCHEMA').first["TimeZone"]
end

Class Method Details

.visitor_for(pool) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 312

def self.visitor_for(pool) # :nodoc:
  Arel::Visitors::PostgreSQL.new(pool)
end

Instance Method Details

#active?Boolean

Is this connection alive and ready for queries?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 322

def active?
  @connection.status == PGconn::CONNECTION_OK
rescue PGError
  false
end

#adapter_nameObject

Returns 'PostgreSQL' as adapter name for identification purposes.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 241

def adapter_name
  ADAPTER_NAME
end

#add_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Adds a new column to the named table. See TableDefinition#column for details of the options you can use.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 907

def add_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {})
  add_column_sql = "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} ADD COLUMN #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{type_to_sql(type, options[:limit], options[:precision], options[:scale])}"
  add_column_options!(add_column_sql, options)

  execute add_column_sql
end

#begin_db_transactionObject

Begins a transaction.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 629

def begin_db_transaction
  execute "BEGIN"
end

#change_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Changes the column of a table.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 915

def change_column(table_name, column_name, type, options = {})
  quoted_table_name = quote_table_name(table_name)

  execute "ALTER TABLE #{quoted_table_name} ALTER COLUMN #{quote_column_name(column_name)} TYPE #{type_to_sql(type, options[:limit], options[:precision], options[:scale])}"

  change_column_default(table_name, column_name, options[:default]) if options_include_default?(options)
  change_column_null(table_name, column_name, options[:null], options[:default]) if options.key?(:null)
end

#change_column_default(table_name, column_name, default) ⇒ Object

Changes the default value of a table column.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 925

def change_column_default(table_name, column_name, default)
  execute "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} ALTER COLUMN #{quote_column_name(column_name)} SET DEFAULT #{quote(default)}"
end

#change_column_null(table_name, column_name, null, default = nil) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 929

def change_column_null(table_name, column_name, null, default = nil)
  unless null || default.nil?
    execute("UPDATE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} SET #{quote_column_name(column_name)}=#{quote(default)} WHERE #{quote_column_name(column_name)} IS NULL")
  end
  execute("ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} ALTER #{quote_column_name(column_name)} #{null ? 'DROP' : 'SET'} NOT NULL")
end

#clear_cache!Object

Clears the prepared statements cache.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 317

def clear_cache!
  @statements.clear
end

#client_min_messagesObject

Returns the current client message level.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 817

def client_min_messages
  query('SHOW client_min_messages', 'SCHEMA')[0][0]
end

#client_min_messages=(level) ⇒ Object

Set the client message level.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 822

def client_min_messages=(level)
  execute("SET client_min_messages TO '#{level}'", 'SCHEMA')
end

#columns(table_name, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns the list of all column definitions for a table.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 779

def columns(table_name, name = nil)
  # Limit, precision, and scale are all handled by the superclass.
  column_definitions(table_name).collect do |column_name, type, default, notnull|
    PostgreSQLColumn.new(column_name, default, type, notnull == 'f')
  end
end

#commit_db_transactionObject

Commits a transaction.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 634

def commit_db_transaction
  execute "COMMIT"
end

#create_database(name, options = {}) ⇒ Object

Create a new PostgreSQL database. Options include :owner, :template, :encoding, :tablespace, and :connection_limit (note that MySQL uses :charset while PostgreSQL uses :encoding).

Example:

create_database config[:database], config
create_database 'foo_development', :encoding => 'unicode'


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 673

def create_database(name, options = {})
  options = options.reverse_merge(:encoding => "utf8")

  option_string = options.symbolize_keys.sum do |key, value|
    case key
    when :owner
      " OWNER = \"#{value}\""
    when :template
      " TEMPLATE = \"#{value}\""
    when :encoding
      " ENCODING = '#{value}'"
    when :tablespace
      " TABLESPACE = \"#{value}\""
    when :connection_limit
      " CONNECTION LIMIT = #{value}"
    else
      ""
    end
  end

  execute "CREATE DATABASE #{quote_table_name(name)}#{option_string}"
end

#create_savepointObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 647

def create_savepoint
  execute("SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end

#current_databaseObject

Returns the current database name.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 787

def current_database
  query('select current_database()')[0][0]
end

#default_sequence_name(table_name, pk = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns the sequence name for a table's primary key or some other specified key.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 827

def default_sequence_name(table_name, pk = nil) #:nodoc:
  serial_sequence(table_name, pk || 'id').split('.').last
rescue ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid
  "#{table_name}_#{pk || 'id'}_seq"
end

#disable_referential_integrityObject

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 493

def disable_referential_integrity #:nodoc:
  if supports_disable_referential_integrity? then
    execute(tables.collect { |name| "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(name)} DISABLE TRIGGER ALL" }.join(";"))
  end
  yield
ensure
  if supports_disable_referential_integrity? then
    execute(tables.collect { |name| "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(name)} ENABLE TRIGGER ALL" }.join(";"))
  end
end

#disconnect!Object

Disconnects from the database if already connected. Otherwise, this method does nothing.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 342

def disconnect!
  clear_cache!
  @connection.close rescue nil
end

#distinct(columns, orders) ⇒ Object

Returns a SELECT DISTINCT clause for a given set of columns and a given ORDER BY clause.

PostgreSQL requires the ORDER BY columns in the select list for distinct queries, and requires that the ORDER BY include the distinct column.

distinct("posts.id", "posts.created_at desc")


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 972

def distinct(columns, orders) #:nodoc:
  return "DISTINCT #{columns}" if orders.empty?

  # Construct a clean list of column names from the ORDER BY clause, removing
  # any ASC/DESC modifiers
  order_columns = orders.collect { |s| s.gsub(/\s+(ASC|DESC)\s*/i, '') }
  order_columns.delete_if { |c| c.blank? }
  order_columns = order_columns.zip((0...order_columns.size).to_a).map { |s,i| "#{s} AS alias_#{i}" }

  "DISTINCT #{columns}, #{order_columns * ', '}"
end

#drop_database(name) ⇒ Object

Drops a PostgreSQL database.

Example:

drop_database 'matt_development'


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 700

def drop_database(name) #:nodoc:
  execute "DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS #{quote_table_name(name)}"
end

#encodingObject

Returns the current database encoding format.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 792

def encoding
  query(<<-end_sql)[0][0]
    SELECT pg_encoding_to_char(pg_database.encoding) FROM pg_database
    WHERE pg_database.datname LIKE '#{current_database}'
  end_sql
end

#escape_bytea(value) ⇒ Object

Escapes binary strings for bytea input to the database.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 390

def escape_bytea(value)
  @connection.escape_bytea(value) if value
end

#exec_delete(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = []) ⇒ Object Also known as: exec_update



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 600

def exec_delete(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
  log(sql, name, binds) do
    result = binds.empty? ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
                            exec_cache(sql, binds)
    affected = result.cmd_tuples
    result.clear
    affected
  end
end

#exec_query(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = []) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 589

def exec_query(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
  log(sql, name, binds) do
    result = binds.empty? ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
                            exec_cache(sql, binds)

    ret = ActiveRecord::Result.new(result.fields, result_as_array(result))
    result.clear
    return ret
  end
end

#execute(sql, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Executes an SQL statement, returning a PGresult object on success or raising a PGError exception otherwise.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 579

def execute(sql, name = nil)
  log(sql, name) do
    @connection.async_exec(sql)
  end
end

#extract_schema_and_table(name) ⇒ Object

Extracts the table and schema name from name



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 729

def extract_schema_and_table(name)
  schema, table = name.split('.', 2)

  unless table # A table was provided without a schema
    table  = schema
    schema = nil
  end

  if name =~ /^"/ # Handle quoted table names
    table  = name
    schema = nil
  end
  [schema, table]
end

#index_name_lengthObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 949

def index_name_length
  63
end

#indexes(table_name, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns an array of indexes for the given table.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 745

def indexes(table_name, name = nil)
   schemas = schema_search_path.split(/,/).map { |p| quote(p) }.join(',')
   result = query(<<-SQL, name)
     SELECT distinct i.relname, d.indisunique, d.indkey, t.oid
     FROM pg_class t
     INNER JOIN pg_index d ON t.oid = d.indrelid
     INNER JOIN pg_class i ON d.indexrelid = i.oid
     WHERE i.relkind = 'i'
       AND d.indisprimary = 'f'
       AND t.relname = '#{table_name}'
       AND i.relnamespace IN (SELECT oid FROM pg_namespace WHERE nspname IN (#{schemas}) )
    ORDER BY i.relname
  SQL


  result.map do |row|
    index_name = row[0]
    unique = row[1] == 't'
    indkey = row[2].split(" ")
    oid = row[3]

    columns = Hash[query(<<-SQL, "Columns for index #{row[0]} on #{table_name}")]
    SELECT a.attnum, a.attname
    FROM pg_attribute a
    WHERE a.attrelid = #{oid}
    AND a.attnum IN (#{indkey.join(",")})
    SQL

    column_names = columns.values_at(*indkey).compact
    column_names.empty? ? nil : IndexDefinition.new(table_name, index_name, unique, column_names)
  end.compact
end

#insert_sql(sql, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil) ⇒ Object

Executes an INSERT query and returns the new record's ID



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 513

def insert_sql(sql, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil)
  # Extract the table from the insert sql. Yuck.
  _, table = extract_schema_and_table(sql.split(" ", 4)[2])

  pk ||= primary_key(table)

  if pk
    select_value("#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}")
  else
    super
  end
end

#native_database_typesObject

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 347

def native_database_types #:nodoc:
  NATIVE_DATABASE_TYPES
end

#outside_transaction?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 643

def outside_transaction?
  @connection.transaction_status == PGconn::PQTRANS_IDLE
end

#pk_and_sequence_for(table) ⇒ Object

Returns a table's primary key and belonging sequence.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 863

def pk_and_sequence_for(table) #:nodoc:
  # First try looking for a sequence with a dependency on the
  # given table's primary key.
  result = exec_query(<<-end_sql, 'SCHEMA').rows.first
    SELECT attr.attname, seq.relname
    FROM pg_class seq
    INNER JOIN pg_depend dep ON seq.oid = dep.objid
    INNER JOIN pg_attribute attr ON attr.attrelid = dep.refobjid AND attr.attnum = dep.refobjsubid
    INNER JOIN pg_constraint cons ON attr.attrelid = cons.conrelid AND attr.attnum = cons.conkey[1]
    WHERE seq.relkind  = 'S'
      AND cons.contype = 'p'
      AND dep.refobjid = '#{quote_table_name(table)}'::regclass
  end_sql

  # [primary_key, sequence]
  [result.first, result.last]
rescue
  nil
end

#primary_key(table) ⇒ Object

Returns just a table's primary key



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 884

def primary_key(table)
  row = exec_query(<<-end_sql, 'SCHEMA', [[nil, table]]).rows.first
    SELECT DISTINCT(attr.attname)
    FROM pg_attribute attr
    INNER JOIN pg_depend dep ON attr.attrelid = dep.refobjid AND attr.attnum = dep.refobjsubid
    INNER JOIN pg_constraint cons ON attr.attrelid = cons.conrelid AND attr.attnum = cons.conkey[1]
    WHERE cons.contype = 'p'
      AND dep.refobjid = $1::regclass
  end_sql

  row && row.first
end

#query(sql, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Queries the database and returns the results in an Array-like object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 571

def query(sql, name = nil) #:nodoc:
  log(sql, name) do
    result_as_array @connection.async_exec(sql)
  end
end

#quote(value, column = nil) ⇒ Object

Quotes PostgreSQL-specific data types for SQL input.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 402

def quote(value, column = nil) #:nodoc:
  return super unless column

  case value
  when Float
    return super unless value.infinite? && column.type == :datetime
    "'#{value.to_s.downcase}'"
  when Numeric
    return super unless column.sql_type == 'money'
    # Not truly string input, so doesn't require (or allow) escape string syntax.
    "'#{value}'"
  when String
    case column.sql_type
    when 'bytea' then "'#{escape_bytea(value)}'"
    when 'xml'   then "xml '#{quote_string(value)}'"
    when /^bit/
      case value
      when /^[01]*$/      then "B'#{value}'" # Bit-string notation
      when /^[0-9A-F]*$/i then "X'#{value}'" # Hexadecimal notation
      end
    else
      super
    end
  else
    super
  end
end

#quote_column_name(name) ⇒ Object

Quotes column names for use in SQL queries.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 467

def quote_column_name(name) #:nodoc:
  PGconn.quote_ident(name.to_s)
end

#quote_string(s) ⇒ Object

Quotes strings for use in SQL input.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 443

def quote_string(s) #:nodoc:
  @connection.escape(s)
end

#quote_table_name(name) ⇒ Object

Checks the following cases:

  • table_name

  • “table.name”

  • schema_name.table_name

  • schema_name.“table.name”

  • “schema.name”.table_name

  • “schema.name”.“table.name”



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 455

def quote_table_name(name)
  schema, name_part = extract_pg_identifier_from_name(name.to_s)

  unless name_part
    quote_column_name(schema)
  else
    table_name, name_part = extract_pg_identifier_from_name(name_part)
    "#{quote_column_name(schema)}.#{quote_column_name(table_name)}"
  end
end

#quoted_date(value) ⇒ Object

Quote date/time values for use in SQL input. Includes microseconds if the value is a Time responding to usec.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 473

def quoted_date(value) #:nodoc:
  if value.acts_like?(:time) && value.respond_to?(:usec)
    "#{super}.#{sprintf("%06d", value.usec)}"
  else
    super
  end
end

#reconnect!Object

Close then reopen the connection.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 329

def reconnect!
  clear_cache!
  @connection.reset
  configure_connection
end

#recreate_database(name) ⇒ Object

SCHEMA STATEMENTS ========================================



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 661

def recreate_database(name) #:nodoc:
  drop_database(name)
  create_database(name)
end

#release_savepointObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 655

def release_savepoint
  execute("RELEASE SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end

#remove_index!(table_name, index_name) ⇒ Object

:nodoc:



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 941

def remove_index!(table_name, index_name) #:nodoc:
  execute "DROP INDEX #{quote_table_name(index_name)}"
end

#rename_column(table_name, column_name, new_column_name) ⇒ Object

Renames a column in a table.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 937

def rename_column(table_name, column_name, new_column_name)
  execute "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(table_name)} RENAME COLUMN #{quote_column_name(column_name)} TO #{quote_column_name(new_column_name)}"
end

#rename_index(table_name, old_name, new_name) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 945

def rename_index(table_name, old_name, new_name)
  execute "ALTER INDEX #{quote_column_name(old_name)} RENAME TO #{quote_table_name(new_name)}"
end

#rename_table(name, new_name) ⇒ Object

Renames a table.

Example:

rename_table('octopuses', 'octopi')


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 901

def rename_table(name, new_name)
  execute "ALTER TABLE #{quote_table_name(name)} RENAME TO #{quote_table_name(new_name)}"
end

#reset!Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 335

def reset!
  clear_cache!
  super
end

#reset_pk_sequence!(table, pk = nil, sequence = nil) ⇒ Object

Resets the sequence of a table's primary key to the maximum value.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 841

def reset_pk_sequence!(table, pk = nil, sequence = nil) #:nodoc:
  unless pk and sequence
    default_pk, default_sequence = pk_and_sequence_for(table)

    pk ||= default_pk
    sequence ||= default_sequence
  end

  if @logger && pk && !sequence
    @logger.warn "#{table} has primary key #{pk} with no default sequence"
  end

  if pk && sequence
    quoted_sequence = quote_column_name(sequence)

    select_value <<-end_sql, 'Reset sequence'
      SELECT setval('#{quoted_sequence}', (SELECT COALESCE(MAX(#{quote_column_name pk})+(SELECT increment_by FROM #{quoted_sequence}), (SELECT min_value FROM #{quoted_sequence})) FROM #{quote_table_name(table)}), false)
    end_sql
  end
end

#result_as_array(res) ⇒ Object

create a 2D array representing the result set



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 528

def result_as_array(res) #:nodoc:
  # check if we have any binary column and if they need escaping
  ftypes = Array.new(res.nfields) do |i|
    [i, res.ftype(i)]
  end

  rows = res.values
  return rows unless ftypes.any? { |_, x|
    x == BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID || x == MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID
  }

  typehash = ftypes.group_by { |_, type| type }
  binaries = typehash[BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []
  monies   = typehash[MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []

  rows.each do |row|
    # unescape string passed BYTEA field (OID == 17)
    binaries.each do |index, _|
      row[index] = unescape_bytea(row[index])
    end

    # If this is a money type column and there are any currency symbols,
    # then strip them off. Indeed it would be prettier to do this in
    # PostgreSQLColumn.string_to_decimal but would break form input
    # fields that call value_before_type_cast.
    monies.each do |index, _|
      data = row[index]
      # Because money output is formatted according to the locale, there are two
      # cases to consider (note the decimal separators):
      #  (1) $12,345,678.12
      #  (2) $12.345.678,12
      case data
      when /^-?\D+[\d,]+\.\d{2}$/  # (1)
        data.gsub!(/[^-\d.]/, '')
      when /^-?\D+[\d.]+,\d{2}$/  # (2)
        data.gsub!(/[^-\d,]/, '').sub!(/,/, '.')
      end
    end
  end
end

#rollback_db_transactionObject

Aborts a transaction.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 639

def rollback_db_transaction
  execute "ROLLBACK"
end

#rollback_to_savepointObject



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 651

def rollback_to_savepoint
  execute("ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
end

#schema_search_pathObject

Returns the active schema search path.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 812

def schema_search_path
  @schema_search_path ||= query('SHOW search_path')[0][0]
end

#schema_search_path=(schema_csv) ⇒ Object

Sets the schema search path to a string of comma-separated schema names. Names beginning with $ have to be quoted (e.g. $user => '$user'). See: www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/ddl-schemas.html

This should be not be called manually but set in database.yml.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 804

def schema_search_path=(schema_csv)
  if schema_csv
    execute "SET search_path TO #{schema_csv}"
    @schema_search_path = schema_csv
  end
end

#select_rows(sql, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Executes a SELECT query and returns an array of rows. Each row is an array of field values.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 508

def select_rows(sql, name = nil)
  select_raw(sql, name).last
end

#serial_sequence(table, column) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 833

def serial_sequence(table, column)
  result = exec_query(<<-eosql, 'SCHEMA', [[nil, table], [nil, column]])
    SELECT pg_get_serial_sequence($1, $2)
  eosql
  result.rows.first.first
end

#session_auth=(user) ⇒ Object

Set the authorized user for this session



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 482

def session_auth=(user)
  clear_cache!
  exec_query "SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION #{user}"
end

#set_standard_conforming_stringsObject

Enable standard-conforming strings if available.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 362

def set_standard_conforming_strings
  old, self.client_min_messages = client_min_messages, 'panic'
  execute('SET standard_conforming_strings = on', 'SCHEMA') rescue nil
ensure
  self.client_min_messages = old
end

#sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 611

def sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
  unless pk
    _, table = extract_schema_and_table(sql.split(" ", 4)[2])

    pk = primary_key(table)
  end

  sql = "#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}" if pk

  [sql, binds]
end

#substitute_at(column, index) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 585

def substitute_at(column, index)
  Arel.sql("$#{index + 1}")
end

#supports_ddl_transactions?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 373

def supports_ddl_transactions?
  true
end

#supports_disable_referential_integrity?Boolean

REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY ====================================

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 489

def supports_disable_referential_integrity? #:nodoc:
  true
end

#supports_insert_with_returning?Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 369

def supports_insert_with_returning?
  true
end

#supports_migrations?Boolean

Returns true, since this connection adapter supports migrations.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 352

def supports_migrations?
  true
end

#supports_primary_key?Boolean

Does PostgreSQL support finding primary key on non-Active Record tables?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 357

def supports_primary_key? #:nodoc:
  true
end

#supports_savepoints?Boolean

Returns true, since this connection adapter supports savepoints.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 378

def supports_savepoints?
  true
end

#supports_statement_cache?Boolean

Returns true, since this connection adapter supports prepared statement caching.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 247

def supports_statement_cache?
  true
end

#table_alias_lengthObject

Returns the configured supported identifier length supported by PostgreSQL



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 383

def table_alias_length
  @table_alias_length ||= query('SHOW max_identifier_length')[0][0].to_i
end

#table_exists?(name) ⇒ Boolean

Returns:

  • (Boolean)


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 713

def table_exists?(name)
  schema, table = extract_schema_and_table(name.to_s)
  return false unless table # Abstract classes is having nil table name

  binds = [[nil, table.gsub(/(^"|"$)/,'')]]
  binds << [nil, schema] if schema

  exec_query(<<-SQL, 'SCHEMA', binds).rows.first[0].to_i > 0
      SELECT COUNT(*)
      FROM pg_tables
      WHERE tablename = $1
     AND schemaname = #{schema ? "$2" : "ANY (current_schemas(false))"}
  SQL
end

#tables(name = nil) ⇒ Object

Returns the list of all tables in the schema search path or a specified schema.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 705

def tables(name = nil)
  query(<<-SQL, 'SCHEMA').map { |row| row[0] }
    SELECT tablename
    FROM pg_tables
    WHERE schemaname = ANY (current_schemas(false))
  SQL
end

#type_cast(value, column) ⇒ Object



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 430

def type_cast(value, column)
  return super unless column

  case value
  when String
    return super unless 'bytea' == column.sql_type
    { :value => value, :format => 1 }
  else
    super
  end
end

#type_to_sql(type, limit = nil, precision = nil, scale = nil) ⇒ Object

Maps logical Rails types to PostgreSQL-specific data types.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 954

def type_to_sql(type, limit = nil, precision = nil, scale = nil)
  return super unless type.to_s == 'integer'
  return 'integer' unless limit

  case limit
    when 1, 2; 'smallint'
    when 3, 4; 'integer'
    when 5..8; 'bigint'
    else raise(ActiveRecordError, "No integer type has byte size #{limit}. Use a numeric with precision 0 instead.")
  end
end

#unescape_bytea(value) ⇒ Object

Unescapes bytea output from a database to the binary string it represents. NOTE: This is NOT an inverse of escape_bytea! This is only to be used

on escaped binary output from database drive.


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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 397

def unescape_bytea(value)
  @connection.unescape_bytea(value) if value
end

#update_sql(sql, name = nil) ⇒ Object

Executes an UPDATE query and returns the number of affected tuples.



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# File 'activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/postgresql_adapter.rb', line 624

def update_sql(sql, name = nil)
  super.cmd_tuples
end